Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. In addition, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, such as the spores of hyphae from fungal spores, is germination. Thus, in a general sense, germination can be thought of as anything expanding into greater being from a small existence or germ. Most seeds do not need sunlight to germinate but some seeds such as sunflower seeds, mustard seeds and blosnian seeds need sunlight to germinate. Experiments were carried out to prove this. Germination is the growth of a plant contained within a seed; the seed of a vascular plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female reproductive cells. All developed seeds contain an embryo and, in most plant species some store of food reserves, wrapped in a seed coat; some plants produce varying numbers of seeds. Dormant seeds are ripe seeds that do not germinate because they are subject to external environmental conditions that prevent the initiation of metabolic processes and cell growth.
Under proper conditions, the seed begins to germinate and the embryonic tissues resume growth, developing towards a seedling. Seed germination depends on both external conditions; the most important external factors include right temperature, oxygen or air and sometimes light or darkness. Various plants require different variables for successful seed germination; this depends on the individual seed variety and is linked to the ecological conditions of a plant's natural habitat. For some seeds, their future germination response is affected by environmental conditions during seed formation. Water is required for germination. Mature seeds are extremely dry and need to take in significant amounts of water, relative to the dry weight of the seed, before cellular metabolism and growth can resume. Most seeds need enough water to moisten the seeds but not enough to soak them; the uptake of water by seeds is called imbibition, which leads to the swelling and the breaking of the seed coat. When seeds are formed, most plants store a food reserve with the seed, such as starch, proteins, or oils.
This food reserve provides nourishment to the growing embryo. When the seed imbibes water, hydrolytic enzymes are activated which break down these stored food resources into metabolically useful chemicals. After the seedling emerges from the seed coat and starts growing roots and leaves, the seedling's food reserves are exhausted. Oxygen is required by the germinating seed for metabolism. Oxygen is used in aerobic respiration, the main source of the seedling's energy until it grows leaves. Oxygen is an atmospheric gas, found in soil pore spaces; some seeds have impermeable seed coats that prevent oxygen from entering the seed, causing a type of physical dormancy, broken when the seed coat is worn away enough to allow gas exchange and water uptake from the environment. Temperature affects cellular growth rates. Seeds from different species and seeds from the same plant germinate over a wide range of temperatures. Seeds have a temperature range within which they will germinate, they will not do so above or below this range.
Many seeds germinate at temperatures above 60-75 F, while others germinate just above freezing and others germinate only in response to alternations in temperature between warm and cool. Some seeds germinate when the soil is cool 28-40 F, some when the soil is warm 76-90 F; some seeds require exposure to cold temperatures to break dormancy. Some seeds in a dormant state will not germinate if conditions are favorable. Seeds that are dependent on temperature to end dormancy have a type of physiological dormancy. For example, seeds requiring the cold of winter are inhibited from germinating until they take in water in the fall and experience cooler temperatures. Cold stratification is a process that induces the dormancy breaking prior to light emission that promotes germination. Four degrees Celsius is cool enough to end dormancy for most cool dormant seeds, but some groups within the family Ranunculaceae and others, need conditions cooler than -5 C; some seeds will only germinate after hot temperatures during a forest fire which cracks their seed coats.
Most common annual vegetables have optimal germination temperatures between 75-90 F, though many species can germinate at lower temperatures, as low as 40 F, thus allowing them to be grown from seeds in cooler climates. Suboptimal temperatures lead to longer germination periods. Light or darkness can be an environmental trigger for germination and is a type of physiological dormancy. Most seeds are not affected by light or darkness, but many seeds, including species found in forest settings, will not germinate until an opening in the canopy allows sufficient light for growth of the seedling. Scarification mimics natural processes that weaken the seed coat before ger
A dust explosion is the rapid combustion of fine particles suspended in the air within an enclosed location. Dust explosions can occur where any dispersed powdered combustible material is present in high-enough concentrations in the atmosphere or other oxidizing gaseous medium, such as pure oxygen. In cases when fuel plays the role of a combustible material, the explosion is known as a fuel-air explosion. Dust explosions are a frequent hazard in underground coal mines, grain elevators, other industrial environments, they are commonly used by special effects artists and pyrotechnicians, given their spectacular appearance and ability to be safely contained under certain controlled conditions. Thermobaric weapons utilize this principle by saturating area with an combustible material and igniting it to produce explosive force; these weapons are the most powerful non-nuclear weapons in the world. If rapid combustion occurs in a confined space, enormous overpressures can build up, causing major structural damage and flying debris.
