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Mali Federation

The Mali Federation was a federation in West Africa linking the French colonies of Senegal and the Sudanese Republic for a period of only two months in 1960. It was founded on 4 April 1959 as a territory with self-rule within the French Community and became independent after negotiations with France on 20 June 1960. Two months on 19 August 1960, the Sudanese Republic leaders in the Mali Federation mobilized the army and Senegal leaders in the federation retaliated by mobilizing the gendarmerie which resulted in a tense stand-off and the withdrawal from the federation by Senegal the next day; the Sudanese Republic officials resisted this dissolution, cut off diplomatic relations with Senegal, defiantly changed the name of their country to Mali. For the brief existence of the Mali Federation, the premier was Modibo Keïta, who would become the first President of the Republic of Mali after the Mali Federation dissolved, its government was based in Dakar, Senegal. After World War II, the colonies of French West Africa began pushing for increased self-determination and to redefine their colonial relationships with France.

Following the May 1958 crisis, the colonies of French West Africa were given the chance to vote for immediate independence or to join a reorganized French Community. Only Guinea voted for full independence and the other colonies of French West Africa voted to join the French Community. In the 1958 election to decide the issue of independence, two major parties split the countries of west Africa: the African Democratic Rally and the African Regroupment Party; the two regional groupings of parties struggled against one another on the issue of independence and the extent of ties with France. The RDA was the governing party in the Ivory Coast colony, the French Sudan colony, Guinea while the PRA was a major governing party in Senegal and had sizable majorities in many countries; the two parties were part of coalition governments in French Upper Volta and French Dahomey. While the two parties struggled with one another to shape the political future of the region, Mauritania became a neutral party which would break any deadlocks.

The vote of 1958 revealed a number of divisions within the parties. The RDA held a congress on 15 November 1958 to discuss the recent election results and the division became clear with Modibo Keïta from French Sudan and Doudou Gueye from Senegal arguing for primary federation and Félix Houphouët-Boigny of the Ivory Coast dismissing the idea; the resulting deadlock was so severe that the meeting was said to have never taken place. In late November 1958, French Sudan, Upper Volta and Dahomey all declared the intention to join the French Community and form a federation linking the four colonies together. French Sudan and Senegal, despite longstanding divisions between their main political parties, were the most enthusiastic pushers for this federation while Dahomey and Upper Volta were more hesitant in their desire to join the federation. French Sudan called for representatives of each of the four countries to Bamako on 28 to 30 December to discuss the formation of the federation. French Sudan and Senegal were the leaders at the congress with Modibo Keïta named the President of the meeting and Léopold Sédar Senghor of Senegal being the key leader on many issues, including developing the name Mali Federation for the proposed union.

Although Upper Volta and Dahomey declared formal support for the federation, Upper Volta approved the Mali Federation Constitution on 28 January 1959, political pressure from France and the Ivory Coast resulted in neither ratifying a constitution which would include them within the federation. The result is that only the colonies of French Sudan and Senegal were engaged in the discussions of the formation of the federation by 1959. Elections in March 1959 in both French Sudan and Senegal cemented the power of the major parties pushing for the formation of a federation. Keïta's Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain party won 76% of the votes in French Sudan and all of the seats in the territorial assembly and Senghor's Union Progressiste Sénégalaise won 81% of the vote and all of the seats in Senegal's territorial assembly. Although Senghor won the elections by a large margin, some conservative Islamist marabouts supported the candidacy of Cheikh Tidjane Sy; this challenge to Senghor's party showed some of the weakness in Senghor's domestic political base and required a complex system of alliances with various domestic constituencies, both of which would become important as the federation progressed.

Sy was arrested on election day as a result of some rioting, blamed on his party. After the elections, the assemblies of Senegal and French Sudan approved the federation and began the process of constructing a political system to unite the two colonies; this involved three different political projects with the principle of parity enshrined in each: A federal government, united social movements, a shared political party for both countries. The federal government was going to have an assembly composed of 20 members from each of the colonies, a President, six federal minis

Rafał Olbiński

Rafal Olbinski is a Polish illustrator and educator, living in the United States. He is considered one of the major representatives of the Polish School of Posters. Olbinski was born in Poland, he graduated from the architecture program of the Warsaw University of Technology in 1969. Olbinski immigrated to the United States in 1981, where he soon established himself as a prominent painter and designer. Olbinski's work is similar to the work of the famous Belgian surrealist Rene Magritte, he has cited his influences as "everybody" Saul Steinberg, Milton Glaser, Marshall Arisman and Brad Holland. Rafal Olbinski's works are included in the collections of the Museum of Modern Art, the Carnegie Foundation in New York, National Arts Club in New York, the Smithsonian Institution and the Library of Congress in Washington, Suntory Museum in Osaka, the Poster Museum in Warsaw and others throughout Europe and the United States. In 1992 Olbinski began a close collaboration with Sheri and Kenneth Nahan of Patinae, Inc. and Nahan Galleries.

