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Manchester Arena

The Manchester Arena is an indoor arena in Manchester, England north of the city centre and above Manchester Victoria station in air rights space. The arena has the highest seating capacity of any indoor venue in the United Kingdom, second largest in the European Union with a capacity of 21,000 and is one of the world's busiest indoor arenas, hosting music and sporting events such as boxing and swimming; the arena was a key part of Manchester's bids to host the Olympic Games in 1996 and 2000 and was used for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The arena was temporarily closed following a terror attack by a suicide bomber on 22 May 2017, in which a suicide bomber killed 22 people and injured 500 more at the end of an Ariana Grande concert during her Dangerous Woman Tour. Shows that were scheduled to be at the arena were either moved to alternative venues, or cancelled completely; the arena was reopened on 9 September with a special benefit concert headlined by Manchester-born singer Noel Gallagher.

First proposed during the regeneration of Manchester city centre during the 1980s, the structure was designed by DLA Ellerbe Beckett, Ove Arup & Partners, Austin-Smith:Lord. The arena is sited in air rights space over the Manchester Victoria railway station and was constructed without disrupting use of the station; the original plans included a glass tower, not built. It hosted a seven-screen multiplex cinema, a multi-purpose arena and multi-storey parking; the former multiplex cinema, which opened in 1996, closed after just four years and is now a call centre. Following the bombing, the foyer underwent renovation. A large truss measuring 105 metres spans the roof. Reinforced concrete is used to increase sound insulation; the upper parts of the building are clad in purple-grey with green glass. The arena was opened on 15 July 1995; the arena was one of the first indoor venues in Europe to be built following layout of 360-degree seating, is the only arena in the UK to have this feature. Other European indoor venues built to the same concept include the Lanxess Arena, Arena Zagreb, Spaladium Arena, Kombank Arena, O2 Arena, the Barclaycard Arena.

The arena was constructed as part of the city's unsuccessful bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Construction cost £52 million of which £35.5m was provided by government grants and £2.5m from the European Regional Development Fund. Although built as an American style sports arena it has been more successful hosting large music events; the arena opened in July 1995, sponsored by NYNEX CableComms as NYNEX Arena. In July 1998 it was renamed the Manchester Evening News Arena, or just the MEN Arena, when it was sponsored by the Manchester Evening News newspaper. In December 2011, the paper ended its thirteen-year sponsorship, the arena was renamed Manchester Arena in January 2012. In July 2013 the arena was renamed Phones 4u Arena after the mobile phone company Phones 4u, but this deal ended in January 2015 after Phones 4u went out of business, renaming the arena back to Manchester Arena. On the opening night, 15,000 spectators watched Jayne Christopher Dean perform. Attendance records were set in 1997 when 17,425 people watched Manchester Storm play Sheffield Steelers, a record for an ice hockey match in Europe at that time.

When 14,151 people watched Manchester Giants play London Leopards, it set a British record for attendance at a basketball match. The venue attracts over a million customers each year for concerts and family shows, making it one of the world's busiest indoor arenas, was named "International Venue Of The Year" in 2002 in the'Pollstar' awards, was nominated in the same category in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009; the arena was named "Busiest Arena Venue In The World", based on ticket sales for concerts in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 ahead of other indoor arenas including the Madison Square Garden and Wembley Arena. The arena was the'World's Busiest Arena' from 2001 until 2007 based on ticket sales for concerts, attracting five and a half million customers, it was voted'Europe's Favourite Arena' at the TPi Awards in 2008 by the touring companies that bring the shows to the venue. On the evening of 27 May 1999, a reception was held at the arena to celebrate Manchester United's European Cup triumph in Barcelona 24 hours earlier, following the victorious side's parade around Manchester at the end of the season in which they became the first English team to win the treble of the league title, FA Cup and European Cup in the same season.

In 2008, the arena was world's third busiest arena behind London's The O2 Arena and New York's Madison Square Garden. In 2009, it was the world's second busiest arena behind London's The O2 and ahead of Antwerp's Sportpaleis and Madison Square Garden. Although second to London's The O2, Manchester's arena had its busiest year with over 1,500,000 people attending concerts and family shows; the arena hosts over 250 events annually including comedy, live music and tours, sporting events, musicals. As one of the largest venues in the UK, the arena has hosted music concerts since opening in 1995; as of 2019, British pop group Take That, who were formed in Manchester, hold the record for the most performances, with 46. During the five-concert Manchester leg of their 2019 tour, the arena was temporarily renamed after the band to honour their 30-year career. Irish pop group Westlife held the record with 33 performances. Spice Girls performed 4 sold-out show

Programming by demonstration

In computer science, programming by demonstration is an end-user development technique for teaching a computer or a robot new behaviors by demonstrating the task to transfer directly instead of programming it through machine commands. The terms programming by example and programming by demonstration appeared in software development research as early as the mid 1980s to define a way to define a sequence of operations without having to learn a programming language; the usual distinction in literature between these terms is that in PbE the user gives a prototypical product of the computer execution, such as a row in the desired results of a query. These two terms were first undifferentiated, but PbE tended to be adopted by software development researchers while PbD tended to be adopted by robotics researchers. Today, PbE refers to an different concept, supported by new programming languages that are similar to simulators; this framework can be contrasted with Bayesian program synthesis. The PbD paradigm is first attractive to the robotics industry due to the costs involved in the development and maintenance of robot programs.

