A truss is an assembly of beams or other elements that creates a rigid structure. In engineering, a truss is a structure that "consists of two-force members only, where the members are organized so that the assemblage as a whole behaves as a single object". A "two-force member" is a structural component. Although this rigorous definition allows the members to have any shape connected in any stable configuration, trusses comprise five or more triangular units constructed with straight members whose ends are connected at joints referred to as nodes. In this typical context, external forces and reactions to those forces are considered to act only at the nodes and result in forces in the members that are either tensile or compressive. For straight members, moments are explicitly excluded because, only because, all the joints in a truss are treated as revolutes, as is necessary for the links to be two-force members. A planar truss is one where all members and nodes lie within a two dimensional plane, while a space truss has members and nodes that extend into three dimensions.
The top beams in a truss are called top chords and are in compression, the bottom beams are called bottom chords, are in tension. The interior beams are called webs, the areas inside the webs are called panels, or from graphic statics polygons. Truss derives from the Old French word trousse, from around 1200, which means "collection of things bound together"; the term truss has been used to describe any assembly of members such as a cruck frame or a couple of rafters. One engineering definition is: "A truss is a single plane framework of individual structural member connected at their ends of forms a series of triangle to span a large distance". A truss consists of straight members connected at joints, traditionally termed panel points. Trusses are composed of triangles because of the structural stability of that shape and design. A triangle is the simplest geometric figure that will not change shape when the lengths of the sides are fixed. In comparison, both the angles and the lengths of a four-sided figure must be fixed for it to retain its shape.
The joint at which a truss is designed to be supported is referred to as the Munter Point. The simplest form of a truss is one single triangle; this type of truss is seen in a framed roof consisting of rafters and a ceiling joist, in other mechanical structures such as bicycles and aircraft. Because of the stability of this shape and the methods of analysis used to calculate the forces within it, a truss composed of triangles is known as a simple truss. However, a simple truss is defined more restrictively by demanding that it can be constructed through successive addition of pairs of members, each connected to two existing joints and to each other to form a new joint, this definition does not require a simple truss to comprise only triangles; the traditional diamond-shape bicycle frame, which utilizes two conjoined triangles, is an example of a simple truss. A planar truss lies in a single plane. Planar trusses are used in parallel to form roofs and bridges; the depth of a truss, or the height between the upper and lower chords, is what makes it an efficient structural form.
A solid girder or beam of equal strength would have substantial weight and material cost as compared to a truss. For a given span, a deeper truss will require less material in the chords and greater material in the verticals and diagonals. An optimum depth of the truss will maximize the efficiency. A space frame truss is a three-dimensional framework of members pinned at their ends. A tetrahedron shape is the simplest space truss, consisting of six members. Large planar structures may be composed from tetrahedrons with common edges, they are employed in the base structures of large free-standing power line pylons. For more truss types, see truss types used in bridges. There are two basic types of truss: The pitched truss, or common truss, is characterized by its triangular shape, it is most used for roof construction. Some common trusses are named according to their "web configuration"; the chord size and web configuration are determined by span and spacing. The parallel chord truss, or flat truss, gets its name from its parallel bottom chords.
It is used for floor construction. A combination of the two is a truncated truss, used in hip roof construction. A metal plate-connected wood truss is a roof or floor truss whose wood members are connected with metal connector plates. Truss members form a series of isosceles triangles, alternating down. Truss members are made up of all equivalent equilateral triangles; the minimum composition is two regular tetrahedrons along with an octahedron. They fill up three dimensional space in a variety of configurations; the Pratt truss was patented in 1844 by two Boston railway engineers, Caleb Pratt and his son Thomas Willis Pratt. The design uses vertical members for diagonal members to respond to tension; the Pratt truss design remained popular as bridge designers switched from wood to iron, from iron to steel. This continued popularity of the Pratt truss is due to the fact that the configuration of the members means that longer diagonal members are only in tension for gravity load effects; this allows these members to be used more efficiently, as slenderness effects related to buckling under compression loads will not control the design.
