Treasure Island is an adventure novel by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, narrating a tale of "buccaneers and buried gold." Its influence is enormous on popular perceptions of pirates, including such elements as treasure maps marked with an “X,” schooners, the Black Spot, tropical islands, one-legged seamen bearing parrots on their shoulders. Treasure Island was considered a coming-of-age story and is noted for its atmosphere and action, it is one of the most dramatized of all novels. It was serialized in the children's magazine Young Folks from 1881 through 1882 under the title Treasure Island, or the mutiny of the Hispaniola, credited to the pseudonym "Captain George North", it was first published as a book on 14 November 1883, by Co.. PART I—"THE OLD BUCCANEER"An old sailor named Billy Bones comes to lodge at the Admiral Benbow Inn on the West English coast during the mid-18th-century, paying the innkeeper's son, Jim Hawkins, a few pennies to keep a lookout for Long John Silver, "a one-legged seafaring man."
A former shipmate with intact legs, but lacking two fingers, shows up to confront Billy about sharing his treasure map. After running the stranger off in a violent fight, the drunken Billy has a stroke and tells Jim that his former shipmates covet his map to buried treasure. An evil blind man named Pew visits to give Billy "the black spot" as a summons to share the treasure map, so Billy has another stroke and dies. Jim and his mother unlock the sea chest, finding some money, a journal, the map; the local physician, Dr. Livesey and the district squire, deduce that the map is of the island where a deceased pirate, Captain Flint, buried his treasure. Squire Trelawney proposes buying a ship and going after the treasure, taking Livesey as ship's doctor and Jim as cabin boy. PART II—"THE SEA COOK"Several weeks the Squire introduces Jim and Dr. Livesy to "Long John" Silver, a one-legged Bristol tavern-keeper whom he has hired as ship's cook, they meet Captain Smollett, who tells them that he dislikes most of the crew on the voyage, which it seems everyone in Bristol knows is a search for treasure.
After taking a few precautions, they set sail on Trelawney's schooner, the Hispaniola, for the distant island. During the voyage, the first mate Arrow, a drunkard, disappears overboard; the evening before the island is due to be sighted, Jim—concealed in an apple barrel—overhears Silver talking with two other crewmen. Most of them have planned a mutiny. Jim alerts the captain and squire, they calculate that they will be seven to 19 against the mutineers and must pretend not to suspect anything until the treasure is found when they can surprise their adversaries. PART III—"MY SHORE ADVENTURE"After the ship is anchored and some of the others go ashore, two men who refuse to join the mutiny are killed—one with so loud a scream that everyone realizes that there can be no more pretense. Jim has impulsively joined the shore party and covertly witnessed Silver committing one of the murders. PART IV—"THE STOCKADE"Meanwhile, Smollett and Livesey, along with Trelawney's three servants and one of the other hands, Abraham Gray, abandon the ship and come ashore to occupy an old abandoned stockade.
The men still on the ship, led by the coxswain Israel Hands, run up the pirate flag. One of Trelawney's servants and one of the pirates are killed in the fight to reach the stockade, the ship's gun keeps up a barrage upon them, to no effect, until dark when Jim finds the stockade and joins them; the next morning, Silver appears under a flag of truce, offering terms that the captain refuses, revealing that another pirate has been killed in the night. At Smollett's refusal to surrender the map, Silver threatens an attack, within a short while, the attack on the stockade is launched but Silver's crew still suffers the heavier loss of men. PART V—"MY SEA ADVENTURE"After a battle, the surviving mutineers retreat, having lost five men, but two more of the captain's group have been killed and Smollett himself is badly wounded; when Livesey leaves in search of Gunn, Jim finds Gunn's homemade coracle. After dark, he cuts the ship adrift; the two pirates on board, Hands and O'Brien, interrupt their drunken quarrel to run on deck, but the ship—with Jim's boat in her wake—is swept out to sea on the ebb tide.