In this field, the operator has implicit knowledge on the task to achieve, but does not have the programming skills required to reconfigure the robot. Demonstrating how to achieve the task through examples thus allows to learn the skill without explicitly programming each detail; the first PbD strategies proposed in robotics were based on teach-in, guiding or play-back methods that consisted in moving the robot through a set of relevant configurations that the robot should adopt sequentially. The method was progressively ameliorated by focusing principally on the teleoperation control and by using different interfaces such as vision. However, these PbD methods still used direct repetition, useful in industry only when conceiving an assembly line using the same product components. To apply this concept to products with different variants or to apply the programs to new robots, the generalization issue became a crucial point. To address this issue, the first attempts at generalizing the skill were based on the help of the user through queries about the user's intentions.

Different levels of abstractions were proposed to resolve the generalization issue dichotomized in learning methods at a symbolic level or at a trajectory level. The development of humanoid robots brought a growing interest in robot programming by demonstration; as a humanoid robot is supposed by its nature to adapt to new environments, not only the human appearance is important but the algorithms used for its control require flexibility and versatility. Due to the continuously changing environments and to the huge varieties of tasks that a robot is expected to perform, the robot requires the ability to continuously learn new skills and adapt the existing skills to new contexts. Research in PbD progressively departed from its original purely engineering perspective to adopt an interdisciplinary approach, taking insights from neuroscience and social sciences to emulate the process of imitation in humans and animals. With the increasing consideration of this body of work in robotics, the notion of Robot programming by demonstration was progressively replaced by the more biological label of Learning by imitation.

After a task was demonstrated by a human operator, the trajectory is stored in a database. Getting easier access to the raw data is realized with parameterized skills. A skill generates a trajectory. For example, at first the skill “opengripper” is send to the motion database and in response, the stored movement of the robotarm is provided; the parameters of a skill allow to modify the policy to fulfill external constraints. A skill is an interface between task names, given in natural language and the underlying spatiotemporal movement in the 3d space, which contains of points. Single skills can be combined into a task for defining longer motion sequences from a high level perspective. For practical applications, different actions are stored in a skill library. For increasing the abstraction level further, skills can be converted into dynamic movement primitives, they generate a robot trajectory on the fly, unknown at the time of the demonstration. This helps to increase the flexibility of the solver.

For final users, to automate a workflow in a complex tool, the most simple case of PbD is the macro recorder. Programming by example Intentional programming Inductive programming Macro recorder Supervised learning Cypher, Watch What I Do: Programming by Demonstration, Daniel C. Halbert, MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-03213-1 Lieberman, Your Wish is My Command: Programming By Example, Ben Shneiderman, Morgan Kaufmann, ISBN 978-1-55860-688-3 Billard, Aude, S. Calinon, R. Dillmann and S. Schaal, "Robot Programming by Demonstration", Handbook of Robotics, MIT Press: 1371–1394, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30301-5_60, ISBN 978-3-540-23957-4. Schaal, S, Ijspeert, A. Robots that imitate humans, Cynthia Breazeal and Brian Scassellati, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6:1, 2002, pp. 481–87 Billard, A, "Imitation", in Arbib, MA, Handbook of Bra

The Night Is Still Young (Billy Joel song)

"The Night Is Still Young" is a single by rock singer Billy Joel released as a new song from his greatest hits album Greatest Hits - Volume I and II. It is the second new song from the album, the first one being "You're Only Human", which peaked at #9 on the US charts. "The Night Is Still Young" single peaked lower at #34. This song is featured on Disc 2 of the album; the video for the song features the story of a man who has gone on a business trip leaving his wife behind. This correlates with the song's lyrics, which speak of a man whose priorities are shifting away from his musical career and towards marriage and family; the music video was directed by Neil Tardio Billy Joel – lead vocals, harmonica John McCurryguitar Doug Stegmeyerbass guitar Liberty DeVittodrums Jimmy Bralower – percussion David Lebolt – synthesizers A live version of the song appears on Billy's 12 Gardens CD set

