The Outer Banks is a 200-mile-long string of barrier islands and spits off the coast of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, on the east coast of the United States. They cover most of the North Carolina coastline, separating Currituck Sound, Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound from the Atlantic Ocean; the Outer Banks are a major tourist destination and are known around the world for their wide expanse of open beachfront. The Cape Hatteras National Seashore has four campgrounds open to visitors; the treacherous seas off the Outer Banks and the large number of shipwrecks that have occurred there have given these seas the nickname Graveyard of the Atlantic. The Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum is located in Hatteras Village near a United States Coast Guard facility and the Hatteras ferry; the English Roanoke Colony—where Virginia Dare was born—vanished from Roanoke Island in 1587. The Lost Colony and performed to commemorate the original colonists, is the second longest running outdoor drama in the United States and its theater acts as a cultural focal point for much of the Outer Banks.
The Wright brothers' first flight in a controlled, heavier-than-air vehicle took place on the Outer Banks on December 17, 1903, at Kill Devil Hills near the seafront town of Kitty Hawk. The Wright Brothers National Monument commemorates the historic flights, First Flight Airport is a small, general-aviation airfield located there; the Outer Banks is a string of peninsulas and barrier islands separating the Atlantic Ocean from mainland North Carolina. From north to south, the largest of these include: Bodie Island, Hatteras Island, Ocracoke Island, Portsmouth Island, the Core Banks. Over time, the exact number of islands and inlets changes as new inlets are opened up during a breach created during violent storms, older inlets close due to sifting sands during the dynamic processes of beach evolution; the Outer Banks stretch southward from Sandbridge in Virginia Beach down the North Carolina coastline. Sources differ regarding the southern terminus of the Outer Banks. Generations of North Carolina schoolchildren have learned that the term includes the state's three prominent capes: Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, Cape Fear.
Other sources limit the definition to coastal areas in four counties. Some authors include Carteret's Shackelford Banks and Bogue Banks in their descriptions, while others exclude Bogue Banks. Still other references restrict the definition to the northern three counties of Currituck and Hyde; the abbreviations OBX and SOBX are modern terms used to promote tourism and to market a variety of stickers, t-shirts, other items to vacationers. OBX, which originated first, is used in the northern Outer Banks. SOBX is used in Carteret County, known as the Crystal Coast; the northern part of the Outer Banks, from Oregon Inlet northward, is a part of the North American mainland, since the northern inlets of Bodie Island and Currituck Banks no longer exist. It is separated by the Currituck Sound and the Intracoastal Waterway, which passes through the Great Dismal Swamp occupying much of the mainland west of the Outer Banks. Road access to the northern Outer Banks is cut off between Sandbridge and Corolla, North Carolina, with communities such as Carova Beach accessible only by four-wheel drive vehicles.
North Carolina State Highway 12 links most of the popular Outer Banks communities in this section of the coast. The easternmost point is Rodanthe Pier in Rodanthe, NC; the Outer Banks are not anchored to offshore coral reefs like some other barrier islands and as a consequence they suffer significant beach erosion during major storms. In fact, their location jutting out into the Atlantic makes them the most hurricane-prone area north of Florida, for both landfalling storms and brushing storms offshore. Hatteras Island was cut in half on September 18, 2003, when Hurricane Isabel washed a 2,000 foot wide and 15 foot deep channel called Isabel Inlet through the community of Hatteras Village on the southern end of the island; the tear was subsequently repaired and restored by sand dredging by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, it was cut off once again in 2011 by Hurricane Irene. Access to the island was limited to boat access only from August to late October until another temporary bridge could be built.
The vegetation of the Outer Banks has biodiversity, although it is considered the northern limit for many southern plants such as wild scrub palms. In the northeast part of the Outer Banks, from Virginia Beach southward past the North Carolina border to Oregon Inlet, the main types of vegetation are sea grasses, beach grasses and other beach plants including Opuntia humifusa on the Atlantic side and wax myrtles and grasses on the Sound side with areas of pine and Spanish moss-covered live oaks. Yucca aloifolia and Yucca gloriosa can be found growing wild here in the northern parts of its range on the beach. Sabal Minor palms were once indigenous to the entire Outer Banks, they are still planted and grown, its current most northerly known native stand is on Monkey Island in Currituck County. From Cape Hatteras National Seashore southward, the vegetation does include that of the northeastern Outer Banks such as Dwarf palmetto, Yucca aloifolia and Yucca gloriosa.