Exhausted, Jim falls asleep in the boat and wakes up the next morning, bobbing along on the west coast of the island. He encounters the ship. On board, he finds O'Brien Hands badly wounded, he and Hands agree to beach the ship at an inlet on the northern coast of the island. As the ship is about to beach, Hands kills Jim but is himself killed in the attempt. After securing the ship as well as he can, Jim goes back heads for the stockade. In the blockhouse, he is surprised by Silver and the remaining five mutineers, who have taken over the stockade in his absence. PART VI—"CAPTAIN SILVER"Silver and the others argue about whether to kill Jim, Silver talks them down, he tells Jim that, when everyone found the ship was gone, the captain's party agreed to a treaty whereby they gave up the stockade and the map. In the morning, the doctor arrives to treat the wounded and sick pirates and tells Silver to look out for trouble when they find the site
A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned. Three types of academy exist: pre-school-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding bachelor's degree level qualification, those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state. A naval academy is distinguished from one. In U. S. usage, the United States Military Academy and the United States Naval Academy are both service academies. The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as engineers and artillery, with scientific training; the Royal Danish Naval Academy was set up in 1701, making it the oldest military academy in existence. The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1720 as the earliest military academy in Britain.
Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Royal Engineers. In France, the École Royale du Génie at Mézières was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the École Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the nobility. French military academies were copied in Prussia, Austria and minor powers, including Turin and the Kingdom of Savoy, in the late 18th century. By the turn of the century, under the impetus of the Napoleonic Wars and the strain that the armies of Europe subsequently came under, military academies for the training of commissioned officers of the army were set up in most of the combatant nations; these military schools had two functions: to provide instruction for serving officers in the functions of the efficient staff-officer, to school youngsters before they gained an officer's commission. The Kriegsakademie in Prussia was founded in 1801 and the École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr was created by order of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 as a replacement for the École Royale Militaire of the Ancien Régime.
The Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England was the brainchild of John Le Marchant in 1801, who established schools for the military instruction of officers at High Wycombe and Great Marlow, with a grant of £30,000 from Parliament. The two original departments were combined and moved to Sandhurst. In the United States, the military academy at West Point was founded in 1802 and became popular in the 1860s. A military school teaches children of various ages in a military environment which includes training in military aspects, such as drill. Many military schools are boarding schools, others are magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are run institutions, though some are public and are run either by a public school system or by a state. A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their juvenile criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools; these are called reform schools, are functionally a combination of school and prison.
They attempt to emulate the environment of military boarding schools in the belief that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may not be true. However, their environment and target population are different from those of military schools. Popular culture sometimes shows parents sending or threatening to send unruly children off to military school to teach them good behavior. A similar situation appears in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, while other fictional depictions don't show military academies as punishment (ex. Damien: Omen II and The Presidio. A college-level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military, it is part of a larger system of military training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy; the amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.
Military academies may not grant university degrees. In the U. S. graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course is dedicated to military training. There are two types of military academies: state/private-run. Graduates from national academies are commissioned as officers in the country's military; the new officers have an obligation to serve for a certain number of years. In some countries all military officers train at the appropriate academy, whereas in others only a percentage do and the service academies are seen as institutions which supply service-specific officers within the forces. State or private-run academy graduates have no requirement to join the military after graduation, although some schools have a high rate of graduate military
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
The Yellow Peril is a racist color-metaphor, integral to the xenophobic aspect of colonialism: that the peoples of East Asia are an existential danger to the Western world. As a psycho-cultural perception of menace from the Eastern world, fear of the Yellow Peril was more racial than national, a fear derived, not from concern with a specific source of danger, from any one country or people, but from a vaguely ominous, existential fear of the faceless, nameless horde of yellow people opposite the Western world; as a form of xenophobia, the Yellow Terror is the fear of the non-white Other, from the Orient, as imagined in the racialist book The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy, by Lothrop Stoddard. The racist ideology of the Yellow Peril is a "core imagery of apes, lesser men, children and beings who possessed special powers", which are cultural representations of colored people that originated in the Greco–Persian Wars, between Ancient Greece and the Persian Empire. In the late 19th century, the Russian sociologist Jacques Novikow coined the term in the essay "Le Péril Jaune".