Therefore, for given planar truss with a fixed depth, the Pratt configuration is the most efficient under static, vertical
Sale tram stop
Sale is a tram stop on the Altrincham Line of the Metrolink light-rail system in Sale, Greater Manchester, England. It opened on 15 June 1992 as part of Phase 1 of Metrolink's expansion. Prior to this it was a railway station; the station opened as Sale on 20 July 1849 by the Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway. Renamed as Sale Moor in 1856, as Sale & Ashton on Mersey in 1883 and as Sale in 1931. Closed as a British Rail station on 24 December 1991. Reopened as a Metrolink station on 15 June 1992. Sale Station appears during the opening titles of Pro Evolution Soccer 2. Sale is on the Altrincham Line with trams towards Altrincham stopping every 6 minutes during the day, Mondays to Saturdays, every 12 minutes Monday to Saturday evenings and Sundays. Trams head towards Manchester and Bury, with the Monday to Saturday daytime service running every 12 minutes each to Etihad Campus or Bury, while evening and Sundays journeys run to Etihad Campus only with journeys to Bury requiring a change of trams at Piccadilly Gardens.
10 trams per hour to Altrincham 5 trams per hour to Bury 5 trams per hour to Piccadilly From January 2019, Sale will be in Metrolink ticket zones 3. Sale station is well served by bus services, due to the close proximity to the town centre, with several services stopping outside the station and some services stopping around the town centre. Services that stop outside the station: Arriva North West service 19 to Altrincham via Ashton-upon-Mersey Arriva 19 and 19A to Wythenshawe town centre, with early morning buses extended to Manchester Airport First Greater Manchester service 41 to Manchester Piccadilly via Northenden and Fallowfield Diamond Bus North West service 278 to Manchester Albert Square, via Stretford and Hulme Diamond service 278 to Reddish, via Wythenshawe and Didsbury Diamond service 281 to Altrincham, via Brooklands and Timperley Manchester Community Transport service X5 to Stockport via Sharston Manchester Community Transport service X5 to Trafford Centre via Stretford Mitchell, Vic.
Chester Northgate to Manchester. Middleton Press. Figs. 95-96. ISBN 9781908174512. OCLC 892704846. Sale Stop Information Sale area map More photos of this station
The pilaster is an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function. It consists of a flat surface raised from the main wall surface treated as though it were a column, with a capital at the top, plinth at the bottom, the various other elements. In contrast to a pilaster, an engaged column or buttress can support the structure of a wall and roof above. In discussing Leon Battista Alberti's use of pilasters, which Alberti reintroduced into wall-architecture, Rudolf Wittkower wrote, "The pilaster is the logical transformation of the column for the decoration of a wall, it may be defined as a flattened column which has lost its three-dimensional and tactile value."A pilaster appears with a capital. And entablature in "low-relief" or flattened against the wall. A pilaster repeats all parts and proportions of an order column. Pilasters appear on the sides of a door frame or window opening on the facade of a building, are sometimes paired with columns or pillars set directly in front of them at some distance away from the wall, which support a roof structure above, such as a portico.
These vertical elements can be used to support a recessed archivolt around a doorway. The pilaster can be replaced by ornamental brackets supporting the entablature or a balcony over a doorway; when a pilaster appears at the corner intersection of two walls it is known as a canton. As with a column, a pilaster can have a plain or fluted surface to its profile and can be represented in the mode of any architectural style. During the Renaissance and Baroque architects used a range of pilaster forms. In the giant order pilasters appear as two storeys tall; the fashion of using this element from ancient Greek and Roman architecture was adopted in the Italian Renaissance, gained wide popularity with Greek Revival architecture, continues to be seen in some modern architecture. Pilaster is also referred to as a non-ornamental, load-bearing architectural element in non-classical architecture where a structural load must be carried by a wall or column next to a wall and the wall thickens to accommodate the structural requirements of the wall.
