Manchester Central railway station
Manchester Central railway station is a former railway station in Manchester city centre, England. One of Manchester's main railway terminals between 1880 and 1969, it has been converted into an exhibition and conference centre known as G-MEX, but now named Manchester Central; the structure is a Grade II* listed building. The station was built between 1875 and 1880 by the Cheshire Lines Committee, was opened on 1 July 1880; the architect was Sir John Fowler and the engineers were Richard Johnson, Andrew Johnston and Charles Sacré for the three companies which formed the CLC. While it was being built, a temporary facility, Manchester Free Trade Hall Station was in use from 9 September 1877, it had two wooden platforms serving four tracks. When the station opened, the temporary station became Manchester Central Goods. In 1963 building was Grade II * listed for historic interest; the station's roof is a single span wrought iron truss structure 550 feet long with a span of 210 feet, was 90 feet high at its apex above the railtracks.
Glass covered the middle section and slate covered the outer quarters. The end screens were glazed with timber boarding surrounding the outer edges, it was constructed by Andrew Co.. The substructure and masonry partition were provided by Robert Sons of Manchester. Underneath the train shed is a large brick undercroft with intersecting tunnel vaults, above which were six platforms above street level which exited the station onto viaducts and bridges; the undercroft was connected to the adjacent goods sidings by a carriage lift. The station's two-storey south wall has 15 bays separated by brick pilasters. At ground-floor level the bays have three round-headed windows and at first-floor level three square-headed. In the 20th century a glazed canopy was erected at the entrance at north end. A temporary wooden building, erected at the front of the station to house ticket offices and waiting rooms was planned to be replaced by a grander edifice, for example a hotel and railway offices as at London St Pancras, but remained in use until the station closed.
The Midland Hotel was built by the Midland Railway in 1898-1903 on an adjacent site. The Midland Railway, one of the CLC's partners, used Manchester Central as its terminus for services including express trains to London St Pancras. Beginning in 1938, the London and Scottish Railway ran two prestige expresses, The Peaks and the Palatine, stopping en route at Chinley, Millers Dale, Matlock and Leicester. Between 1960 and 15 April 1966, during the electrification of the West Coast Main Line, Central Station was the terminus for the Midland Pullman, a streamlined blue six-coach diesel multiple unit; this stopped before running fast to St Pancras. Services through Millers Dale finished in July 1968; the station provided local services to Chester and Liverpool but closed to passengers on 5 May 1969, when the remaining services were switched to Manchester Oxford Road and Manchester Piccadilly stations. On 8 June 1939, a passenger train departed against a danger signal and was in collision with another passenger train.
Several people were injured. In October 1965, detectives who had arrested Ian Brady for the murder of 17-year-old Edward Evans in Hattersley discovered evidence in a left luggage locker at the station which connected them to the disappearances of two missing children, who were soon discovered to have been murdered by Brady and his accomplice Myra Hindley in the reported Moors murders, in which at least five children and teenagers were murdered. Over a decade Central Station fell into a dilapidated state, was damaged by fire, was used as a car park; the property was acquired by Greater Manchester Council and in 1982, work began on converting it into an exhibition centre, which opened in 1986 as the Greater Manchester Exhibition and Conference Centre or G-Mex. It was subsequently renamed Manchester Central in honour of its railway history; the undercroft was converted into a car park, serving Bridgewater Hall. The opening in 1992 of the Metrolink light rail system has seen the conversion of suburban heavy rail lines such as the former Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway to Altrincham, the disused Cheshire Lines Committee route via Didsbury.