To that end, the Kaiser misrepresented the Asian victory in the Russo-Japanese War as a racialist threat to the white citizens of Western Europe, misrepresented China and Japan in alliance to conquer and enslave the Western world. The sinologist Wing-Fai Leung explained the fantastic origins of the term and the derived racialist ideology: "The phrase yellow peril... blends Western anxieties about sex, racist fears of the alien Other, the Spenglerian belief that the West will become outnumbered and enslaved by the East." The academic Gina Marchetti identified the psycho-cultural fear of East Asians as "rooted in medieval fears of Genghis Khan and the Mongol invasions of Europe, the Yellow Peril combines racist terror of alien cultures, sexual anxieties, the belief that the West will be overpowered and enveloped, by the irresistible, occult forces of the East". Moreover, in the late-19th and early-20th centuries, writers developed the Yellow Peril literary topos into codified, racialist motifs of narrative fiction in novels and stories in the genres of invasion literature and colonial adventure, of racial war and science fiction.
The racist and cultural stereotypes of the Yellow Peril originated in the late 19th century, when Chinese workers immigrated to Australia, the U. S. and New Zealand, where their work ethic inadvertently provoked a racist backlash against them, for agreeing to work for lower wages than did the local white populations. In 1870, the French Orientalist and historian Ernest Renan warned Europeans of Eastern danger to the Western world. Since 1870, in the practise of colonial imperialism, the stereotypes of Yellow Peril ideology gave concrete form to the anti-Asian racism, cultural-currency in the Western worldview of Europe and North America. In central Europe, the Orientalist and diplomat Max von Brandt advised Kaiser Wilhelm II that Imperial Germany had colonial interests to pursue in China. Hence, the Kaiser used the phrase die Gelbe Gefahr to encourage Imperial German interests and justify European colonialism in China. In 1895, Germany and Russia staged the Triple Intervention to the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which concluded the First Sino-Japanese War, in order to compel Imperial Japan to surrender their Chinese colonies to the Europeans.
The Kaiser justified the Triple Intervention to the Japanese empire with racialist calls-to-arms against non-existent geopolitical dangers of the "yellow race" against the "white race" of Western Europe. To justify European cultural hegemony, the Kaiser used the allegorical lithograph Peoples of Europe, Guard Your Most Sacred Possessions, by Hermann Knackfuss, to communicate his geopolitics to other European monarchs; the lithograph depicts Germany as the leader of Europe, – collectively personified as "prehistoric warrior-goddesses being led by the Archangel Michael against the'yellow peril' from the East" represented by "dark cloud of smoke which rests an eerily calm Buddha, wreathed in flame". Politically, the Knackfuss lithograph allowed Kaiser Wilhelm II to believe he prophesied the imminent race war that would decide global hegemony in the 20th century. In the late 19th century, with the Treaty of Saint Petersburg, the Qing dynasty China recovered the eastern portion of the Ili River basin, which Russia had occupied for a decade, since the Dungan Revolt.
In that time, the mass communications media of the West misrepresented China as an ascendant military power, applied Yellow Peril ideology to evoke racist fears that China would conquer Western colonies, such as Australia. In 1870s California, despite the Burlingame Treaty that allowed legal migration of unskilled labourers from China, the native working-class white people demanded that the U. S government cease the immigration of
Iconoclasm is the social belief in the importance of the destruction of icons and other images or monuments, most for religious or political reasons. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied figuratively to any individual who challenges "cherished beliefs or venerated institutions on the grounds that they are erroneous or pernicious". Conversely, one who reveres or venerates religious images is called an iconolater; the term does not encompass the specific destruction of images of a ruler after his death or overthrow. Iconoclasm may be carried out by people of a different religion, but is the result of sectarian disputes between factions of the same religion. Within Christianity, iconoclasm has been motivated by those who adopt a strict interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which forbid the making and worshipping of "graven images or any likeness of anything"; the Church Fathers identified Jews, fundamental iconoclasts, with heresy and saw deviations from orthodox Christianity and opposition to the veneration of images as heresies that were "Jewish in spirit".