The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
Sociology of race and ethnic relations
The sociology of race and ethnic relations is the study of social and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of systemic racism, like residential segregation and other complex social processes between different racial and ethnic groups; the sociological analysis of race and ethnicity interacts with other areas of sociology such as, but not limited to, stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory. At the level of political policy, ethnic relations is discussed in terms of either assimilationism or multiculturalism. Anti-racism forms another style of policy popular in the 1960s and 1970s. At the level of academic inquiry, ethnic relations is discussed either by the experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or else by overarching theoretical issues. Marx described society as having nine "great" classes, the capitalist class and the working class, with the middle classes falling in behind one or the other as they see fit.
He hoped for the working class to rise up against the capitalist class in an attempt to stop the exploitation of the working class. He blamed part of their failure to organize on the capitalist class, as they separated black and white laborers; this separation between Blacks and Whites in America, contributed to racism. Marx attributes capitalism's contribution to racism through segmented labor markets and a racial inequality of earnings. Weber laid the foundations for a micro-sociology of ethnic relations beginning in 1906. Weber argued that biological traits could not be the basis for group foundation unless they were conceived as shared characteristics, it was this shared perception and common customs that create and distinguish one ethnicity from another. This differs from the views of many of his contemporaries who believed that an ethnic group was formed from biological similarities alone apart from social perception of membership in a group. W. E. B. Du Bois is well known as one of the most influential black scholars and activists of the 20th century.
Du Bois educated himself on his people, sought academia as a way to enlighten others on the social injustices against his people. Du Bois research "revealed the Negro group as a symptom, not a cause. Du Bois believed that Black Americans should embrace higher education and use their new access to schooling to achieve a higher position within society, he referred to this idea as the Talented Tenth. With gaining popularity, he preached the belief that for blacks to be free in some places, they must be free everywhere. After traveling to Africa and Russia, he recanted his original philosophy of integration and acknowledged it as a long term vision. Booker T. Washington was considered one of the most influential black educators of the 19th and 20th centuries. Born in 1856 as a slave in Virginia, Washington came of age. Just as slavery ended, however, it was replaced by a system of sharecropping in the South that resulted in black indebtedness. With growing discrimination in the South following the end of the Reconstruction era, Washington felt that the key to advancing in America rested with getting an education and improving one's economic well-being, not with political advancement.
In 1881, he founded the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, in order to provide individuals with an education that would help them to find employment in the growing industrial sector. By focusing on education for blacks, rather than political advancement, he gained financial support from whites for his cause. Secretly, however, he pursued legal challenges against disfranchisement of blacks. Patricia Hill Collins is a Distinguished University Professor Emerita at the University of Maryland, College Park, she received her PhD in sociology in 1984 from Brandeis University. Collins was the president-elect for the American Sociological Association, where she was the 100th president and the first African-American woman to be president of the organization. Collins is a social theorist whose work and research focuses on race, social class and gender, she has written a number of articles on said topics. Collins work focuses by looking at issues through the lens of women of color. In her work, she writes "First, we need new visions of what oppression is, new categories of analysis that are inclusive of race and gender as distinctive yet interlocking structures of oppression".
Eduardo Bonilla-Silva is a professor of sociology at Duke University and is the 2018 president of the American Sociological Association. He received his PhD in 1993 from University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he met his mentor, Professor Charles Camic, of which he said "Camic believed in me and told me, just before graduation, that I should stay in the states as I would contribute to American sociology." Bonilla-Silva did not start off his work as a "race scholar," but was trained in class analysis, political sociology, sociology of development. It was not until the late 1980s when he joined a student movement calling for racial justice at the University of Wisconsin that he began his work in race. In his book, Racism without Racists, Bonilla-Silva discusses less overt racism, which he refers to as "new racism," which disguises itself "under the cloak of legality" in order to accomplish the same things, he discusses "color-blind racism,", when people go off the basis that we have achieved equality and deny past and present discriminations.