The sudden release of energy from a "detonation" can produce a shockwave, either in open air or in a confined space. If the spread of flame is at subsonic speed, the phenomenon is sometimes called a "deflagration", although looser usage calls both phenomena "explosions". Dust explosions may be classified as being either "primary" or "secondary" in nature. Primary dust explosions may occur inside process equipment or similar enclosures, are controlled by pressure relief through purpose-built ducting to the external atmosphere. Secondary dust explosions are the result of dust accumulation inside a building being disturbed and ignited by the primary explosion, resulting in a much more dangerous uncontrolled explosion that can affect the entire structure. Fatalities from dust explosions have been the result of secondary dust explosions. There are five necessary conditions for a dust explosion: A combustible dust The dust is suspended in the air at a sufficiently high concentration There is an oxidant There is an ignition source The area is confined—a building can be considered an enclosure Many common materials which are known to burn can generate a dust explosion, such as coal and sawdust.
In addition, many otherwise mundane organic materials can be dispersed into a dangerous dust cloud, such as grain, starch, powdered milk, cocoa and pollen. Powdered metals can form explosive suspensions in air. Explosive dust can arise from activities such as transporting grain, grain silos have been demolished violently. Mining of coal leads to coal dust, flour mills have large amounts of flour dust as a result of milling. A gigantic explosion of flour dust destroyed a mill in Minnesota on May 2, 1878, killing 14 workers at the Washburn A Mill and another four in adjacent buildings. A similar problem occurs in other places dedicated to woodworking. Since the advent of industrial production–scale metal powder–based additive manufacturing in the 2010s, there is growing need for more information and experience with preventing dust explosions and fires from the traces of excess metal powder sometimes left over after laser sintering or other fusion methods. For example, in machining operations downstream of the AM build, excess powder liberated from porosities in the support structures can be exposed to sparks from the cutting interface.
Efforts are underway not only to build this knowledgebase within the industry but to share it with local fire departments, who do periodic fire-safety inspections of businesses in their districts and who can expect to answer alarms at shops or plants where AM is now part of the production mix. Although not a dust, paper particles emitted during processing - rolling, calendaring/slitting, sheet-cutting - are known to pose an explosion hazard. Enclosed paper mill areas subject to such dangers maintain high air humidities to reduce the chance of airborne paper dust explosions. In special effects pyrotechnics, lycopodium powder and non-dairy creamer are two common means of producing safe, controlled fire effects. To support rapid combustion, the dust must consist of small particles with a high surface area to volume ratio, thereby making the collective or combined surface area of all the particles large in comparison to a dust of larger particles. Dust is defined as powders with particles less than about 500 micrometres in diameter, but finer dust will present a much greater hazard than coarse particles by virtue of the larger total surface area of all the particles.
Below a certain value, the lower explosive limit, there is insufficient dust to support the combustion at the rate required for an explosion. A combustible concentration at or below 25% of the LEL is considered safe. If the fuel to air ratio increases above the upper explosive limit, there is insufficient oxidant to permit combustion to continue at the necessary rate. Determining the minimum explosive concentration or maximum explosive concentration of dusts in air is difficult, consulting different sources can lead to quite different results. Typical explosive ranges in air are from few dozens grams/m3 for the minimum limit, to few kg/m3 for the maximum limit. For example, the LEL for sawdust has been determined to be between 40 and 50 grams/m3, it depends on many factors including the type of material used. Normal atmospheric oxygen can be sufficient to support a dust explosion if the other necessary conditions are present. High-oxygen or pure oxygen environments are considered to be hazardous, as are strong oxidizing gases suc
A mesh strainer known as sift known as sieve, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample using a woven screen such as a mesh or net or metal. The word "sift" derives from "sieve". In cooking, a sifter is used to separate and break up clumps in dry ingredients such as flour, as well as to aerate and combine them. A strainer is a form of sieve used to separate solids from liquid; some industrial strainers available are simplex basket strainers, duplex basket strainers, Y strainers. Simple basket strainers are used to protect valuable or sensitive equipment in systems that are meant to be shut down temporarily; some used strainers are bell mouth strainers, foot valve strainers, basket strainers. Most processing industries will opt for a self-cleaning strainer instead of a basket strainer or a simplex strainer due to limitations of simple filtration systems; the self-cleaning strainers or filters are more efficient and provide an automatic filtration solution.
