The ariary is the currency of Madagascar. It is subdivided into 5 iraimbilanja and is one of only two non-decimal currencies circulating; the names ariary and iraimbilanja derive from the pre-colonial currency, with ariary being the name for a silver dollar. Iraimbilanja means "one iron weight" and was the name of an old coin worth 1⁄5 of an ariary; the ariary was introduced in 1961. It was equal to 5 Malagasy francs. Coins and banknotes were issued denominated in both francs and ariary, with the sub-unit of the ariary, the iraimbilanja, worth 1⁄5 of an ariary and therefore equal to the franc; the ariary replaced the franc as the official currency of Madagascar on January 1, 2005. Coins and banknotes were denominated in both the official francs and the semi-official ariary and iraimbilanja since 1961. On early issues, the franc denomination was the most prominent. However, from 1978, higher value coins were issued denominated only in ariary. In 1993, new 500 ariary-2500 franc note and 5000 ariary-25,000 franc were issued with ariary more prominent.
On banknotes issued since July 31, 2003, the ariary denomination is displayed prominently and the franc denomination in small print. Lower denomination coins are now issued denominated in ariary but with the main design unchanged. In 1965, 1 franc and 2 francs coins were issued, followed by 5 francs in 1966 and 10 and 20 francs in 1970; the term "venty sy kirobo" derives from names used in the 19th century for 1⁄6 and 1⁄4 of a silver dollar or 5 francs piece, since 1⁄6+1⁄4=5⁄12 of 5 francs is 2 francs. In 1978, 10 and 20 ariary coins were issued; these were followed in 1992 by 50 ariary coins as well as smaller 10 and 20 ariary. In 2003–2004, 1 and 2 ariary coins not bearing the franc denomination were introduced. Coins in circulation are listed below. Bold denotes the most prominent denomination, while italic denotes an equivalence, not shown on the coin. In 1961, the Institut d’Émission Malgache introduced banknotes in denominations of 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 francs; these notes were overprints on earlier notes of the Bank of Madagascar and Comoros, with the denomination in ariary included in the overprint.
Regular banknotes in the same denominations followed between 1963 and 1969. The denomination in ariary was written only in words, not numerals. On 12 June 1973, the Banky Foiben’ny Repoblika Malagasy was created by Ordinance No. 73-025, taking over the functions of the Institut d’Émission Malgache, including the issuance of banknotes. In 1974 new notes were issued in the same denominations. In December 1975, a draft constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, the Second Malagasy Republic, to be called the Repoblica Demokratika Malagasy, was proclaimed; as a result of the change in the country’s name, the former Banky Foiben’ny Repoblika Malagasy was renamed Banky Foiben’i Madagasikara. Resulting in a new series of notes which included 10,000 francs notes but did not include 50 or 100 francs. In 1993, notes for 500 ariary and 5000 ariary were introduced which bore the ariary denominations in numerals as well as the franc denominations in smaller numerals. However, in 1998, these notes were replaced by new issues which only gave the franc denominations in numerals.
In 2003–2004, new notes were introduced in denominations of 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000 and 10,000 ariary. These notes bear the franc denominations on notes up to 1000 ariary in small numerals. In 2017, the Bank Foiben’i Madagasikara introduced a new family of banknotes; the new series of notes, like its previous series, remains "Madagascar and its Riches", highlighting its economic activities, biodiversity and tourist sites. Part of this series includes a new denomination, 20,000 ariary; the first four denominations in this series, 2,000-, 5,000-, 10,000 and 20,000 ariary were issued on July 17, 2017. The four other denominations, 100-, 200-, 500 and 1,000 ariary, were issued on September 17, 2017. Banknotes in circulation are listed below. Economy of Madagascar Historical and current banknotes of Madagascar
John Hilsey was an English Dominican, prior provincial of his order an agent of Henry VIII and his church reformation, Bishop of Rochester. According to Anthony Wood, Hilsey was a member of the Hildesley family of East Ilsley in Berkshire, he entered the Order of Preachers at Bristol, moved to the Dominican house at Oxford, where in May 1527, he graduated B. D. and proceeded D. D. in 1532. In May 1533 he was prior of the Dominican house at Bristol, wrote a letter to Thomas Cromwell, whom he regarded as his patron, with whom he seems to have had earlier dealings; this was to excuse his conduct in preaching against Hugh Latimer. He had come across Latimer as a preacher against pilgrimages and other religious traditions, but soon decided that Latimer was more concerned with attacking the abuse of the traditions, rather than the traditions themselves. In April 1534, Cromwell appointed him provincial of his order, commissioner, along with George Browne, provincial of the Augustinians, to visit the friaries throughout England.