Denise Ferreira da Sil
Dare County, North Carolina
Dare County is the easternmost county in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 33,920, its county seat is Manteo. The county is named after Virginia Dare, the first child born in the Americas to English parents, born in what is now Dare County. Dare County is included in the Kill Devil Hills, NC Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Virginia Beach-Norfolk, VA-NC Combined Statistical Area. At one time, the now-abandoned town of Buffalo City was the largest community in the county; because it includes much of Pamlico Sound, Dare County is the largest county in North Carolina by total area, although if one were to consider land area only, it drops down to 68th in size among the state's 100 counties. This is because, according to the Census Bureau's 2010 statistics, only 24.54% of its area is land, the lowest percentage of all counties in the state. Robeson County is the largest county in North Carolina by land area only. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,563 square miles, of which 383 square miles is land and 1,179 square miles is water.
It is the largest county in North Carolina by area. Dare County contains Roanoke Island. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge Cape Hatteras National Seashore Fort Raleigh National Historic Site Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge Wright Brothers National Memorial As of the census of 2010, there were 33,920 people, 12,690 households, 8,450 families residing in the county; the population density was 78 people per square mile. There were 26,671 housing units at an average density of 70 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.3% White, 2.5% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.4% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. 6.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,690 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.79. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.40% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 101.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,411, the median income for a family was $49,302. Males had a median income of $31,240 versus $24,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,614. About 5.50% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.90% of those under age 18 and 5.30% of those age 65 or over. As of 2010, the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Dare County were: Duck Kill Devil Hills Kitty Hawk Manteo Nags Head Southern Shores Atlantic Township Croatan Township East Lake Township Hatteras Township Kinnekeet Township Nags Head Township Dare at present is a Republican county.
No Democratic presidential nominee has carried Dare County since Jimmy Carter did so in 1976. Before the 1970s it was a typical “Solid South” Democratic county that did not vote Republican between 1900 and 1952 – a period during which the South’s black population was completely disenfranchised. In the 2016 Republican primary, Donald Trump received 2,650 votes in Dare County followed by Ted Cruz who came in second with 1,156 votes. In the 2016 Democratic Primary, Bernie Sanders received 2,307 votes whereas Hillary Clinton only won 2,003 votes. In the general election Donald Trump received 11,460 votes whereas Hillary Clinton received 7,222 votes and Libertarian Candidate Gary Johnson received 674 votes. In this regards Dare County has the distinction of being one of many counties in the state of North Carolina which Donald Trump won in both the primary election and the general election, which Hillary Clinton lost in both the primary election and the general election. Dare County is governed by the Dare County Board of Commissioners.
Dare County is a part of the Albemarle Commission regional council of governments. Dare County is home to two popular lighthouses: The Cape Hatteras Lighthouse and the Bodie Island Lighthouse. There is a beacon atop the Wright Brothers Memorial. A third lighthouse was built by the Town of Manteo and dedicated on September 25, 2004; the Roanoke Marshes Lighthouse is an exterior recreation of the 1877 screwpile lighthouse of the same name and is located on the Manteo waterfront. It serves as exhibit space for the N. C. Maritime Museum on Roanoke Island. US 64 US 158 US 264 NC 12 NC 345 NC 400 Dare County Regional Airport, a general aviation airport, is located in Dare County. Public education is run by Dare County Schools: Manteo High School Manteo Middle School Manteo Elementary School First Flight High School First Flight Middle School First Flight Elementary School Kitty Hawk Elementary School Dare County Alternative School Cape Hatteras Secondary School Cape Hatteras Elementary School Nags Head Elementary School National Register of Historic Places listings in Dare County, North Carolina
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Durham House, London
Durham House, or Durham Inn, was the historic London town house of the Bishop of Durham in the Strand. Its gardens descended to the River Thames. Bishop Thomas Hatfield built the opulent Durham House in about 1345, it had a high-ceilinged great hall supported by marble pillars. On the Strand side its gatehouse led to a large courtyard; the hall and chapel faced the entrance, private apartments overlooked the river. Accounts describe Durham House as a noble palace befitting a prince. King Henry IV, his son Henry, