SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Man Ray

Man Ray was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in Paris. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements, although his ties to each were informal, he considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, he was a renowned fashion and portrait photographer. Man Ray is noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself. During his career as an artist, Man Ray allowed few details of his early life or family background to be known to the public, he refused to acknowledge that he had a name other than Man Ray. Man Ray's birth name was Emmanuel Radnitzky, he was born in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on August 27, 1890. He was the eldest child of Russian Jewish immigrants Max, a tailor, Minnie Radnitzky, he had a brother and two sisters and Essie, the youngest born in 1897 shortly after they settled in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York. In early 1912, the Radnitzky family changed their surname to Ray.

Man Ray's brother chose the surname in reaction to the ethnic discrimination and antisemitism prevalent at the time. Emmanuel, called "Manny" as a nickname, changed his first name to Man and began to use Man Ray as his name. Man Ray's father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home, he enlisted his children to assist him from an early age. Man Ray's mother enjoyed designing the family's clothes and inventing patchwork items from scraps of fabric. Man Ray wished to disassociate himself from his family background, but their tailoring left an enduring mark on his art. Mannequins, flat irons, sewing machines, pins, swatches of fabric, other items related to tailoring appear in every medium of his work. Art historians have noted similarities between Ray's collage and painting techniques and styles used for tailoring. Mason Klein, curator of a Man Ray exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York, Alias Man Ray: The Art of Reinvention, suggests that the artist may have been "the first Jewish avant-garde artist."Man Ray was the uncle of the photographer Naomi Savage, who learned some of his techniques and incorporated them into her own work.

Man Ray displayed mechanical abilities during childhood. His education at Brooklyn's Boys' High School from 1904 to 1909 provided him with solid grounding in drafting and other basic art techniques. While he attended school, he educated himself with frequent visits to the local art museums, where he studied the works of the Old Masters. After his graduation, Ray was offered a scholarship to study architecture but chose to pursue a career as an artist. Man Ray's parents were disappointed by their son's decision to pursue art, but they agreed to rearrange the family's modest living quarters so that Ray's room could be his studio; the artist remained in the family home over the next four years. During this time, he worked towards becoming a professional painter. Man Ray earned money as a commercial artist and was a technical illustrator at several Manhattan companies; the surviving examples of his work from this period indicate that he attempted paintings and drawings in 19th-century styles. He was an avid admirer of contemporary avant-garde art, such as the European modernists he saw at Alfred Stieglitz's "291" gallery and works by the Ashcan School.

However, with a few exceptions, he was not yet able to integrate these trends into his own work. The art classes he sporadically attended, including stints at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League, were of little apparent benefit to him; when he enrolled in the Ferrer School in the autumn of 1912, he began a period of intense and rapid artistic development. While living in New York City, Man Ray was influenced by the avant-garde practices of European contemporary artists he was introduced to at the 1913 Armory Show and in visits to Alfred Stieglitz's "291" art gallery, his early paintings display facets of cubism. After befriending Marcel Duchamp, interested in showing movement in static paintings, his works began to depict movement of the figures. An example is the repetitive positions of the dancer's skirts in The Rope Dancer Accompanies Herself with Her Shadows. In 1915, Man Ray had his first solo show of paintings and drawings after he had taken up residence at an art colony in Grantwood, New Jersey, across the Hudson River from New York City.

His first proto-Dada object, an assemblage titled Self-Portrait, was exhibited the following year. He produced his first significant photographs in 1918, after picking up the camera to document his own artwork. Man Ray abandoned conventional painting to involve himself with a radical anti-art movement, he published two Dadaist periodicals, that each only had one issue, The Ridgefield Gazook and TNT, the latter co-edited by Adolph Wolff and Mitchell Dawson. He developed unique mechanical and photographic methods of making images. For the 1918 version of Rope Dancer, he combined a spray-gun technique with a pen drawing. Like Duchamp, he did readymades -- ordinary objects that are modified, his Gift readymade is a flatiron with metal tacks attached to the bottom, Enigma of Isidore Ducasse is an unseen object wrapped in cloth and tied with cord. Aerograph, another work from this period, was done with airbrush on glass. In 1920, Man Ray helped Duchamp make the Rotary Glass Plates, one of the earliest examples of kinetic art.

It was composed of glass plates turned by a motor. That same year, Man Ray, Katherine Dreier, Duchamp founded the Société Anonyme, an i

Dholpur Military School

Dholpur Military School is one of the five military schools of India. It is situated in Dholpur in Rajasthan and was established in 1962 by the former Defence Minister late Sh Krishnan Menon to facilitate education of the children of the Defense personnel as well as the civilians. Military Schools in India were known as King George Royal Indian Military College; the school is housed in Kesarbagh palace, the mansion of the former ruler of the erstwhile Dholpur State. It is 10 kilometres away from Dholpur City on the Dholpur-Bari Road. Dholpur is 250 kilometres away from Delhi; the school is affiliated to CBSE. It is an English medium boarding school coming under the Ministry Of Defence. Unit tests are held quarterly in addition to half annual examinations. Students appear for AISSE along with other CBSE affiliated schools in India. Student to staff ratio is about 2.5:1 and student to teaching staff ratio is 10:1, far above the national average of India. Staff are recruited by central government from all over India.