Ralph Gowland

Ralph Gowland was a British soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons at times between 1761 and 1780. Gowland was the son of Samuel Gowland, attorney, of Cook’s Court, Lincoln’s Inn and his wife Averil Skinner, he married Ann Darby, daughter of John Darby of Foots Cray, Kent on 25 July 1749 and lived at Little Eppleton County Durham. He served in the Seven Years' War with Lord Darlington. Darlington put Gowland forward as candidate for City of Durham at the 1761 general election but he was unsuccessful, he stood again at the same constituency at by-election in December 1761. He was unseated on petition, he could not compete with the Lambtons and Tempests in wealth or in popularity, found it difficult to meet the cost of the elections and the petition. In 1775 Gowland was recommended by Captain George Johnstone, RN to Sir James Lowther as a candidate for Cockermouth in the most glowing terms. "If you have not communicated your intentions to Major Gowland I shall presume to bring an image to your mind that has disturbed me all night.

Genius, generosity and affability are painted on his mien and beloved by all men of worth and real virtue. Known and esteemed by the first characters for the extent of his knowledge, with an elocution capable of enforcing his opinions. Talbot raised Thompson, David Hume, Burke, but you have a prize in your power superior to all three and your glory and advantage would be in proportion." Gowland was returned as MP for Cockermouth at a by-election of January 1775. His career in the House did not live up to the eulogy, he supported the opposition. After February 1779 he was marked on division lists as absent or too ill to attend and there is no record of his having spoken in the House; the Public Ledger in 1779 only said about him that "he pins his political faith" on Sir James, votes with him. He did not stand again in 1780, died soon after

Ronnie Bird

Ronnie Bird, born Ronald Méhu, is a French singer. As a student, he attended Lycée Claude Bernard, he debuted his recording career in 1964 with Decca, with the title track Adieu à un ami, a homage to Buddy Holly. Despite his evident ability and the apparent success of songs like Elle m'attend, Où va-t-elle?, he ended his artistic career after 5 years. He is noted for participating in the French production of the musical Hair between 1968 and 1972. Moreover, he wrote the lyrics of the song, Precious Things, sung by Dee Dee Bridgewater, in a duet with Ray Charles, which saw success in 1989; the song Le Pivert was prohibited from being played on Radio-France because of, according to an internal memo, its "vulgar attack on good taste". The memo was published in Charlie Hebdo. Ronnie Bird One World En public Twistin' the Rock, vol. 7

George Henry Calvert

George Henry Calvert was an American editor, dramatist and biographer. He was the Chair of Moral Philosophy at the newly established College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Baltimore, in 1854 he served as Mayor of Newport, Rhode Island. Calvert was born January 1803 in Prince George County, Maryland, his mother, Rosalie Eugenia Stier, was the daughter of a wealthy Belgian aristocrat, Baron Henri Joseph Stier and his wife Marie Louise Peeters. His father, George Calvert, was the son of Benedict Swingate Calvert – a natural son of Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore – and his wife Elizabeth Calvert. George Calvert was the Calverts' eldest son, he grew up in Maryland, graduated from Harvard College in 1823, studied in Germany where in March 1825 he met the poet Goethe. Returning to Baltimore, he edited the Baltimore American. In 1840 he made another trip to Europe. In 1843, Calvert moved to Rhode Island. On May 11, 1829, George Calvert married Elizabeth Steuart, his father was opposed to the match on the grounds that Elizabeth, the daughter of Baltimore physician James Steuart, had little property to her name.

However a compromise was reached and, after a suitable delay, the couple were married at the Steuart house in West Baltimore, Maryland Square. George and Elizabeth had no children. In 1830, Calvert was appointed the Chair of Moral Philosophy at the newly established College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Baltimore. In 1853, Calvert was elected Mayor of Newport, Rhode Island, served a term from October 1853 to June 1854. "Cabiro," a poem in the stanza of "Don Juan," of which two cantos were published in 1840, two more in 1864 Scenes and Thoughts in Europe, New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1846 Poems, Boston: William D. Ticknor & Co. 1847 Introduction to Social Science: A Discourse in Three Parts, New York: Redfield, 1856 Comedies The Gentleman, Boston: E. P. Dutton and Company, New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1866 Anyta and other Poems First Years in Europe Ellen, a Poem Goethe, his Life and Works Essays Aesthetical, Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1875, New York: Lee and Dillingham, 1875 Arnold and Andre.

An Historical Drama, New York: Lee and Shepard, 1876He translated and published in 1845 a portion of the correspondence between Goethe and Schiller. In 1866 he translated and had published Some of the "Thoughts" of Joseph Joubert. Ripley, George. "Calvert, George Henry". The American Cyclopædia. Calvert Family Tree Works by George Henry Calvert at Project Gutenberg Works by or about George Henry Calvert at Internet Archive George Henry Calvert at Find a Grave The Gentleman at Google Books The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers at Oxford Reference