Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts
Four Seasons Hotels Limited, trading as Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, is an international luxury hospitality company headquartered in Toronto, Canada. Four Seasons operates more than 100 hotels worldwide. Since 2007, Bill Gates and Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal have been majority owners of the company. Canadian businessman Isadore Sharp founded Four Seasons in 1960. While a young architect working for his father, Sharp designed a motel for a family friend, he bought a large parcel of land in a run-down area of Toronto and planned a stopover for business travellers. Four Seasons built more hotels, including the 1963 Inn on the Park, a $4 million two-story resort hotel in suburban Toronto that housed Canada's first discothèque. Upscale luxury became part of the brand; when a developer approached Four Seasons about building a hotel in London, Sharp planned it to compete with the city's old-world, elite hotels, such as Claridge's and The Connaught. The hotel opened in 1970. In 1974, cost overruns at the Four Seasons Hotel Vancouver nearly led the company into bankruptcy.
As a result, the company began shifting to its current, management-only business model, eliminating costs associated with buying land and buildings. The company went public in 1986. In the 1990s, Four Seasons and Ritz-Carlton began direct competition, with Ritz-Carlton emphasizing a uniform look while Four Seasons emphasized local architecture and styles with uniform service. Built in 1986, Four Seasons Hotel Austin is a nine-story hotel on 2.3 acres of land on the Lady Bird Lake's north shore. In 1997, Four Seasons Hotel Austin became the first hotel to have "a high-speed wireless Internet network" after Wayport, Inc. set it up there for testing wireless Internet networks. The hotel hosted Queen Elizabeth II in 1991, it was acquired by Anbang Insurance Group from the Blackstone Group for $359.7 million in 2016. Economic downturns in the early and mid-2000s affected the company; when the September 11 attacks caused the collapse of the travel industry, Four Seasons refused to cut room prices in order to preserve the perceived value of the brand, which caused tension with property owners who were losing money.
The company recovered, in 2007 it agreed to a buyout by Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates and Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal of Saudi Arabia for $3.8 billion. The pair own 95 percent of the company, in equal shares, Sharp owns the rest. Challenges returned again during the financial crisis of 2007–2010; the company made the first corporate layoffs in its history. In April 2010, after a year-long dispute with Broadreach Capital Partners and Maritz, Wolff & Co. owners of the Aviara resort near San Diego, an arbitration panel ruled that, while both parties contributed to the demise of the business relationship, Four Seasons had not violated its management agreement. The arbitrators ordered Broadreach to pay Four Seasons to terminate the contract." The resort is no longer a Four Seasons. Four Seasons has continued to add more resorts to its portfolio, notably in China, it opened a new hotel in Hangzhou in 2010 and Guangzhou, a second property in Shanghai in 2012. In India, it has one hotel in Mumbai. In 2013, it opened its first hotel in Russia in the Lobanov-Rostovsky Palace in St. Petersburg, opened a second hotel in Moscow.
In Indonesia, it has another two in Bali. In October 2012, Four Seasons opened a new 259 room Toronto hotel in Yorkville, designed by internationally known design firm Yabu Pushelberg; the hotel includes an upscale restaurant led by celebrity chef Daniel Boulud. It was hailed by The Globe and Mail as "the renewal of an iconic Canadian brand in its hometown"; the penthouse was bought by entrepreneur Robert Österlund for a Canadian record price of over $28 million. In 2009, founder Sharp wrote, it contained a historical chronicle of the hotels since its inception. Four Seasons does not own any of its properties; the contracts between Four Seasons and property owners permit the company to participate in the design of the property and run it with nearly total control over every aspect of the operation. Four Seasons earns three percent of the gross income and about five percent of profits from the properties it operates, the property owners are required to additionally contribute money for chain-wide sales and reservations systems.