With the introduction of Metrolink, rail services from south Manchester run once more to Central Station. However, instead of trains running into the Central Station arch, light rail vehicles now cross the railway viaduct and stop at Deansgate-Castlefield tram stop, they run down a ramp which runs parallel to Lower Mosley Street, alongside the south-eastern side of the former train shed, before reaching street level where they operate as trams and head towards St Peter's Square. The Great Northern Warehouse A former railway building nearby, now a leisure/shopping complex Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester A Guide to Civil Engineering in Manchester The Lincolnshire & East Yorkshire Transport Review. Mitchell, Vic. Chester Northgate to Manchester. Middleton Press. Figs. 106-118. ISBN 9781908174512. OCLC 892704846. Ellis, Chris. "What happened to England's forgotten railway stations?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015
The Manchester Arena is an indoor arena in Manchester, England north of the city centre and above Manchester Victoria station in air rights space. The arena has the highest seating capacity of any indoor venue in the United Kingdom, second largest in the European Union with a capacity of 21,000 and is one of the world's busiest indoor arenas, hosting music and sporting events such as boxing and swimming; the arena was a key part of Manchester's bids to host the Olympic Games in 1996 and 2000 and was used for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. The arena was temporarily closed following a terrorist attack by a suicide bomber on 22 May 2017, in which a suicide bomber killed 22 people and injured 500 more at the end of an Ariana Grande concert during her Dangerous Woman Tour. Shows that were scheduled to be at the arena were either moved to alternative venues, or cancelled completely; the arena reopened on 9 September for a special benefit concert headlined by Manchester-born singer Noel Gallagher. First proposed during the regeneration of Manchester city centre during the 1980s, the structure was designed by DLA Ellerbe Beckett, Ove Arup & Partners, Austin-Smith:Lord.
The arena is sited in air rights space over the Manchester Victoria railway station and was constructed without disrupting use of the station. The original plans included a glass tower, not built, it hosted a seven-screen multiplex cinema, a multi-purpose arena and multi-storey parking. The former multiplex cinema, which opened in 1996, closed after just four years and is now a call centre. Following the bombing, the foyer has undergone renovation which still remains in progress during 2017, although it has been reopened to the public. A large truss measuring 105 metres spans the roof. Reinforced concrete is used to increase sound insulation; the upper parts of the building are clad in purple-grey with green glass. The arena was opened on 15 July 1995; the arena was one of the first indoor venues in Europe to be built following layout of 360-degree seating, is the only arena in the UK to have this feature. Other European indoor venues built to the same concept include the Lanxess Arena, Arena Zagreb, Spaladium Arena, Kombank Arena, O2 Arena, the Barclaycard Arena.
The arena was constructed as part of the city's unsuccessful bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Construction cost £52 million of which £35.5m was provided by government grants and £2.5m from the European Regional Development Fund. Although built as an American style sports arena it has been more successful hosting large music events; the arena opened in July 1995, sponsored by NYNEX CableComms as NYNEX Arena. In July 1998 it was renamed the Manchester Evening News Arena, or just the MEN Arena, when it was sponsored by the Manchester Evening News newspaper. In December 2011, the paper ended its thirteen-year sponsorship, the arena was renamed Manchester Arena in January 2012. In July 2013 the arena was renamed Phones 4u Arena after the mobile phone company Phones 4u, but this deal ended in January 2015 after Phones 4u went out of business, renaming the arena back to Manchester Arena. On the opening night, 15,000 spectators watched Jayne Christopher Dean perform. Attendance records were set in 1997 when 17,425 people watched Manchester Storm play Sheffield Steelers, a record for an ice hockey match in Europe at that time.
When 14,151 people watched Manchester Giants play London Leopards, it set a British record for attendance at a basketball match. The venue attracts over a million customers each year for concerts and family shows, making it one of the world's busiest indoor arenas, was named "International Venue Of The Year" in 2002 in the'Pollstar' awards, was nominated in the same category in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009; the arena was named "Busiest Arena Venue In The World", based on ticket sales for concerts in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 ahead of other indoor arenas including the Madison Square Garden and Wembley Arena. The arena was the'World's Busiest Arena' from 2001 until 2007 based on ticket sales for concerts, attracting five and a half million customers, it was voted'Europe's Favourite Arena' at the TPi Awards in 2008 by the touring companies that bring the shows to the venue. On the evening of 27 May 1999, a reception was held at the arena to celebrate Manchester United's European Cup triumph in Barcelona 24 hours earlier, following the victorious side's parade around Manchester at the end of the season in which they became the first English team to win the treble of the league title, FA Cup and European Cup in the same season.