The degree of iconoclasm among Christian branches varies. Islam, in general, tends to be more iconoclastic than Christianity, with Sunni Islam being more iconoclastic than Shia Islam. In the Bronze Age, the most significant episode of iconoclasm occurred in Egypt during the Amarna Period, when Akhenaten, based in his new capital of Akhetaten, instituted a significant shift in Egyptian artistic styles alongside a campaign of intolerance towards the traditional gods and a new emphasis on a state monolatristic tradition focused on the god Aten, the Sun disk— many temples and monuments were destroyed as a result: In rebellion against the old religion and the powerful priests of Amun, Akhenaten ordered the eradication of all of Egypt's traditional gods, he sent royal officials to chisel out and destroy every reference to Amun and the names of other deities on tombs, temple walls, cartouches to instill in the people that the Aten was the one true god. Public references to Akhenaten were destroyed soon after his death.
Comparing the ancient Egyptians with the Israelites, Jan Assmann writes: For Egypt, the greatest horror was the destruction or abduction of the cult images. In the eyes of the Israelites, the erection of images meant the destruction of divine presence. In Egypt, iconoclasm was the most terrible religious crime. In this respect Osarseph alias Akhenaten, the iconoclast, the Golden Calf, the paragon of idolatry, correspond to each other inversely, it is strange that Aaron could so avoid the role of the religious criminal, it is more than probable. In this respect and Akhenaten became, after all related. Although widespread use of Christian iconography only began as Christianity spread among gentiles after the legalization of Christianity by Roman Emperor Constantine, scattered expressions of opposition to the use of images were reported; the period after the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian evidently saw a huge increase in the use of images, both in volume and quality, a gathering aniconic reaction.
In the Eastern Roman Empire, government-led iconoclasm began with Byzantine Emperor Leo III, following what seems to have been a long period of rising opposition to the use or misuse of images. The religious conflict created economic divisions in Byzantine society, it was supported by the Eastern, non-Greek peoples of the Empire who had to deal with raids from the new Muslim Empire. On the other hand, the wealthier Greeks of Constantinople, the peoples of the Balkan and Italian provinces opposed iconoclasm. Within the Byzantine Empire the government had been adopting Christian images more frequently. One notable change came in 695, when Justinian II's government added a full-face image of Christ on the obverse of imperial gold coins; the change caused the Caliph Abd al-Malik to stop his earlier adoption of Byzantine coin types. He started a purely Islamic coinage with lettering only. A letter by the Patriarch Germanus written before 726 to two Iconoclast bishops says that "now whole towns and multitudes of people are in considerable agitation over this matter" but there is little written evidence of the debate.
The first iconoclastic wave happened in Wittenberg in the early 1520s under reformers Thomas Müntzer and Andreas Karlstadt. It prompted Martin Luther concealing as Junker Jörg, to intervene. In contrast to the Lutherans who favoured sacred art in their churches and homes, the Reformed leaders, in particular Andreas Karlstadt, Huldrych Zwingli and John Calvin, encouraged the removal of religious images by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry and the manufacture of graven images of God; as a result, individuals attacked images. However, in most cases, civil authorities removed images in an orderly manner in the newly Reformed Protestant cities and territories of Europe. Calvinist Iconoclasm during the Reformation Significant iconoclastic riots took place in Basel, Copenhagen, Münster, Augsburg, Scotland and Saintes and La Rochelle. Calvinist iconoclasm in Europe "provoked reactive riots by Lutheran mobs" in Germany and "antagonized the neighbouring Eastern Orth
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w