Four Seasons hotels have larger staffs than competing chains, the company maintains separate reserve accounts for each hotel to cover upkeep costs. Profit margins are low, but the brand attracts developers through the hotels' reputation as solid assets for loan collateral or resale. Four Seasons produces a complimentary magazine for guests, supported by advertising revenue. Four Seasons has Four Seasons Residence Clubs. Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts began offering vacation rentals in June 2014. Titled Residential Rentals, the properties are available in: North America. Africa and Asia. Residential Rentals provide the same services as Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts in a residential setting. Customers are multi-generational vacationers and small group travellers; the first stand alone F
Mandalay Bay Convention Center
Mandalay Bay Convention Center, located in Paradise, Nevada is one of the largest owned and operated convention centers in the world. The 1,000,000 sq ft facility is operated by MGM Resorts International, it is attached to the Mandalay Bay hotel and casino, is adjacent to the Mandalay Bay Events Center. The facility can support up to 75 breakout sessions and has several ballrooms with the largest being 100,000 square feet. At opening in January 2003, it was the fifth largest convention center in the United States; as of 2017, the convention center is the tenth largest in the United States Official website
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
A wave pool is a swimming pool in which there are artificially generated, reasonably large waves, similar to those of the ocean. Wave pools are a major feature of water parks, both indoors and outdoors, as well as some leisure centres; the world's largest artificial waves, measuring up to 3 metres in height, can be found at Siam Park in the Canary Islands. Conversely, the world's largest wave pool by area is located in Bangkok's Siam Park City. Wave pools go as far back as the 19th Century, as famous fantasy castle builder Ludwig II of Bavaria electrified a lake to create breaking waves; the first wave pool was designed and built in 1927 in Budapest, Hungary in the known Gellért Baths, appeared in a Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer documentary about the city in 1938, as one of the main tourist attractions. In 1929, a Pathe Pictorial there is film of "Indoor Surfers" frolicking in small, artificially-generated waves in a swimming pool in Munch, Germany; the waves were created by agitators which pushed waves through the diving area and into a shallow area - where kids were bodysurfing little waves: "This is the new kind of swimming bath, becoming the rage of Germany," one of the captions reads.
"No more placid waters for bathers - the mechanism behind the netting keeps everything moving." In 1939, a public swimming pool in Wembley, was equipped with machines that created wavelets to approximate the soothing ebb and flowing motion of the ocean. In the 1940's, Palisades Amusement Park, located on the Hudson River Palisades across from New York City, installed a large waterfall at one end of its salt water pool, the largest of such in the world at the time, which generated small waves much like those in Wembley. Several locations claim to have developed the first wave pool in the United States, including Big Surf in Tempe and Point Mallard Park in Decatur, which both opened in 1969; the first indoor wave pool in the United States opened in 1982 at the Bolingbrook Aquatic Center in Bolingbrook, Illinois. Wave pools replicate the movement of the ocean one of two ways, depending on the size of the pool and the size of wave desired. In small wave pools, pressurized air is blown onto the surface of the water, or a paddle creates force in the water, creating small ripple-like waves.
Other techniques utilize an "accordion mechanism" which opens and closes in order to suck water into its belly and push it out to cause waves. However, in high-volume wave pools, a large volume of water is allowed into the far end of the pool, forcing the water to out, generating a sizeable wave. In these large wave pools, the excess water is removed by being channeled through a return canal where it can be used again to generate another wave. Wave pools are designed to use fresh water at inland locations, but some of the largest ones, near other seashore developments, use salt water. Wave pools are larger than other recreational swimming pools and for that reason are in parks or other large, open areas. Wave pools are more difficult to lifeguard than still pools, there have been drownings in a few. For example, the original 8 foot deep Tidal Wave pool at New Jersey's re-opened Action Park cost three lives in the 1980s, kept the lifeguards busy rescuing patrons who overestimated their swimming ability.