In 2008, the arena was world's third busiest arena behind London's The O2 Arena and New York's Madison Square Garden. In 2009, it was the world's second busiest arena behind London's The O2 and ahead of Antwerp's Sportpaleis and Madison Square Garden. Although second to London's The O2, Manchester's arena had its busiest year with over 1,500,000 people attending concerts and family shows; the arena hosts over 250 events annually including comedy, live music and tours, sporting events, musicals. As one of the largest venues in the UK, the arena has hosted music concerts since opening in 1995; as of 2015, British pop group Take That, who were formed in Manchester, hold the record for the most performances, with 38. Irish pop group Westlife held the record with 33 performances. Spice Girls performed 4 sold-out shows during their Spiceworld Tour in April 1998, 4 s
2002 Commonwealth Games
The 2002 Commonwealth Games known as the XVII Commonwealth Games and known as Manchester 2002 were held in Manchester, from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in the United Kingdom to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, head of the Commonwealth, Manchester was selected for the 2002 Games ahead of London; the XVII Commonwealth Games was, prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics, the largest multi-sport event to be held in the UK, eclipsing the London 1948 Summer Olympics in numbers of teams and athletes participating. In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were the largest Commonwealth Games in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports; the Games were considered a success for the host city, providing an event to display how Manchester had changed following the 1996 bombing. The Games formed the catalyst for the widespread regeneration and heavy development of Manchester, bolstered its reputation as a European and global city internationally. Rapid economic development and continued urban regeneration of the now post-industrial Manchester continued after the Games which helped cement its place as one of the principal cultural cities in the United Kingdom.
The opening and closing ceremonies, the athletic and the rugby sevens events were held at the City of Manchester Stadium, purpose built for the Games. Unusually for a large multi-sport event—the second-largest competition by number of countries and athletes participating—the shooting events were held in the National Shooting Centre in Bisley, some 200 miles from the main focus of the Games in Manchester. Seventy-two nations competed in 3 team sports events. Sporting legacy includes the British Cycling team who inherited the Manchester Velodrome and went on to win eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympics and another eight gold medals at the 2012 Olympics attributed to the availability of the velodrome. Manchester City F. C. inherited the City of Manchester Stadium, as a result, have since found themselves in a desirable investment opportunity in age of foreign football investment. The club was taken over by the Abu Dhabi United Group led by Sheikh Mansour in 2008, without the stadium, a takeover would have been far less certain.
The Games were a formative moment for Manchester and Britain with then-IOC president Jacques Rogge viewing the games as an important litmus test as to whether Britain could host the Summer Olympics. The success of the Games encouraged and inspired the future London bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics with London going on to win the bid on 6 July 2005 and the games were staged seven years later; the venues were eclectic ranging from high-tech architecture in the City of Manchester Stadium to the 19th-century Grade II* listed Manchester Central hall. The Games' main venue was the City of Manchester Stadium, which hosted all athletics events, the rugby sevens and the opening and closing ceremonies; the stadium was a downscaled version of that proposed during Manchester's bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Construction started in January 2000, was completed shortly before the Games; the cost was £110 million, £77 million of, provided by Sport England, with the remainder funded by Manchester City Council.
For the Commonwealth Games the stadium featured a single lower tier running around three sides of the athletics track, second tiers to the two sides, with an open-air temporary stand at one end, giving an overall capacity of 41,000. The stadium formed the centrepiece of an area known as Sportcity. Other venues in Sportcity include the Manchester Velodrome, which hosted cycling, the £3.5m National Squash Centre, built for the Games. Swimming and diving events took place at Manchester Aquatics Centre, another purpose-built venue, the only one in the United Kingdom with two 50 m pools; the Manchester Arena built in 1994, at the time was the largest arena in Europe and hosted netball and boxing. The shooting events were held at Bisley; the NSC saw major redevelopment of all its ranges in order to host the fullbore rifle, smallbore rifle and clay target events. The Games Village is located on 30 acres of land, which operates as the Fallowfield Campus within the University of Manchester during the games.
The 2002 Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay, the continuation of a tradition that started with the 1958 Games, consisted of the relay of an electronic baton, containing a personal message from Elizabeth II across 23 Commonwealth nations. The relay culminated in the arrival of the baton at the City of Manchester Stadium, opening the Games; the speech was removed electronically from the baton, read by Her Majesty to open the Games. The 2002 Baton itself was designed by a company called IDEO, was constructed of machined aluminium with the handle plated for conductivity, it weighed 1.69 kg, reached over 710 mm, was 42.5 mm to 85 mm in diameter. The Queen's message itself was held in an aluminium capsule inserted into the top of the Baton. On either side of the Baton were two sterling silver coins, designed by Mappin and Webb, which celebrated the City of Manchester as host of the XVII Commonwealth Games; the Baton was equipped with sensors that detected and monitored the Runner's pulse rate. This information was conveyed to a series of light-emitting diodes, via a light behaviour module.