Students are offered Science subject in 12th classes. School curriculum includes seven periods of 40 minutes each. Daily three hours of compulsory prep is included in a routine for students to concentrate on studies, it has three head of institutes - the Principal, the Administrative Officer and MIE. The school educates pupils from class 6th to 12th with the aim to train and prepare the cadets for NDA. Cadets in class 12th are given special responsibility such has house captain. CCA is a part of the school curriculum. Cadets participate in debates, quizzes, dance, poetry recitation in English and Hindi, they participate in inter house and inter school arts competitions. The school team is a participant in national and state level. Cadets undergo compulsory physical training in the play sports in the evening; the school has facilities for football, volleyball, cross-country, table tennis, lawn tennis and badminton. The school is a member of the Indian Public Schools' Conference and participates in state as well as national level sports competitions.

The Inter Military Schools Pentagular meet is an annual sports and CCA event where all five military schools compete in several field. Cadets undergo compulsory physical training in the play sports in the evening; the school has facilities for cricket, basketball, athletics, cross-country, cycling and mountaineering. The school is a member of the Indian Public Schools' Conference and participates in state as well as national level sports competitions. In 2007, cadets won six gold, seven silver and two bronze in the CBSE cluster XIII Athletics meet held at Chandigarh; the Inter Military Schools Pentagular meet is an annual sports and CCA event where all five military schools compete in several field. The school is a category ‘A’ establishment of the Army and is administrated by the Directorate General of Military Training at IHQ of MOD, it is under Army. The Central Governing Council, headed by the Defence Secretary, Ministry of Defence is the apex body for the school; the school prepares boys from the age of 10 to 18 years for the All India Secondary School Examination and All India Senior School Certificate Examination, New Delhi and for Entrance Examination to the National Defence Academy.

Dholpur Military School is the youngest military school in India. And chail military school is the oldest military school in India. Along with its sister institute now located in Jhelum, Chail Military School was named as King George Royal Indian Military School after King George V. After the First World War, in February 1922 the foundation stone of the school was laid and regular classes were started in September 1925 at Jalandhar Cant in Punjab; the KGRIMS at Jhelum and KGRIMS at Jalandhar were the first two such institutions to be established in 1925. The KGRIMS Ajmer was established in 1930; the above institutions were re-designated to KGRIMC in 1945 and two more institutions were established namely KGRIMC Belgaum in 1945 and KGRIMC Bangalore in 1946. The school was founded to provide free education to the sons of JCOs, NCOs and ORs to prepare them for Army examinations including the Indian Special Certificate of Education; the curriculum of the school was based on military requirements with English as a medium of instruction.

The strength of the school was 250 and the staff consisted of military personnel. During the World War II the cadets of these institutions were granted emergency commission and subsequently permission was granted for entry of the Cadets to the Armed Forces looking to the training they received at these institutions. During the Second World War the school was designated as a college. One hundred more cadets were admitted under the expansion scheme; the eligibility norms were relaxed to facilitate enrollment of near relatives of Army personnel and admissions were thrown open to all branches of armed forces. At that time, college was affiliated to the Panjab University for matriculation and intermediate examinations; the institution produced a large number of officers. After partition in 1947, the KGRIMC, Jhelum, in Pakistan was named as'Military College Jhelum' and the cadets/ex-students there call themselves'ALAMGIRIANS'. After independence, a parliamentary committee headed by the educationist Dr. H N Kunjru recommended reorganization of these schools on Public School lines like the Doon Sch

Carlos Fitz-James Stuart, 4th Duke of Liria and Jérica

Don Carlos Bernardo Fitz-James Stuart y Silva, 4th Duke of Liria and Jérica, 4th Duke of Berwick was a Spanish nobleman. Born in Liria, Spain, he was the son of James Fitz-James Stuart, 3rd Duke of Berwick, his wife, María Teresa de Silva y Álvarez de Toledo. On 9 October 1771 he married Princess Caroline of Stolberg-Gedern, sister of the Jacobite consort Louise of Stolberg-Gedern and sister-in-law to Charles Edward Stuart, called by Jacobites King Charles III known as "the Young Pretender". Carlos Fitz-James Stuart inherited his father's titles in 1785. In 1787, he lost by court order the titles held from the house of Columbus, namely the Dukedom of la Vega, the Dukedom of Veragua, the Marquisate of Jamaica, the Admiralty of the Ocean Sea and the Admiralty of the Indies, in favour of Mariano Colón de Larreátegui, who became the legal holder of said titles; the Duke served as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber to King Charles III of Spain. The Duke of Liria and Jérica died in 1787 in Madrid, was succeeded by his son Jacobo.

11th Duke of Veragua, Grandee of Spain 11th Duke of la Vega, Grandee of Spain 4th Duke of Liria and Jérica, Grandee of Spain 14th Marquess of la Mota 12th Marquess of Sarria 12th Marquess de la Jamaica 6th Marquess of Tarazona 5th Marquess of San Leonardo 14th Count of Monforte de Lemos, Grandee of Spain 12th Count of Monterrey, Grandee of Spain 15th Count of Lemos 11th Count of Gelves 8th Count of Ayala 4th Duke of Berwick, Grandee of Spain 4th Earl of Tinmouth 4th Baron Bosworth Don Carlos Fitz-James Stuart His Excellency The Duke of Veragua, Duke of la Vega, Duke of Berwick, Duke of Liria and Xérica His Excellency The Duke of Berwick, Duke of Liria and Xérica