On the first day they opened their wavepool, it is said that up to 100 people had to be pulled out. The moving water, sun glare, other factors make them difficult for lifeguards. Unlike passive pool safety camera systems, computer automated drowning detection systems do not work in wave pools. Aqualand in Corfu as "The Mediterranean" Kings Island in Mason, Ohio as "Great Barrier Reef" 36,000-square-foot ft2 and "Tidal Wave Bay" 42,000-square-foot. Noah's Ark Waterpark in Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin as "Big Kahuna" and "The Wave". World Waterpark in West Edmonton Mall, Alberta as "Blue Thunder". Largest indoor wave pool, 42,000-square-foot. Mount Olympus Water & Theme Park in Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin as "Poseidon's Rage". Splash Adventure in Bessemer, Alabama as "Kahuna Waves". Hurricane Harbor in Arlington, Texas Water World, Colorado as "Captain Jack's Wave Pool" and "Thunder Bay". Wild Water & Wheels in Surfside Beach, South Carolina as "Wipeout Wave Pool" Waves Leisure Centre, Australia Tropical Islands Resort in Halbe, Germany Ramayana Water Park in Pattaya, Thailand as "Double Wave Pool" with a 490 feet wide beach.
Whiterock Beach Hotel + Waterpark is the first wavepool in Subic Zambales. Bayocean in Oregon Bayocean, Oregon“”One notable attraction was a heated natatorium, complete with a wave generator and a special section for a band to play music to entertain the swimmers.“” Artificial wave Wave tank Carl Hoffman, "Endless summer", Wired 12.05 "How Wave Pools Work" @ Howstuffworks.com
Latin Grammy Award
A Latin Grammy Award is an award by The Latin Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the Latin music industry. The Latin Grammy honors works produced anywhere around the world that were recorded in either Spanish or Portuguese and is awarded in the United States. Submissions of products recorded in regional languages from Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula of Hispanophone or Lusophone countries such as Catalan, Quechua may be considered. Both the regular Grammy Award and the Latin Grammy Award have similar nominating and voting processes, in which the selections are decided by peers within the Latin music industry; the first annual Latin Grammys ceremony was held at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on September 13, 2000. Broadcast by CBS, that first ceremony became the first Spanish language primetime program carried on an English-language American television network; the most-recent ceremony, the 19th Annual Latin Grammy Awards, was held on November 15, 2018 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada.
The upcoming 20th Annual Latin Grammy Awards will be held on November 14, 2019 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas. Since 2005, the awards are broadcast in the United States by the television network Univision. In 2013, 9.8 million people watched the Latin Grammy Awards on Univision, making the channel a top-three network for the night in the U. S; the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences was formed by the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences in 1997. It was founded by Producers & Songwriters Rudy Pérez & Mauricio Abaroa. Rudy Pérez was the Grammy Florida chapter's first President of the Board; the concept of a separate Grammy Awards for Latin music began in 1989. According to organizers, the Latin Grammy Awards was established as the Latin music universe was deemed too large to fit on the Grammy Awards; the Latin Grammy Awards focuses on music from Latin America, Spain and the United States. In 2000, it was announced that the 1st Annual Latin Grammy Awards would take place at the Staples Center on September 13, 2000.
On July 7, 2000, the nominations were announced in Miami, United States. The Latin Grammys were introduced with over 39 categories included limited to Spanish and Portuguese-speaking recordings; the first telecast was broadcast. The following year's show was canceled due to the September 11, 2001 attacks, the same day the show was to take place. In 2002, the academy elected its first independent Board of Trustees. In 2005, the broadcast was moved from CBS to Univision. Voting members live in various regions in the US and outside of the US including Latin America and Portugal. To be eligible a recording must have at least 51% of its content recorded in Spanish or Portuguese and has been commercially released in North America, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Spain, or Portugal. Products recorded in languages and dialects such as Catalan, Quechua, Valencian, may be accepted by majority vote of the committees of the Latin Recording Academy. For instrumental music, the Latin Recording Academy accepts recordings that have been composed or interpreted by an Iberian American musician.