The lens transformed the LEDs into a shaft of bright blue pulsating light which synchronised with each new Runner. The hearts of the Runner and the Baton beat as one until it was passed on, symbolising the journey of humanity and the essence of life; the Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay passed through ove
Manic Street Preachers
Manic Street Preachers are a Welsh rock band formed in Blackwood in 1986. The band consists of cousins James Dean Bradfield, Sean Moore, plus Nicky Wire, they are colloquially known as "the Manics". Following the release of their debut single "Suicide Alley", the band was joined by Richey Edwards as co-lyricist and rhythm guitarist; the band's early albums were in a punk vein broadening to a greater alternative rock sound, whilst retaining a leftist political outlook. Their early combination of androgynous glam imagery and lyrics about "culture, alienation and despair" has gained them a loyal following and cult status. With their debut album, Generation Terrorists, the Manic Street Preachers proclaimed it would be the "greatest rock album ever", as well as hoping to sell "sixteen million copies" around the world, after which they would split up. Despite the album's failure to meet this level of success, the band carried on with their career; the group became a trio after Richey Edwards disappeared in February 1995.
The band went on to gain commercial success in spite of his absence. Edwards was "presumed dead" in 2008. Throughout their career, the Manics have headlined several festivals including Glastonbury, T in the Park, V Festival and Reading, won eleven NME Awards, eight Q Awards and four BRIT Awards, they have been nominated for the Mercury Prize in 1996 and 1999, have had one nomination for the MTV Europe Music Awards. The group has reached number 1 in the UK charts three times: in 1998, with the album This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours and the single "If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next", again in 2000 with the single "The Masses Against the Classes", they have sold more than ten million albums worldwide. Manic Street Preachers formed in 1986 at Oakdale Comprehensive School, South Wales, which all the band members attended. Bradfield and the older Moore are cousins, shared bunkbeds in the Bradfield family home after Moore's parents divorced. During the band's early years, alongside the classically trained Moore wrote the music while Wire focused on the lyrics.
The origin of the band's name remains unclear, but the most often-told story relates that Bradfield, while busking one day in Cardiff, got into an altercation with someone who asked him "What are you, some kind of manic street preacher?"Original bassist Flicker left the band in early 1988 because he believed that the band were moving away from their punk roots. The band continued as a three-piece, with Wire switching from guitar to bass, in 1988 they released their first single, "Suicide Alley". Despite its recording quality, this punk ode to youthful escape provides an early insight into both Bradfield's guitar work and Moore's live drumming, the latter of which would be absent from the band's first LP; the Manics intended to restore revolution to rock and roll at a time when Britain was dominated by shoegaze and acid house. The NME gave "Suicide Alley" an enthusiastic review, citing a press release by Richey Edwards: "We are as far away from anything in the'80s as possible."After the release of "Suicide Alley," Edwards joined the band on rhythm guitar and contributed to lyrics alongside Wire. Edwards designed record sleeves and artwork, drove the band to and from gigs.
In 1990 the Manic Street Preachers signed a deal with label Damaged Goods Records for one EP. The four-track New Art Riot E. P. attracted as much media interest for its attacks on fellow musicians as for the actual music. With the help of Hall or Nothing management, the Manics signed to indie label Heavenly Records; the band recorded their first single for the label, entitled "Motown Junk". Their next single, "You Love Us", sampled Krzysztof Penderecki's "Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima" as well as Iggy Pop; the video featured Nicky Wire in drag as Marilyn Monroe and contained visual references to the film Betty Blue and to Aleister Crowley. In an interview with then-NME journalist Steve Lamacq, Edwards carved the phrase "4REAL" into his arm with a razor blade to prove their sincerity, he received seventeen stitches. NME subsequently ran a full page story on the incident, including a phone interview with Richey on his motivations for doing it. A recording of the editorial meeting discussing whether or not they could publish the image was included as a b-side on the band's 1992 charity single Theme from M.