Archivolt Buttress Classical architecture Engaged column Ionic order Lesene List of classical architecture terms Post and lintel Lewis and Gillian Darley, Dictionary of Ornament NY: Pantheon
Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a low carbon content in contrast to cast iron. It is a semi-fused mass of iron with fibrous slag inclusions, which gives it a "grain" resembling wood, visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron is tough, ductile, corrosion-resistant and welded. Before the development of effective methods of steelmaking and the availability of large quantities of steel, wrought iron was the most common form of malleable iron, it was given the name wrought because it was hammered, rolled or otherwise worked while hot enough to expel molten slag. The modern functional equivalent of wrought iron is low carbon steel. Neither wrought iron nor mild steel contain enough carbon to be hardenable by quenching, it is a refined iron with a small amount of slag forged out into fibres. The chemical analysis of the metal shows as much as 99 percent of iron; the slag characteristic of wrought iron is useful in blacksmithing operations and gives the material its peculiar fibrous structure.
The non-corrosive slag constituent causes wrought iron to be resistant to progressive corrosion. Moreover, the presence of slag produces a structure which diminishes the effect of fatigue caused by shocks and vibrations. A modest amount of wrought iron was refined into steel, used to produce swords, chisels and other edged tools as well as springs and files; the demand for wrought iron reached its peak in the 1860s, being in high demand for ironclad warships and railway use. However, as properties such as brittleness of mild steel improved with better ferrous metallurgy and as steel became less costly to make thanks to the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process, the use of wrought iron declined. Many items, before they came to be made of mild steel, were produced from wrought iron, including rivets, wire, rails, railway couplings and steam pipes, bolts, handrails, wagon tires, straps for timber roof trusses, ornamental ironwork, among many other things. Wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale.
Many products described as wrought iron, such as guard rails, garden furniture and gates, are made of mild steel. They retain that description because they are made to resemble objects which in the past were wrought by hand by a blacksmith; the word "wrought" is an archaic past participle of the verb "to work," and so "wrought iron" means "worked iron". Wrought iron is a general term for the commodity, but is used more for finished iron goods, as manufactured by a blacksmith, it was used in that narrower sense in British Customs records, such manufactured iron was subject to a higher rate of duty than what might be called "unwrought" iron. Cast iron, unlike wrought iron, can not be worked either hot or cold. Cast iron can break. In the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries, wrought iron went by a wide variety of terms according to its form, origin, or quality. While the bloomery process produced wrought iron directly from ore, cast iron or pig iron were the starting materials used in the finery forge and puddling furnace.
Pig iron and cast iron have higher carbon content than wrought iron, but have a lower melting point than iron or steel. Cast and pig iron have excess slag which must be at least removed to produce quality wrought iron. At foundries it was common to blend scrap wrought iron with cast iron to improve the physical properties of castings. For several years after the introduction of Bessemer and open hearth steel, there were different opinions as to what differentiated iron from steel. Fusion became accepted as more important than composition below a given low carbon concentration. Another difference is. Wrought iron was known as "commercially pure iron", however, it no longer qualifies because current standards for commercially pure iron require a carbon content of less than 0.008 wt%. Bar iron is a generic term sometimes used to distinguish it from cast iron, it is the equivalent of an ingot of cast metal, in a convenient form for handling, storage and further working into a finished product. The bars were the usual product of the finery forge, but not made by that process.
Rod iron—cut from flat bar iron in a slitting mill provided the raw material for spikes and nails. Hoop iron—suitable for the hoops of barrels, made by passing rod iron through rolling dies. Plate iron—sheets suitable for use as boiler plate. Blackplate—sheets thinner than plate iron, from the black rolling stage of tinplate production. Voyage iron—narrow flat bar iron, made or cut into bars of a particular weight, a commodity for sale in Africa for the Atlantic slave trade; the number of bars per ton increased from 70 per ton in the 1660s to 75–80 per ton in 1685 and "near 92 to the ton" in 1731. Charcoal iron—until the end of the 18th century, wrought iron was smelted from ore using charcoal, by the bloomery process. Wrought iron was produced from pig iron using a finery forge or in a Lancashire hearth; the resulting metal was variable, both in chemistry and slag content. Puddled iron—the puddling process was the first large-scale process to produce wrought iron. In the puddling process, pig iron is refined in a reverberatory furnace to prevent contamination of the iron from the sulfur in the coal or coke.