Sieving is a simple technique for separating particles of different sizes. A sieve such as used for sifting flour has small holes. Coarse particles are separated or broken up by grinding against screen openings. Depending upon the types of particles to be separated, sieves with different types of holes are used. Sieves are used to separate stones from sand. Sieving plays an important role in food industries where sieves are used to prevent the contamination of the product by foreign bodies; the design of the industrial sieve is here of primary importance. Triage sieving refers to grouping people according to their severity of injury; the mesh in a wooden sieve might be made from wicker. Use of wood to avoid contamination is important. Henry Stephens, in his Book of the Farm, advised that the withes of a wooden riddle or sieve be made from fir or willow with American elm being best; the rims would be made of fir, oak or beech. A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material.
Sieve sizes used in combinations of four to eight sieves. Designations and Nominal Sieve Openings Chinois, or conical sieve used as a strainer sometimes used like a food mill Cocktail strainer, a bar accessory Colander, a bowl-shaped sieve used as a strainer in cooking Flour sifter or bolter, used in flour production and baking Graduated sieves, used to separate varying small sizes of material soil, rock or minerals Mesh strainer, or just "strainer" consisting of a fine metal mesh screen on a metal frame Riddle, used for soil Spider, used in Chinese cooking Tamis known as a drum sieve Tea strainer intended for use when making tea Zaru, or bamboo sieve, used in Japanese cooking Cheesecloth Cloth filter Gold panning Gyratory equipment Mechanical screening Molecular sieve Separation process Sieve analysis Soil gradation Filter
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes, maize and cassava. Pure starch is a white and odorless powder, insoluble in cold water or alcohol, it consists of two types of molecules: the branched amylopectin. Depending on the plant, starch contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen, the glucose store of animals, is a more branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting, fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer and biofuel, it is processed to produce many of the sugars used in processed foods. Mixing most starches in warm water produces a paste, such as wheatpaste, which can be used as a thickening, stiffening or gluing agent; the biggest industrial non-food use of starch is as an adhesive in the papermaking process.
Starch can be applied to parts of some garments before ironing. The word "starch" is from a Germanic root with the meanings "strong, strengthen, stiffen". Modern German Stärke is related; the Greek term for starch, "amylon", is related. It provides the root amyl, used as a prefix for several 5-carbon compounds related to or derived from starch. Starch grains from the rhizomes of Typha as flour have been identified from grinding stones in Europe dating back to 30,000 years ago. Starch grains from sorghum were found on grind stones in caves in Ngalue, Mozambique dating up to 100,000 years ago. Pure extracted wheat starch paste was used in Ancient Egypt to glue papyrus; the extraction of starch is first described in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder around AD 77–79. Romans used it in cosmetic creams, to powder the hair and to thicken sauces. Persians and Indians used it to make dishes similar to gothumai wheat halva. Rice starch as surface treatment of paper has been used in paper production in China since 700 CE.
In addition to starchy plants consumed directly, by 2008 66 million tonnes of starch were being produced per year worldwide. In 2011 production was increased to 73 million ton. In the EU the starch industry produced about 8.5 million tonnes in 2008, with around 40% being used for industrial applications and 60% for food uses, most of the latter as glucose syrups. In 2017 EU production was 11 million ton of which 9,4 million ton was consumed in the EU and of which 54% were starch sweeteners. US produced about 27,5 million ton starch in 2017 of which about 8,2 million ton high fructose syrup and 6,2 million ton glucose syrups and 2,5 million ton starch products, the rest of the starch was used for producing ethanol. Most green plants use starch as their energy store; the extra glucose is changed into starch, more complex than glucose. An exception is the family Asteraceae. Inulin-like fructans are present in grasses such as wheat, in onions and garlic and asparagus. In photosynthesis, plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide.
The glucose is used to generate the chemical energy required for general metabolism, to make organic compounds such as nucleic acids, lipids and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts. Toward the end of the growing season, starch accumulates in twigs of trees near the buds. Fruit, seeds and tubers store starch to prepare for the next growing season. Glucose is soluble in water, binds with water and takes up much space and is osmotically active. Glucose molecules are bound in starch by the hydrolyzed alpha bonds; the same type of bond is found in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen. This is in contrast to many structural polysaccharides such as chitin and peptidoglycan, which are bound by beta bonds and are much more resistant to hydrolysis. Plants produce starch by first converting glucose 1-phosphate to ADP-glucose using the enzyme glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase; this step requires energy in the form of ATP. The enzyme starch synthase adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, liberating ADP and creating amylose.