They continue to represent his works world wide since that date. In 1996 he was commissioned by the U. S. Information Agency to design a poster celebrating the 25th Earth Day Anniversary. From 2002 through 2010, a selection of Olbinski paintings was included in the Grand Space projection in Grand Central Terminal, as a highlight of the Earth Day Celebration in New York; the other artists featured in the show are Keith Haring, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol. In 1999 Olbinski was commissioned to create a surreal image of San Francisco, by Gallery 444; the proceeds from the painting were given to The SF Chronicle Season of Sharing Fund, funding services for those in need. This was followed by a major exhibition of paintings by Olbinski held at Gallery 444. In 2001, the Willy-Brandt House in Berlin presented the works of Rafal Olbinski in a one-man retrospective exhibition entitled "Art at the Turn of the Century". In 2002 he created the set designs for the Opera Company of Philadelphia's performance of Mozart's Don Giovanni acclaimed by critics in the New York Times and the Philadelphia Inquirer.

In the same year the exhibition "Art with Moral Purpose" at the Goethe Institute in Hamburg exhibited the paintings and posters of Olbinski. Olbinski was commissioned to create several paintings, illustrating articles and essays on moral values, which appeared in seven consecutive issues of the German news magazine Stern; this led to a traveling exhibition of these paintings, the first hosted by the wife of the President of Germany, Eva Luise Köhler. In 2008 Olbinski had a one-man exhibition titled "Olbinski - photokina Expo" for Hewlett Packard. In 2009 he had a large museum exhibition at The Jule Collins Smith Museum in Auburn entitled "New Dreams of Old Values", he has completed many large murals for installations in public space in Europe. He has produced more than 100 opera illustrations for album covers for Allegro-Music's Opera D'Oro Series. Olbinski is on the faculty of the School of Visual Arts in New York City. For his artistic achievements, he has received more than 150 awards including Gold and Silver Medals from the Art Directors Club of New York and Silver Medals from the Society of Illustrators in New York and Los Angeles, The Big Crit 2000 award by Critique Magazine in San Francisco.

In 1994 he was awarded the International Oscar for The World's Most Memorable Poster, Prix Savignac in Paris. The President of the Republic of Poland awarded Olbinski the highest award in the field of arts, the gold medal, "Gloria Artis." In 1994, he received the Creative Review Award for the Best of British Illustration in London. In 1995 his poster was chosen as the official New York City Capital of the World Poster in an invitational competition by a jury led by Mayor Rudy Giuliani. In the following year he won the Steven Dohanos Award for the best painting in the Annual Member Exhibition of the Society of Illustrators. In July 2002 the city of Fondi, Italy awarded him Divina Giulia for his contribution to contemporary art. Nahan, Sherri. "Rafal Olbinski - Patinae", Bio Page, Official Web page Rafal Olbinski Clark's Center of Fantasy Art & More - Rafal Olbinski picture gallery Polish Home Foundation - Rafal Olbinski Contemporary Posters - Rafal Olbinski Rafał Olbiński Eyegate Gallery Rafał Olbiński @ Gallery 444 - Rafal Olbinski Biography

Kou-Kamma Local Municipality

The Kou-Kamma Municipality is a local municipality in South Africa. It is situated in the southwest corner of the Sarah Baartman District Municipality along the Indian Ocean coastline, in the southwestern sector of South Africa's Eastern Cape Province. To the west lies the Western Cape Province. Kou-Kamma borders the Baviaans Local Municipality in the north and the Kouga Local Municipality to the east; the geographical area of the Municipality is 12,540 square kilometres. Its name is a blend of the names of the Kouga and Tsitsikamma mountains, which in turn were named after the rivers Kouga and Tsitsikamma; the municipality is a poor area with high unemployment and low levels of literacy. Settlements tend to be scattered, which has posed challenges to the provision of infrastructure and basic services such as water and electricity; the Kou-Kamma Municipality is composed of two distinct regions: the coastal belt, the inland area of the Langkloof. The two areas are separated by the Tsitsikamma Mountains.

The nature of the two areas differs vastly. The Coastal Zone is characterised by a diverse and fast-growing economy driven by tourism and agriculture, a fast-growing population linked to the economic opportunities, a good water supply, a wealth of holiday destinations and indigenous forests. In contrast, employment in the Langkloof is characterised by seasonal agriculture with high labour requirements; the area has greater challenges in terms of sufficient water supply, with additional pressure due to a high population growth related to migrant labour. The 2001 census divided the municipality into the following main places: The municipal council consists of eleven members elected by mixed-member proportional representation. Six councillors are elected by first-past-the-post voting in six wards, while the remaining five are chosen from party lists so that the total number of party representatives is proportional to the number of votes received. In the election of 3 August 2016 the African National Congress won a majority of six seats on the council.

