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Manchester Ship Canal

The Manchester Ship Canal is a 36-mile-long inland waterway in the North West of England linking Manchester to the Irish Sea. Starting at the Mersey Estuary near Liverpool, it follows the original routes of the rivers Mersey and Irwell through the historic counties of Cheshire and Lancashire. Several sets of locks lift vessels about 60 feet up to Manchester, where the canal's terminus was built. Major landmarks along its route include the Barton Swing Aqueduct, the only swing aqueduct in the world, Trafford Park, the world's first planned industrial estate and still the largest in Europe; the rivers Mersey and Irwell were first made navigable in the early 18th century. Goods were transported on the Runcorn extension of the Bridgewater Canal and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, but by the late 19th century the Mersey and Irwell Navigation had fallen into disrepair and was unusable. In addition, Manchester's business community viewed the charges imposed by Liverpool's docks and the railway companies as excessive.

A ship canal was therefore proposed as a way of giving ocean-going vessels direct access to Manchester. The region was suffering from the effects of the Long Depression, for the canal's proponents, who argued that the scheme would boost competition and create jobs, the idea of a ship canal made sound economic sense, they initiated a public campaign to enlist support for the scheme, first presented to Parliament as a bill in 1882. Faced with stiff opposition from Liverpool, the canal's supporters were unable to gain the necessary Act of Parliament to allow the scheme to go ahead until 1885. Construction began in 1887; when the ship canal opened in January 1894 it was the largest river navigation canal in the world, enabled the newly created Port of Manchester to become Britain's third busiest port despite the city being about 40 miles inland. Changes to shipping methods and the growth of containerisation during the 1970s and'80s meant that many ships were now too big to use the canal and traffic declined, resulting in the closure of the terminal docks at Salford.

Although able to accommodate a range of vessels from coastal ships to intercontinental cargo liners, the canal is not large enough for most modern vessels. By 2011 traffic had decreased from its peak in 1958 of 18 million long tons of freight each year to about 7 million long tons; the canal is now owned by Peel Holdings, whose plans include redevelopment, an increase in shipping from 8,000 containers a year to 100,000 by 2030 as part of their Atlantic Gateway project. The idea that the rivers Mersey and Irwell should be made navigable from the Mersey Estuary in the west to Manchester in the east was first proposed in 1660, revived in 1712 by the English civil engineer Thomas Steers; the necessary legislation was proposed in 1720, the Act of Parliament for the navigation passed into law in 1721. Construction began in 1724, undertaken by the Irwell Navigation Company. By 1734 boats "of moderate size" were able to make the journey from quays near Water Street in Manchester to the Irish Sea, but the navigation was only suitable for small ships.

The completion in 1776 of the Runcorn extension of the Bridgewater Canal, followed in 1830 by the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, intensified competition for the carriage of goods. In 1825 an application had been made to Parliament for an Act to allow the construction of a ship canal between the mouth of the River Dee and Manchester at a cost of £1 million, but "the necessary forms not having been observed", it did not become law. In 1844 ownership of the Mersey & Irwell Navigation was transferred to the Bridgewater Trustees, in 1872 it was sold to The Bridgewater Navigation Company for £1.112 million. The navigation had by fallen into disrepair, its owners preferring instead to maintain the more profitable canal. Along with deteriorating economic conditions in the 1870s and the start of a period known as the Long Depression, the dues charged by the Port of Liverpool and the railway charges from there to Manchester were perceived to be excessive by Manchester's business community.

A ship canal was proposed as a way to reduce carriage charges, avoid payment of dock and town dues at Liverpool, bypass the Liverpool to Manchester railways by giving Manchester direct access to the sea for its imports and its exports of manufactured goods. Historian Ian Harford suggested that the canal may have been conceived as an "imaginative response to problems of depression and unemployment" that Manchester was experiencing during the early 1880s, its proponents argued that reduced transport costs would make local industry more competitive, that the scheme would help create new jobs. The idea was championed by Manchester manufacturer Daniel Adamson, who arranged a meeting at his home, The Towers in Didsbury, on 27 June 1882, he invited the representatives of several Lancashire towns, local businessmen and politicians, two civil engineers: Hamilton Fulton and Edward Leader Williams. Fulton's design was with no locks and a deepened channel into Manchester. With the city about 60 feet above sea level, the docks and quays would hav

Mavrochori, Drama

Mavrochori, until 1927 known as Tisova, is an abandoned village in the Drama regional unit, Greece. The settlement, which became part of the community of Mylopetra in 1931, was dissolved in 1940. Mavrochori is situated in the Chech region on the South-Western slopes of the Rhodope Mountains, about 1,5 km south of the Pochan River near the border with Bulgaria; the nearest populated villages are Tuhovishta in Bulgaria and Potamoi in Greece. The ruins of the village of Pochan are on the other side of the Pochan River. Mavrochori consists of two quarters - the newer Tsiropska and the older Parpelska where, according to one of the legends, Mehmed Sinap once lived; the main Roman road from Thrace to Thessaloniki passes through the Tsiropska quarter where a Roman bridge is to be found. The village has been first mentioned in an Ottoman document from 1464-65 under the name Tisina with Papelova. Papelova or Papil became integrated part of the village and the name evolved to Parpelska Mahala. In this document all inhabitants of the two villages are listed.