The ADP-glucose is certainly added to the non-reducing end of the amylose polymer, as the UDP-glucose is added to the non-reducing end of glycogen during glycogen synthesis. Starch branching enzyme introduces 1,6-alpha glycosidic bonds between the amylose chains, creating the branched amylopectin; the starch debranching enzyme isoamylase removes some of these branches. Several isoforms of these enzymes exist, leading to a complex synthesis process. Glycogen and amylopectin have similar structure, but the former has about one branch point per ten 1,4-alpha bonds, compared to about one branch point per thirty 1,4-alpha bonds in amylopectin. Amylopectin is synthesized from ADP-glucose while mammals and fungi synthesize glycogen from UDP-glucose. In addition to starch synthesis in plants, starch can be synthesized from non-food starch mediated by an enzyme cocktail. In this cell-free biosystem, beta-1,4-glycosidic bond-linked cellulose is hydrolyzed to cello
Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains are used for different varieties, including barley, corn and wheat. Whisky is aged in wooden casks made of charred white oak. Whisky is a regulated spirit worldwide with many classes and types; the typical unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains and aging in wooden barrels. The word whisky is an anglicisation of the Classical Gaelic word uisce meaning "water". Distilled alcohol was known in Latin as aqua vitae; this was translated into Old Irish as uisce beatha, which became uisce beatha in Irish and uisge beatha in Scottish Gaelic. Early forms of the word in English included uskebeaghe, usquebaugh and usquebae. Much is made of the word's two spellings: whiskey. There are two schools of thought on the issue. One is that the spelling difference is a matter of regional language convention for the spelling of a word, indicating that the spelling varies depending on the intended audience or the background or personal preferences of the writer, the other is that the spelling should depend on the style or origin of the spirit being described.
There is general agreement that when quoting the proper name printed on a label, the spelling on the label should not be altered. The spelling whiskey is common in Ireland and the United States, while whisky is used in all other whisky producing countries. In the US, the usage has not always been consistent. From the late eighteenth century to the mid twentieth century, American writers used both spellings interchangeably until the introduction of newspaper style guides. Since the 1960s, American writers have used whiskey as the accepted spelling for aged grain spirits made in the US and whisky for aged grain spirits made outside the US. However, some prominent American brands, such as George Dickel, Maker's Mark, Old Forester, use the whisky spelling on their labels, the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, the legal regulations for spirit in the US use the whisky spelling throughout. Whisky made in Scotland is known as Scotch whisky, or as "Scotch", it is possible that distillation was practised by the Babylonians in Mesopotamia in the 2nd millennium BC, with perfumes and aromatics being distilled, but this is subject to uncertain and disputed interpretations of evidence.
The earliest certain chemical distillations were by Greeks in Alexandria in the 1st century AD, but these were not distillations of alcohol. The medieval Arabs adopted the distillation technique of the Alexandrian Greeks, written records in Arabic begin in the 9th century, but again these were not distillations of alcohol. Distilling technology passed from the medieval Arabs to the medieval Latins, with the earliest records in Latin in the early 12th century; the earliest records of the distillation of alcohol are in Italy in the 13th century, where alcohol was distilled from wine. An early description of the technique was given by Ramon Llull, its use spread through medieval monasteries for medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of colic and smallpox. The art of distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland no than the 15th century, as did the common European practice of distilling "aqua vitae", spirit alcohol for medicinal purposes; the practice of medicinal distillation passed from a monastic setting to the secular via professional medical practitioners of the time, The Guild of Barber Surgeons.
The earliest mention of whisky in Ireland comes from the seventeenth-century Annals of Clonmacnoise, which attributes the death of a chieftain in 1405 to "taking a surfeit of aqua vitae" at Christmas. In Scotland, the first evidence of whisky production comes from an entry in the Exchequer Rolls for 1494 where malt is sent "To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae", enough to make about 500 bottles. James IV of Scotland had a great liking for Scotch whisky, in 1506 the town of Dundee purchased a large amount of whisky from the Guild of Barber Surgeons, which held the monopoly on production at the time. Between 1536 and 1541, King Henry VIII of England dissolved the monasteries, sending their monks out into the general public. Whisky production moved out of a monastic setting and into personal homes and farms as newly independent monks needed to find a way to earn money for themselves; the distillation process was still in its infancy. Renaissance-era whisky was very potent and not diluted.