The eligibility period is June 1 to May 30 for a respective awards ceremony. Recordings are first entered and reviewed to determine the awards they are eligible for. Following that, nominating ballots are mailed to voting members of the academy; the votes are tabulated and the five recordings in each category with the most votes become the nominees. Final voting ballots are sent out to voting members and the winners are determined. Winners are announced at the Latin Grammy Awards; the current President & CEO of the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences is Gabriel Abaroa, related to Mauricio, one of the founders. Altogether there are three events: the Life Achievement when renowned artists are honored for lifetime achievement. Alike from the Grammy Award there is a general field consisting of four genre-less award categories: Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song. Album of the Year is awarded to the production team of a full album. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song.
Best New Artist is awarded to an artist without reference to a album. The rest of the fields are genre-specific. Special non-competitive awards are given out for more long-lasting contributions to the Latin music industry; the first telecast had 40 awards presented however the following year 38 awards were presented. The most recent telecast in 2010 had a total of 46 awards presented. With 21 Latin Grammy Awards, Calle 13 have won the most Latin Grammy Awards. Juanes, with 19 Latin Grammy Awards, holds the record for most awards won by a solo artist. Shakira is the biggest winner among female artists with 13 awards; as with its Grammy Awards counterpart, the Latin Grammy Awards has received criticism from various recording artists and music journalists. Upon the announcement of the Latin Grammy Awards in 1999, several musical journalists raised concerns about the awards being used as a marketing tool by the mainstream media. Manny S. Gonzalez of the Vista En L. A felt; the lack of categories for non Spanish and Portugues
Shark Reef at Mandalay Bay
The Shark Reef Aquarium at Mandalay Bay is a public aquarium located at and owned by the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. Its main tank is one of the largest in North America; the facility is 95,000 sq ft, displays numerous different species of sharks, fish and marine invertebrates. It features a shark tunnel; the reef was developed in consultation with the Vancouver Aquarium. Shark Reef was built at a cost of $40 million, was opened on June 20, 2000. In 2007, it underwent a re-branding campaign adding "Aquarium" to the official name. Shark Reef Aquarium officials stated that the re-branding is intended to present the actual nature of the habitat, as members of the public sometimes confused Shark Reef as a name for a bar, restaurant, etc. In 2012, Shark Reef Aquarium replaced the signage and audio-wands of each exhibit with various interactive touch screens throughout the facility. Members of the Shark Reef staff participate in the "Adopt-a-Cove" program to aid in the clean up of Lake Mead.
Within the map and guide handed out at the park, they offer an "In Good Taste" guide that folds up into a business card size pamphlet to promote sustainable seafood choices. The information found within this guide is credited to the Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation. Throughout the various exhibits, there is signage to educate the audience about the dangers of shark finning, introducing invasive species, various other harmful practices. In May 2005, two adult male Devil's Hole pupfish were moved from Devils Hole and two adult females were moved from a refuge at Hoover Dam to the Shark Reef at Mandalay Bay in hopes of augmenting the population; these fish are not found on exhibit and can only be seen in the classroom facility during backstage tours. The jungle is where you can find various reptiles and terrestrial animals such as golden crocodiles and the Komodo dragon. On June 20, 2008, Shark Reef at Mandalay Bay received a Komodo dragon from the Miami MetroZoo, he is at the Jungle Temple exhibit at the aquarium.
After the 10th anniversary, they added a Burmese python and two green tree monitors in the Jungle Temple. Within the temple, the Shark Reef offers a touch pool where attendees can have a hands on approach of several marine species. Common species found within the touch pool include horseshoe crabs, various rays; every now and the touch pool becomes a temporary home to baby zebra sharks. The 1,300,000 US gal shipwreck tank, touted as the third largest in North America, is home to several endangered and threatened marine species including green sea turtles, Galapagos sharks, Blacktip Reef Sharks, sand tiger sharks, green sawfish. Shark Reef Aquarium was the first closed-system aquarium in North America to exhibit a great hammerhead shark; the female juvenile was less than four feet long when she was accidentally caught off the coast of Florida. The shark was flown into Mandalay Bay in August 2001 on a record 16-hour flight in a special transportation tank designed for it, it remained in a private quarantine tank for 2.5 years until the in-house aquarium husbandry team decided it had grown large enough where it would not fall prey to the other sharks in the exhibit tank.