A. S. H. Featuring Lamacq, then-editor of NME Danny Kelly and James Brown; as a result of their controversial behaviour, the Manics became favourites of the British music press, which helped them build a rabidly dedicated following. Columbia Records of Sony Music UK signed the band shortly afterwards and they began work on their debut album; the band's debut album, Generation Terrorists, was released in 1992 on the Columbia Records imprint. The liner notes contained a literary quote for each of the album's eighteen songs and the album lasted just over seventy minutes; the album's lyrics are politicised like those of the Clash and Public Enemy, with the album's songs switching from a critical focus on global capitalism to more personal tales of despair and the struggles of youth. About the musical style of the album Pitchfork writer Joe Tangari wrote that Generation Terrorists "walked a weird line between agit-punk, cock rock, romantic melodicism and glam, was so patterned after the Clash's London Calling that it was kind of cute."Other tracks combine personal and political themes, implicating a connection between global capitalism and p
James are an English rock band from Manchester, who were formed in 1982 and enjoyed popularity throughout the 1990s. The band's best-known singles include "Come Home", "Sit Down", "She's a Star" and "Laid", which became a hit on American college radio. Following the departure of lead singer Tim Booth in 2001, the band became inactive, but reunited in January 2007 and has gone on to produce a further six albums. James's hit single "Come Home" was voted the greatest Manchester anthem in a radio poll. Live performance has continually remained a central part of the band's output; as of 2010, the band had sold more than 25 million albums worldwide. James were formed in 1982 in Whalley Range, when Paul Gilbertson persuaded his friend Jim Glennie to buy a bass guitar and form a band with him, their line-up solidified. They played a string of gigs under the names Venereal and the Diseases and Volume Distortion, before settling on the name of Model Team International shortened to Model Team, they performed improvised material derived from jam sessions, supporting the Fall at an early gig at Manchester Polytechnic.
Vocalists and other musicians drifted in and out of their line-up, until the band encountered Tim Booth at a student disco. Gilbertson invited him to the band's scout hut in Withington to join the band as a dancer. After a brief period under the name Tribal Outlook, the band renamed themselves James in August 1982. A gig at the Haçienda caught the attention of Tony Wilson of Factory Records, he offered James an album deal with Factory, but the band, by now a settled live act, were worried about tarnishing their material in the studio and settled instead for a three-track EP. Their debut release, the Jimone EP, was recorded at Strawberry Studios, Stockport, in August 1983 and released on Factory Records in September, it led to the band providing the support for The Smiths between February and April 1985 on the Meat is Murder tour. The Smiths covered James ``. Although they were now being touted as the'next big thing', several complex issues slowed their progress. Gilbertson's drug problems presented the band with no choice but to ask him to leave.
Booth and Glennie had joined a sect named Lifewave that imposed many restrictions on their lifestyle and threatened the band's stability. The band's second EP, James II, was released over a year after the first and accompanied by a feature on the cover of the NME, Gilbertson having been replaced by the band's guitar tutor Larry Gott; the first two EPs would be collected as Village Fire. Reviews were once again positive, Factory were eager for James to record an album with it, but the band believed Factory were purely image-based and left the label, striking a deal with Sire Records, their third release, the Sit Down EP came out in February 1986, was followed by their debut album, Stutter in July of that year. The album reached number 68 in the UK Albums Chart. Low on money and lacking coverage and promotion, the band recorded their second album, Strip-mine, attempting a more conventional song structure in an attempt to please Sire; the album went unreleased, but after undergoing a slight remix to sound more radio-friendly, Sire released the album in September 1988, over a year after it had been completed.
However the album only reached number 90. After finding a clause for ending their contract, the band left Sire. James had by this point had built a solid fanbase. Sales of James T-shirts were successful in Manchester before they reached the Top 40. James financed the production of a live album One Man Clapping with a bank loan and the help of Rough Trade Records; the album went to number 1 in the indie charts. In November 1988, drummer Whelan became involved in an on-stage fight with Booth and was asked to leave the band, he was replaced by David Baynton-Power a few months later. During the following year James expanded their lineup and sound palette by hiring three new members — guitarist-violinist-percussionist Saul Davies, keyboard player Mark Hunter and onetime Diagram Brothers/ Dislocation Dance / The Cotton Singers Pale Fountains trumpeter/percussionist Andy Diagram; this new seven-piece line-up went into the studio to record the third James album. New singles "Sit Down" and "Come Home" became strong hits in the independent charts, the latter featured on the compilation album Happy Daze.