Chinley railway station
Chinley railway station serves the village of Chinley in Derbyshire, England. The station is 17 1⁄2 miles south east of Manchester Piccadilly, on the Hope Valley Line from Sheffield to Manchester, it is unstaffed, is managed by Northern. The original station was built in 1867 by the Midland Railway on the extension of its Manchester, Buxton and Midlands Junction Railway which became its main line to London from Manchester; the Midland had planned to extend through Buxton, but the LNWR had a line there, so the Midland built a line through Chinley and Buxworth to join the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway at New Mills, in an association which became known as the Sheffield and Midland Railway Companies' Committee. From Millers Dale the line crossed the Black Brook valley at Chapel Milton; this became a double viaduct when the Dore and Chinley line was built in 1894, with a north curve forming a triangular junction just over a mile to the east. Congestion soon became a problem on the section west of Chinley and so the Midland sought parliamentary approval to add additional capacity, with the enabling act passed in 1900 and the contract for a replacement station let shortly afterwards.
The new station was opened on 1 June 1902 when the line through Disley Tunnel to Heaton Mersey was opened and the extra tracks between Chinley North Junction & New Mills South Junction commissioned. It became the terminus of the Dore and Chinley line instead of Buxton; the old station buildings were re-erected on Maynestone Road as a private house. By 1904 Chinley had become an important junction, between Manchester, London St Pancras and Sheffield, with five through platforms & one east-facing bay and four main tracks passing through it. Many expresses from the Midlands & London would call there to attach or detach coaches for destinations in the North West as well as the main Midland terminus at Manchester Central; this practice became somewhat less prevalent after the 1923 Grouping when the London and Scottish Railway took over, but in the 1930s some 40 eastbound and 38 westbound trains either called or started/terminated at the station each weekday. After World War II and the nationalisation of the railways in January 1948, passenger traffic from the station declined and the number of station calls with it, though four southbound London expresses and five from the capital still featured in the station's 1965 timetable.
But the 1963 Beeching Report recommended that the Peak District main line to Matlock and Derby be closed, as it duplicated the West Coast Main Line between Manchester Piccadilly and London Euston. The Hope Valley route was not included in the report due to the number of isolated communities it served along its route, but the 1902 line through Heaton Mersey to Manchester Central and the link via Romiley to Stockport Tiviot Dale would go, all trains henceforth running to Piccadilly via New Mills & Marple. With the closure of the line to the south in 1967/8 - local passenger services to Buxton and Matlock were withdrawn from 6 March 1967 and the route closed to passengers the following year - Chinley lost its importance; the few surviving London trains via Sheffield ceased to call in 1972 and had disappeared altogether by 1979. Two of the four lines through the station were subsequently removed in 1981/2 as part of a track rationalisation & re-signalling scheme and the platforms they served were closed.
The remaining two were realigned to serve the middle'island' platform and the remaining buildings were demolished. The site of the southern island platform is now occupied by houses. Since it has served as a local commuter station on the Hope Valley route, though the line itself still carries significant quantities of freight traffic in addition to a frequent passenger service. Many goods trains that pass through still use part of the old route to Buxton to access the quarries at Peak Forest, whilst the line through Disley Tunnel was reopened to passenger trains in 1986, when a new chord was opened to link it to the Stockport to Buxton line at Hazel Grove. Since the summer 2017 timetable, all fast Sheffield to Manchester services use this route in order to call at Stockport, whilst the Marple route is used by the local stopping services that call here. There is a waiting shelter on the platform, along with timetable information posters, CIS displays, ticket vending machine, bench seating and a customer help point.