Over time whisky evolved into a much smoother drink. With a license to distill Irish whiskey from 1608, the Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland is the oldest licensed whiskey distillery in the world. In 1707, the Acts of Union merged England and Scotland, thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically. After the English Malt Tax of 1725, most of Scotland's distillation was either shut down or forced underground. Scotch whisky was hidden under altars, in coffins, in any available space to avoid the governmental excisemen or revenuers. Scottish distillers, operating out of homemade stills, took to distilling whisky at night when the darkness hid the smoke from the stills. For this reason, the drink became known as moonshine. At one point, it was estimated that over half of Scotland'
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, animal fodder, it can be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats. Rye is a cereal grain and should not be confused with ryegrass, used for lawns and hay for livestock. Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey and in adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in Turkey, such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Can Hasan III near Çatalhöyük, but is otherwise absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800–1500 BCE. It is possible that rye traveled west from Turkey as a minor admixture in wheat, was only cultivated in its own right. Although archeological evidence of this grain has been found in Roman contexts along the Rhine, in Ireland and Britain, Pliny the Elder was dismissive of rye, writing that it "is a poor food and only serves to avert starvation" and spelt is mixed into it "to mitigate its bitter taste, then is most unpleasant to the stomach".
Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye in Central and Eastern Europe. It serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands. Claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates, identifications based on grain, rather than on chaff. Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide ground cover for the winter, it grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing while there is general snow cover. It can be used to prevent the growth of winter-hardy weeds, can either be harvested as a bonus crop or tilled directly into the ground in spring to provide more organic matter for the next summer's crop, it is a common nurse crop. The nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci, leaf beetle, fruit fly, gout fly, cereal chafer, dart moth, cereal bug, Hessian fly, rustic shoulder knot are among insects which can affect rye health.
Rye is grown in Eastern and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Belarus and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is grown in North America, in South America, in Oceania, in Turkey, in Kazakhstan and in northern China. Production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons in 1992 to 2.1 t in 2012. Corresponding figures for other countries are as follows: Poland – falling from 5.9 t in 1992 to 2.9 t in 2005. Most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide. World trade of rye is low compared with other grains such as wheat; the total export of rye for 2016 was $186M compared with $30.1B for wheat. Poland consumes the most rye per person at 32.4 kg/capita. Nordic and Baltic countries are very high; the EU in general is around 5.6 kg/capita. The entire world only consumes 0.9 kg/capita.
Rye is susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause both physical and mental harm, including convulsions, necrosis of digits and death. Damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to periodic epidemics of this condition; such epidemics have been found to correlate with periods of frequent witch trials, such as the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692. Modern grain-cleaning and milling methods have eliminated the disease, but contaminated flour may end up in bread and other food products if the ergot is not removed before milling. Rye grain is refined into a flour. Rye flour is low in glutenin, it therefore has a lower gluten content than wheat flour. It contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber. Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids present in high amounts in the bran layer of rye. Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is made using rye flour and is a eaten food in Northern and Eastern Europe.
Rye is used to make crisp bread. Rye grain is used to make like rye whiskey and rye beer. Other uses of rye grain include an herbal medicine known as rye extract. Rye straw is used as livestock bedding, as a cover crop and green manure for soil amendment, to make crafts such as corn dollies. Physical properties of rye affect attributes of the final food product such as seed size and surface area, porosity; the surface area of the seed directly correlates to the heat transfer time. Smaller seeds have increased heat transfer. Seeds with lower amounts of porosity have lower tendencies to lose water during the process of drying. Rye grows well in much poorer soils than those necessary for most cereal grains. Thus, it is an especially
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands. Sorghum is in the tribe Andropogoneae. One species, Sorghum bicolor, native to Africa with many cultivated forms now, is an important crop worldwide, used for food, animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, are important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people; these varieties form important components of forage in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, South Asia, is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world. In the early stages of the plants' growth, some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide and nitrates which are lethal to grazing animals.
When stressed by drought or heat, plants can contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at stages in growth. Global demand for sorghum increased between 2013 and 2015 when China began purchasing US sorghum crops to use as livestock feed as a substitute for domestically grown corn. China purchased around $1 billion worth of American sorghum per year until April 2018 when China imposed retaliatory duties on American sorghum as part of the trade war between the two countries. Accepted species Formerly includedMany species once considered part of Sorghum, but now considered better suited to other genera include: Andropogon, Bothriochloa, Cymbopogon, Dichanthium, Diheteropogon, Hyparrhenia, Monocymbium, Pentameris, Pseudosorghum and Sorghastrum. 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Apigeninidin Baijiu – Chinese alcoholic beverage distilled from sorghum Millet Push–pull technology pest control strategy for maize and sorghum Watson, Andrew M.. Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24711-X. "Sorghum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. 1911. Species Profile- Johnsongrass, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Johnsongrass. FAO Report "Sorghum and millets in human nutrition" Sorghum on US Grains Council Web Site Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Association, organization for the promotion and development of sweet Sorghum as a source for biofuels ethanol