The album Gold Mother was intended to be released on Rough Trade but the owner of the label, Geoff Travis, believed James could only reach an audience of 20,000 to 30,000. The band believed they had more potential than this and bought the rights to the album from Rough Trade. A successful winter tour in 1989 attracted a deal with Fontana Records, the band ended a difficult decade on an optimistic note. Gold Mother was released in June 1990, just as the'Madchester' movement, with its wave of popular Manchester-based indie bands, focused public attention on James and won them mainstream recognition. Singles "How Was It for You", the remixed "Come Home" and "Lose Control" all made the Top 40, the band's newfound success was re-affirmed when they played two sell-out dates at the Manchester G-Mex at the end of the year. In March 1991, when the popularity of "Sit Down" led to a re-recorded version being released as a single, reaching number 2 in the UK Singles Chart. Gold Mother was re-released to include "Sit Down" and previous single "Lose Control", the album sold ten times more copies than Travis p
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976. The group consists of Bono, the Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr.. Rooted in post-punk, U2's musical style has evolved throughout their career, yet has maintained an anthemic quality built on Bono's expressive vocals and the Edge's effects-based guitar textures, their lyrics embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal and sociopolitical themes. Popular for their live performances, the group have staged several ambitious and elaborate tours over their career; the band formed as teenagers while attending Mount Temple Comprehensive School, when they had limited musical proficiency. Within four years, they released their debut album, Boy. Subsequent work such as their first UK number-one album and the singles "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Pride" helped establish U2's reputation as a politically and conscious group. By the mid-1980s, they had become renowned globally for their live act, highlighted by their performance at Live Aid in 1985.
The group's fifth album, The Joshua Tree, made them international superstars and was their greatest critical and commercial success. Topping music charts around the world, it produced their only number-one singles in the US to date: "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For". Facing creative stagnation and a backlash following their documentary/double album and Hum, U2 reinvented themselves in the 1990s through a new musical direction and public image. Beginning with their acclaimed seventh album, Achtung Baby, the multimedia-intensive Zoo TV Tour, the band integrated influences from alternative rock, electronic dance music, industrial music into their sound, embraced a more ironic, flippant image; this experimentation continued through their ninth album and the PopMart Tour, which were mixed successes. U2 regained critical and commercial favour with the records All That You Can't Leave Behind and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, which established a more conventional, mainstream sound for the group.
Their U2 360° Tour of 2009–2011 is the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour in history. The group most released the companion albums Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, the former of which received criticism for its pervasive, no-cost release through the iTunes Store. U2 have released 14 studio albums and are one of the world's best-selling music artists in history, having sold an estimated 150–170 million records worldwide, they have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, in 2005, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International, Jubilee 2000, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, War Child, Music Rising. In 1976, Larry Mullen Jr. a 14-year-old student at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in Dublin, posted a note on the school's notice board in search of musicians for a new band.
Six people met at Mullen's house on 25 September. Set up in the kitchen, Mullen was on drums, with: Paul Hewson on lead vocals. Mullen described it as "'The Larry Mullen Band' for about ten minutes Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge." Martin, who had brought his guitar and amplifier to the first practice but could not play, did not remain with the group, McCormick was dropped after a few weeks. The remaining five members settled on the name "Feedback" for the group because it was one of the few technical terms they knew. Most of their initial material consisted of cover songs, which they admitted was not their forte; some of the earliest influences on the band were emerging punk rock acts, such as the Jam, the Clash and Sex Pistols. The popularity of punk rock convinced the group that musical proficiency was not a prerequisite to success. In April 1977, Feedback played their first gig for a paying audience at St. Fintan's High School. Shortly thereafter, the band changed their name to "The Hype".
Dik Evans, older and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out. The rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble. In March 1978, the group changed their name to "U2". Steve Averill, a punk rock musician and family friend of Clayton's, had suggested six potential names from which the band chose "U2" for its ambiguity and open-ended interpretations, because it was the name that they disliked the least; that same month, U2, as a four-piece, won a talent contest in Limerick sponsored by Harp Lager and the Evening Press. The prize consisted of £500 and studio time to record a demo which would be heard by CBS Ireland, a record label; the win was an important affirmation for the fledgling band. Within a few days, Dik Evans was phased out of the band with a farewell concert at the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth. During the show, which featured the group playing cover songs as the Hype, Dik ceremonially walked offstage; the remaining four band members returned in the concert to play original material as U2.
Dik soon joined the Virgin Prunes, which comprised mutual friends of U2's.
