Senegal the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal surrounds The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country. Senegal shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar; the unitary presidential republic is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. Senegal covers a land area of 197,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 16 million; the climate is Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. "Senegal" is from a Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga known as the Sanhaja, or a combination of the supreme deity in Serer religion and o gal meaning body of water in the Serer language.
Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat." The territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the seventh century, parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire; the present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the mid-15th century, when various European powers began competing for trade in the area. The establishment of coastal trading posts led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much local resistance. Senegal peacefully attained independence from France in 1960, has since been among the more politically stable countries in Africa. Senegal's economy is centered on commodities and natural resources. Major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair.
As in most African nations, agriculture is a major sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, cotton, green beans, tomatoes and mangoes. Owing to its relative stability and hospitality are burgeoning sectors. With it being a multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi and animist influences. French is the official language, although many native languages are recognized. Since April 2012, Senegal's president has been Macky Sall. Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups; some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Islam was introduced through Toucouleur and Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids, Toucouleur allies.
This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of the Serers in particular. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved as a result of captives taken in warfare. In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Saloum, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa; the empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than an empire built on military conquest. The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer and part Toucouleur, able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall. In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Various European powers—Portugal, the Netherlands, Great Britain—competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward.
In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade—the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. European missionaries introduced Christianity to the Casamance in the 19th century, it was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland after they abolished slavery and began promoting an abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor and Jolof Empire. French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms except Sine and Saloum under Governor Louis Faidherbe. Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Sine, resulting in the Battle of Logandème.
In 1915, over 300 Senegalese came under Australian command, ahead of the taking of Damascus by Australians, before the expected arrival of the famed Lawrence Of Arabia. French and British diplomacy in the area were thrown into disarray. On 4 A
Churchill is a census-designated place in Liberty Township, Trumbull County, United States. The population was 2,601 at the 2000 census, it is OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The community was named for a hilltop church near the original townsite. Churchill is located at 41°10′15″N 80°40′16″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.5 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,601 people, 1,057 households, 755 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,043.1 people per square mile. There were 1,165 housing units at an average density of 467.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 87.77% White, 10.07% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.42% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.35% of the population. There were 1,057 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.5% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-families.
24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.91. In the CDP the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,667, the median income for a family was $44,485. Males had a median income of $36,618 versus $21,150 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $22,973. About 9.0% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over
Butts Giraud is a Canadian entrepreneur, author and a former professional football player and wrestler. He is the founder of The Dog's Ear T-shirt and Embroidery Company, he was a professional wrestler in North England. Giraud won the world belly-flop and cannonball championships in 1975, 1976, 1978 and 1980. Giraud started his college football career as a freshman at the University of Florida in 1965 and transferred to Western Washington University in 1967 to 1969, he was elected to Western Washington State University's Hall of Fame, Class of 1991. In 1970, Giraud played in the Canadian Football League for the BC Lions preseason before being traded to the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, he founded The Dog's Ear T-shirt and Embroidery Company in 1975. That year, Giraud won Cannonball Diving Championships, he won the World Championships in 1975, 1976, 1978 and 1980. Giraud helped establish the Towel Power tradition by selling 5,000 towels to Vancouver Canucks fans after the 1982 Campbell Conference Finals.
He is a professional harmonica player. In Summer 2016, he played the blues harmonica on the album Silver Magic by Butts Giraud and Friends; that winter, he released The Last Chapter. Giraud lives in BC Canada with his wife Peggy, he is a Christian Musician. 1967- All Evergreen Conference- Defensive Tackle 1967- NAIA District 1 All -Star- Defensive Tackle 1968- Honourable Mention NAIA All- American- Defensive Tackle 1968- Honourable Mention ALL- American Kodak College Division- Defensive Tackle 1968-NAIA District 1 ALL- Star- Defensive Tackle 1968-All Evergreen Conference- Defensive Tackle 1969- Honourable Mention NAIA ALL- American- Defensive Tackle 1969- All Evergreen Conference- Defensive Tackle 1969- NAIA District 1 All-Star- Defensive Tackle 1969- 2nd Team All Little Northwest- Defensive Tackle 1991-Western Washington State University Football Hall Of Fame 1998-1991- President: Sports Fishing Institute Of BC. 2003-1st. Team Defence Tackle "All Century Football Team" Western Washington University 2012-2015- Church Deacon- Nanoose Evangelical Free Church.
Nanoose Bay BC