The commissioners were to administer to the friars the oath of allegiance to Henry, Anne Boleyn and their issue, to obtain from them an acknowledgment of the King as head of the national church, to make inventories of their property. The commissioners visited the London houses 17–20 April, went in May to the friaries within easy reach of London and turned west. On 21 June, he reported to Cromwell from Exeter, in July he reached Cardiff in pursuit of two Observantine friars who were trying to leave the kingdom. In 1535, on the death of John Fisher, Hilsey succeeded him as Bishop of Rochester, consecrated on 18 September by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer at Winchester, he begged Cromwell for his predecessor's mitre and seal, as being himself too poor to procure such things. In January 1536, Hilsey preached at Catherine of Aragon's funeral, alleging that, in the hour of death, she had acknowledged that she had never been Queen of England. In March, he obtained a faculty from Cromwell enabling him to remain prior of the London Dominicans and, when they were dispersed, he received a pension.
In 1536, he exercised the duties of censor of the press for the king. On 12 February 1538 he denounced the Rood of Grace of Boxley Abbey in Kent as a fraud, exhibiting its machinery and breaking it to pieces. On 24 November 1538, he preached at St Paul's Cross on the blood of Hailes Abbey, Gloucestershire as a "feigned relic", he affirmed it to be clarified saffron. In November 1538, as perpetual commendatory of the Dominicans in London, he surrendered the house into the king's hands, he died on 4 August 1539, was buried in Rochester Cathedral. Hilsey was occupied, during his last years, in compiling, at Cromwell's order, a service-book in English, it appeared in after his death in 1539 as the Prymer. This has a dedication by Hilsey to Cromwell and an elaborate'instruction of the sacrament', besides some shorter explanatory prologues. Less radical than the 1535 Prymer of William Marshall, it was evangelical with anti-Catholic polemics incorporated and integrated in the text with devotional material, was more influential.
The book was republished in great part as The Prymer both in Englyshe and Latin in 1540. Hilsey prepared a juvenile version of his primer, wrote De veri Corporis Esu in Sacramento, dedicated to Cromwell and was mentioned in John White's Discosio-Martyrion, on the Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist. Works ascribed to Hilsey include Resolutions concerning the Sacraments and Resolutions of some Questions relating to Bishops and Deaconns, but he only assisted the compilation of these documents, he helped to compile The Institution of a Christian Man. Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of the AltarsAttribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Hilsey, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 26. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Aughton is a village in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated 7 miles north-west of the market town of Howden and 9 miles south-west of the market town of Pocklington, it lies east of the River Derwent. Together with Ellerton it forms the civil parish of Aughton. All Saints Church, Aughton is located at the far end of the village and overlooks vast expanses of the floodplains of the River Derwent. Tucked away in the village, it can only be accessed on foot through a small gate and field adjacent to Aughton Hall. An historic church, famous for its association with Robert Aske, leader of the insurgents in the Pilgrimage of Grace, October 1536. Aske was executed for treason on 12 July 1537; the church displays a mixture of architectural designs as it has been altered throughout the years, but is noted for its Norman arch between the chancel and nave. On the chancel floor a well-preserved ancient brass of a knight in 15th century plate armour and his lady can be found, although much of the lady is now missing.
Standing in the churchyard and looking up at the tower, a shield with six quarterings can be seen engraved on the outside wall, now badly weathered but it offers the following inscription in old French text: "Christofer le second filz de Robert Ask chr oblier ne doy, Ao Di 1536." This is translated as: "Christopher, the second son of Robert Aske, ought not to forget the year of our Lord 1536." On the tower is a benchmark of the time and carved, in sunk relief, a newt or salamander otherwise known in Old English as an Ask. The church was designated in 1966 as a Grade I listed building and is now recorded in the National Heritage List for England, maintained by Historic England. To the north of the church are the surviving earthworks, now restored, of a motte-and-bailey castle, scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as an ancient monument. Media related to East Riding of Yorkshire at Wikimedia Commons Historic England. "Church of All Saints". National Heritage List for England.
Aughton in the Domesday Book The Aughton One-Place Study provides the history of the parish