Thirty Seconds to Mars
Thirty Seconds to Mars is an American rock band from Los Angeles, formed in 1998. The band consists of brothers Jared Shannon Leto. During the course of its existence, it has undergone various line-up changes; the band's debut album, 30 Seconds to Mars, was produced by Bob Ezrin and released to positive reviews but only to limited commercial success. The band achieved worldwide fame with the release of its second album A Beautiful Lie, which received multiple certifications all over the world, its next release, This Is War, showed a dramatic evolution in the band's musical style, as it incorporated experimental music as well as eclectic influences. The recording process of the album was marked by a legal dispute with record label EMI that became the subject of the documentary film Artifact. Thirty Seconds to Mars moved to Universal Music and released the fourth album, Lust and Dreams, to critical and commercial success, it was followed by America. As of September 2014, the band had sold over 15 million albums worldwide.
Thirty Seconds to Mars has enjoyed sold out tours and numerous headlining festival slots. The band is noted for its energetic live performances and for fusing elements from a wide variety of genres, through its use of philosophical and spiritual lyrics, concept albums, experimental music. Thirty Seconds to Mars has received several awards and accolades throughout its career, including a Guinness World Record, has been included in the Kerrang! List of best artists of the 2000s. Thirty Seconds to Mars started in 1998 in Los Angeles, California, as a collaboration between brothers Jared Leto and Shannon Leto, playing music together since their childhood; the duo expanded to a four-piece when they added guitarist Solon Bixler and bassist Matt Wachter to the line-up. Additional guitarist Kevin Drake, who first auditioned for the position of bassist joined the band as a touring musician; the band played its first concerts under different names, before settling on the name "Thirty Seconds to Mars", taken from a rare manuscript titled Argus Apocraphex.
Jared Leto described the name as "a rough translation from the book. I think the idea is interesting, it's a metaphor for the future," he explained. "Thirty seconds to Mars—the fact that we're so close to something that's not a tangible idea. Mars being the God of War makes it interesting, as well. You could substitute that in there, but what's important for my brother and I, is that it be imaginative and represent the sound of our music in as unique a way as possible." He described it as a name that "works on several different levels, a phrase, lyrical, suggestive and filled with immediacy." When Thirty Seconds to Mars first started, Jared Leto did not allow his vocation as a Hollywood actor to be used in promotion of the band. By 1998, the group performed gigs at clubs, their eponymous debut album had been in the works for a couple of years, with Leto writing the majority of the songs. During this period, the band recorded demo tracks such as "Valhalla" and "Revolution", or "Jupiter" and "Hero", which appeared on the band's debut album as "Fallen" and "Year Zero" but "Buddha for Mary".
Their work led to a number of record labels being interested in signing Thirty Seconds to Mars, which signed to Immortal Records. In 1999, Virgin Records entered into the contract. Thirty Seconds to Mars retreated to the isolation of Wyoming's countryside in 2001 to record their debut album, working with Bob Ezrin and Brian Virtue, they contacted Ezrin because they grew up listening to his work with Pink Floyd and Alice Cooper and they felt he was the only one who could help them capture the size and scope of what they wanted to accomplish on their debut recording. The band chose an empty warehouse lot on 15,000 acres, striving for the precise location that would enhance their sound. Before the album was released, Puddle of Mudd invited Thirty Seconds to Mars to open a six-week tour for them in the spring of 2002; the band embarked on a North American tour to support Incubus and began a club tour in August. The band released their first studio album, 30 Seconds to Mars, on August 27, 2002 in the United States through Immortal and Virgin.
Jared Leto described the record as a concept album that focuses on human struggle and self-determination, in which otherworldly elements and conceptual ideas are used to illustrate a truthful personal situation. The album reached number 107 on the US Billboard 200 and number one on the US Top Heatseekers, selling 121,000 copies in the United States, it was preceded by the single "Capricorn", which peaked at number 31 on the US Mainstream Rock chart. Upon its release, 30 Seconds to Mars was met with positive reviews; the album was a slow-burning success, sold two million copies worldwide as of March 2011. In October 2002, the band toured with I Mother Billy Talent on MTV Campus Invasion; the following month, Thirty Seconds to Mars made their first appearance on television on Last Call with Carson Daly and opened concerts for Our Lady Peace and Sevendust. Released in 2003, "Edge of the Earth" became the second single from the album. In early 2003, Bixler left the band due to issues related to touring.
He was replaced by Tomo Miličević, who auditioned for the part of guitarist. The band went on tour