Train running details can be obtained using the telephone at the station entrance. No level access is available, as the only route from the entrance to the platform is via the stepped footbridge. Local rail users have been campaigning for the station to be made accessible for wheelchair users and parents with pushchairs since 2008, but the necessary funding under the "Access for All" scheme has not yet been allocated; the typical service is one train every hour to Manchester Piccadilly. Additionally, a limited number of express trains between Sheffield and Manchester Piccadilly, operated by East Midlands Trains, stop at Chinley in the morning & early evening, giving the station through links to and from Liverpool Lime Street and Nottingham. Radford, Brian. Midland Though The Peak: A Pictorial History of the Midland Railway Main Line Routes Between Derby and Manchester. Unicorn Books. ISBN 978-1-85241-001-8. Train times and station information for Chinley railway station from National Rail
St Pancras railway station
St Pancras railway station known as London St Pancras and since 2007 as St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden. It is the terminus for Eurostar continental services from London via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel to Belgium and the Netherlands, it provides East Midlands Trains and Thameslink services to Corby and Nottingham on the Midland Main Line and Southeastern high-speed trains to Kent via Ebbsfleet International and Ashford International, local Thameslink cross-London services. It stands between the British Library, the Regent's Canal and King's Cross railway station, with which it shares a London Underground station, King's Cross St. Pancras; the station was constructed by the Midland Railway, which had an extensive network across the Midlands and the North of England, but no dedicated line into London. After rail traffic problems following the 1862 International Exhibition, the MR decided to build a connection from Bedford to London with their own terminus.
The station was constructed with a single-span iron roof. Following the station's opening on 1 October 1868, the MR constructed the Midland Grand Hotel on the station's façade, praised for its architecture and is now a Grade I listed building along with the rest of the station. By the 1960s, St Pancras was surplus to requirements and services were diverted to King's Cross and Euston but there was fierce opposition to its proposed closure and demolition of the station and hotel; the station was reinvented in the late 20th century as the terminal for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link in an urban regeneration plan across East London. The complex underwent a £800 million refurbishment, opened by Queen Elizabeth II in November 2007. A security-sealed terminal area was constructed for Eurostar services to continental Europe via High Speed 1 and the Channel Tunnel, with platforms for domestic trains to the north and south-east of England; the restored station has 15 platforms, a shopping centre, a coach facility.
St Pancras is owned by London and Continental Railways and managed by Network Rail, a subsidiary of Network Rail. St Pancras is at the southern end of the London Borough of Camden on a site orientated north/south, deeper than it is wide; the south is bounded by Euston Road, its frontage is the St Pancras Renaissance Hotel, while the west is bounded by Midland Road which separates it from the British Library and the east by Pancras Road which separates it from King's Cross station. The British Library is on the former goods yard site. Behind the hotel, the train shed is elevated 5 m above street level and the area below forms the station undercroft; the northern half of the station is bounded to the east by Camley Street, with Camley Street Natural Park across the road. To the north-east is King's Cross Central known as the Railway Lands, a complex of intersecting railway lines crossed by several roads and the Regent's Canal. Several London bus routes serve St Pancras, including 10, 59, 73, 205 and 390.
The station's name comes from the St. Pancras neighbourhood, which originates from the fourth-century Christian boy martyr Pancras of Rome; the station was commissioned by the Midland Railway, who had a network of routes in the Midlands, in south and west Yorkshire and Lancashire but no route of its own to London. Before 1857 the MR used the lines of the L&NWR for trains into the capital. In 1862, traffic for the second International Exhibition suffered extensive delays over the stretch of line into London over the GNR's track; this was the stimulus for the MR to build its own line to London from Bedford, which would be just under 50 miles long. Samuel Carter was solicitor for the parliamentary bill, sanctioned in 1863; the station was designed by William Henry Barlow and constructed on a site, a slum called Agar Town. Though coal and goods were the main motivation to build the station, the Midland realised the prestige of having a central London terminus, decided it must have a front on Euston Road.
The company purchased the eastern section of land on the road's north side owned by Earl Somers. The approaching line to the station crossed the Regent's Canal at height allowing the line reasonable gradients. Initial plans were for a two or three span roof with the void between station and ground level filled with spoil from tunnelling to join the Midland Main Line to the St. Pancras branch. Instead, due to the value of the land in such a location the lower area was used for freight, in particular beer from Burton; as a result, the undercroft was built with columns and girders, maximising space, set out to the same plans as those used for beer warehouses, with a basic unit of length that of a beer barrel. The contract for the construction of the station substructure and connecting lines was given to Messrs. Waring, with Barlow's assistant Campion as supervisor; the lower floor for beer warehousing contained interior columns 15 ft wide, 48 ft deep carrying girders supporting the main station and track.
The connection to the Widened Lines ran below the station's bottom level, in an east-to-west direction. To avoid the foundations of the roof interfering with the space beneath, to simplify the design, and