The following table shows the results of the election. Official website

White Island (Otago)

White Island is an island 2,500 metres off the coast of Otago, within the boundaries of the city of Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand. It is uninhabited, is a well-known landmark visible from the city's two inner city beaches at St Clair and St Kilda; the island is 80 metres in length and 30 metres wide at its widest point, covering 1,600 square metres and rising to a height of 15 metres. A rocky reef, parts of which break the surface at low tide, extends for 100 metres from the western end of the island; the island's Māori name is Ponuiahine - given as'Pomuiahine'. It has been translated too as'The girl's great night', giving rise to witty suggestions as to why that might be. Goodall and Griffiths suggested it should be understood as'Pou-nui-a-Hine, referring to a post being a memorial to some significant event involving Hine', they observe'Hine' can be a man's name but this suggestion leaves open the original ribald speculations. As a place for a lovers' tryst it seems unpromising. White Island may be the'Ragged Rock' where the Sydney sealer Brothers, chartered by Robert Campbell and under the command of Robert Mason landed three men out of a gang of eleven in November 1809.

William Tucker who settled at Whareakeake, near Otago Heads, was in the gang. Alternatively Ragged Rock may be Green Island. On 1 May 1826 Thomas Shepherd, keeping a journal as he approached this coast as nurseryman to the first New Zealand Company's settlement expedition in the Rosanna, accompanied by the Lambton, said he'saw two remarkable Sugar loaf Rocks in the sea near the shore about 100 feet high'. A man was sent ashore and came back with a Māori man called Tatawa who'said he belonged to Otago'. Shepherd confirmed this was the part of the coast he was talking about. There is a reef south of White Island. In the 1820s it too rose well above the sea. By the time of Dunedin's settlement in 1848 there was only the single island visible. List of islands of New Zealand

Simončič Hayrack

Simončič Hayrack Simončič Toplar, is a hayrack at the southeastern border of Bistrica in the Municipality of Šentrupert in the traditional region of Lower Carniola. It has been known as the most beautiful hayrack in Slovenia, it was built in 1936 by Janko Gregorčič, a carpenter from the nearby Slovenska Vas, on the order of the farmer Jože Simončič. It has been designed as a double hayrack with wooden pillars, three pairs of windows and a pitched roof; the gable, turned towards the road linking the villages of Mirna and Mokronog, is richly decorated with predominantly plant motives. Simončič Hayrack belongs to the farmstead Bistrica no. 11. Since 2001, it has been protected as a cultural monument of national significance and is the only hayrack in Slovenia with this status; as the most known of over 500 hayracks in the Mirna Valley it supplements the Land of Hayracks, i.e. the museum of hayracks in Šentrupert. Exhibitions of visual arts and other events take place seasonally under its roof, however it is still used to dry hay and as a place to store agricultural machines.

Media related to Simončič Hayrack at Wikimedia Commons

Chopping tool

In archaeology a chopping tool is a stone tool. Stone tools have been dated using scientific dating such as Carbon 14 dating and Potassium argon dating. Stone tools have been found to be 2 million years old. Chopping tools have been found to be about 2 million years old as well; the oldest object in the British Museum is a Chopping Tool. It was found in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. Since Chopping tools are a sub category of stone tools we can see how these tools have developed over time. Looking at how these tools are made is an important part in the history of the Chopping Tool. A large hard stone was needed as well as a softer stone; the soft stone was basalt. The large hard stone acted as a hammer; the soft stone would begin to chip away. The maker of the chopping tool would use the hard stone to create the edges and point needed to make the chopping tool efficient. Double sided sharp edges and a point are a common form of the chopping tool; the look is Similar to a Native American Projectile point, except that a chopping tool was used for stationary objects.

The use of the chopping tool varied from place to place just like any other archaeological artifact. Depending on what the maker of the chopping tool made or ate depended on what the chopping tool was used for. Most the chopping tool was used for food purposes, they could be used for cutting down tree branches to get to fruits or to cut large plants that could be used for food. Anything that requires a knife today could have been replaced with a chopping tool, they were used to help assist the maker in cutting the meat of the animals. Just like butchers today and cleaning of all the meat that we eat is needed; the chopping tool helped assist hunters gather the meat from large animals that were hard to carry back to the location they were staying at, make it edible for them to consume. Another use for the chopping tool was to smash bones. Bone marrow is a good source of nutrients to help your body function. For hunters and gatherers this was important since the next source of food could have been days to weeks away.

When they would hunt animals they would use the sharp edge to cut the meat off the bones and the back edge was hard enough to smash and crush bones. Once the bones were crushed the marrow could be collected; the flakes that were chipped off the soft rock did not go to waste. Many of the thick sharp pieces were used as small knives to do light cutting tasks; the flakes were a important part of everyday life just like the chopping tool. Both pieces were used in everyday life to help with survival; the idea of the chopping tool spread from people to people throughout the land. In Asia stone tools did not develop as much as other places in the world. To make these tools like the chopping tool you have to have specific types of rock such as flint and jasper. In Asia these rocks were hard to find but the amount of the coarse-grained rocks and material was much easier to find. Though the materials they used such as volcanic material and petrified wood wasn't as strong or as easy to shape they still were able to make tools that resembled the chopping tool and they were used in similar ways.

Many of the tools that were found in Asia, they were found in the Choukoutienian caves. The Choukoutienian industry is; the caves are filled with many artifacts and the early chopping tool is one of the many artifacts found. The resources used to make many variations of the chopping tool were present in much of the world. If the items that were used to make the chopping tool in various parts of the world were not as durable or as powerful or sharp they still were used for cutting items as well as day to day survival