The population consists of non-Muslims. The Muslims are just one family where the non-Muslims are 6 unmarried and 4 widows; the village is mentioned once again in 1478-79 as Tisova with non-Muslim population: 85 households, 6 unmarried and 4 widows. The village appears again in a registry from 1519 with 9 unmarried and 5 widows. Tisovo is mentioned in 1530 with its population consisting of both Muslims and non-Muslims; the Muslims are 2 households and 1 unmarried whereas the non-Muslims are 37 households, 6 unmarried and 4 widows. Tisovо is mentioned in an Ottoman Jizya registry from the 13th of March 1660; the register lists the number of Jizya units for each village of the Nevrokop Wilayah whereas Mavrochori is listed as a village with 15 such. The village is mentioned again in 1723 with a Mosque; the village is mentioned in the book Ethnographie des Vilayets d'Andrianople, de Monastir et de Salonique published in 1878 which lists the number of the male population as of 1873. Mavrochori is registered as a village with 50 households.

According to Vasil Kanchov, as of the end of the 19th century, there were 200 houses in the village. He mentions that Mavrochori is the largest village in Chech and that a weekly bazaar was held near the village. In his book Macedoniaethnography and statistics published in 1900 Kanchov writes that the number of the inhabitants of Tisovo is 400 - all of them Bulgarian Muslims. At the end of the 19th century Mavrochori is mentioned as a village with 162 male Pomak inhabitants and 50 houses by Stefan Verković. After the Balkan Wars Mavrochori was acceded to Greece in 1913; the village was populated by 682 inhabitants in 1913 according to a Greek statistic. According to the statistic from 1920 at that time the village had 405 inhabitants. In 1923/4 the Pomaks were expelled from the village to Turkey and settled in the town of Demirköy according to the Treaty of Lausanne and Greek refugees from Turkey were settled in their place. Up to 1928 the number of the refugees settled in Mavrochori had reached 47 and the number of the Greek families 15.

In 1927 the name of the village was changed from Tisova to Mavrochori. In 1928 the population had reached 187 inhabitants and in 1940 - 87 inhabitants; the village was never reconstructed. Media related to Tisovo at Wikimedia Commons The village of Tisovo and the Pochan Cliffs - a movie in YouTube

Old Parliament Building, Colombo

The Old Parliament Building, is the building that houses the Presidential Secretariat of Sri Lanka. Situated in the Colombo fort area facing the sea, it is in close proximity to the President's House and adjacent to the General Treasury Building; the building housed the island's legislature for 53 years until the new parliamentary complex was opened at Sri Jayawardenepura in 1983. The Neo-Baroque-style building was built during the British colonial era to house the Legislative Council of Ceylon, was an idea of Sir Henry McCallum; this was subsequently included in a proposal made by a committee to construct the new building for the Secretariat, Council Chamber and Government offices on reclaimed land at the northern end of Galle Face, approved by the Government in 1920. Austin Woodeson, chief architect of the Public Works Department of Ceylon, was tasked with the building's design; the building was opened on 29 January 1930 by Governor Sir Herbert Stanley. Following the adoption of a republican constitution in 1972, the National State Assembly convened in the building until 1977, when it was renamed the Parliament of Sri Lanka.

Parliament moved out to a purpose-built complex in Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte in 1983. The building and the former Council Chamber is a venue for many state events the letters of credence of incoming ambassadors and high commissioners are accepted by the President here; the British Coat of Arms adorned the top of the building face until 1948, when it was replaced by the arms of the Dominion of Ceylon and was once again replaced in 1972 with the arms of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The front garden of the Old Parliament Building is host to several bronze statues of eminent statesmen, that include: D. S. Senanayake – First Prime Minister of Ceylon Dudley Senanayake – Second Prime Minister of Ceylon General Sir John Kotalawela – Third Prime Minister of Ceylon Sir Ponnambalam RamanathanAttorney General and first native elected member of a Legislative Council in the British Empire The Presidential Secretariat The Parliament of Sri Lanka