It measured six feet long when it was introduced among big public fanfare into the 1,300,000 US gal tank on November 3, 2003 for public exhibition. After more than a year on exhibit, the specimen died and unexpectedly on December 16, 2004. A necropsy attributed an intestinal infection as the cause of death; the specimen weighed in at 95 lb at time of death. On Shark Reef's 10th anniversary, they placed a bowmouth guitarfish on the new resident. Official website Las Vegas Animal Exhibits
A waterfall is an area where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are formed in the upper course of a river in steep mountains; because of their landscape position, many waterfalls occur over bedrock fed by little contributing area, so may be ephemeral and flow only during rainstorms or significant snowmelt. The further downstream, the more perennial a waterfall can be. Waterfalls can have a wide range of depths; when the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens and is dominated by impacts of water-borne sediment on the rock, while downstream the erosion occurs more rapidly. As the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it may pluck material from the riverbed, if the bed is fractured or otherwise more erodible. Hydraulic jets and hydraulic jumps at the toe of a falls can generate large forces to erode the bed when forces are amplified by water-borne sediment.
Horseshoe-shaped falls focus the erosion to a central point enhancing riverbed change below a waterfalls. A process known as "potholing" involves local erosion of a deep hole in bedrock due to turbulent whirlpools spinning stones around on the bed, drilling it out. Sand and stones carried by the watercourse therefore increase erosion capacity; this causes the waterfall to recede upstream. Over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, it will carve deeper into the ridge above it; the rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one-and-a-half metres per year. The rock stratum just below the more resistant shelf will be of a softer type, meaning that undercutting due to splashback will occur here to form a shallow cave-like formation known as a rock shelter under and behind the waterfall; the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall. These blocks of rock are broken down into smaller boulders by attrition as they collide with each other, they erode the base of the waterfall by abrasion, creating a deep plunge pool in the gorge downstream.
Streams can become wider and shallower just above waterfalls due to flowing over the rock shelf, there is a deep area just below the waterfall because of the kinetic energy of the water hitting the bottom. However, a study of waterfalls systematics reported that waterfalls can be wider or narrower above or below a falls, so anything is possible given the right geological and hydrological setting. Waterfalls form in a rocky area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat, causing a horizontal pit parallel to the waterfall wall; as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed. In addition to gradual processes such as erosion, earth movement caused by earthquakes or landslides or volcanoes can cause a differential in land heights which interfere with the natural course of a water flow, result in waterfalls. A river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a glacial trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted.
The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, referred to as a hanging valley. Another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten broad classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls. Classes of other well-known waterfalls include Kaieteur Falls. Alexander von Humboldt "Father of Modern Geography" Humboldt was marking waterfalls on maps for river navigation purposes. Oscar von Engeln Published "Geomorphology: systematic and regional", this book had a whole chapter devoted to waterfalls, is one of the earliest examples of published works on waterfalls. R. W. Young Wrote "Waterfalls: form and process" this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists. Ledge waterfall: Water descends vertically over a vertical cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock.
Block/Sheet: Water descends from a wide stream or river. Classical: Ledge waterfalls where fall height is nearly equal to stream width, forming a vertical square shape. Curtain: Ledge waterfalls which descend over a height larger than the width of falling water stream. Plunge: Fast-moving water descends vertically, losing complete contact with the bedrock surface; the contact is lost due to horizontal velocity of the water before it falls. It always starts from a narrow stream. Punchbowl: Water descends in a constricted form and spreads out in a wider pool. Horsetail: Descending water maintains contact with bedrock most of the time. Slide: Water glides down maintaining continuous contact. Ribbon: Water descends over a long narrow strip. Chute: A large quantity of water forced through a narrow, vertical passage. Fan: Water spreads horizontally as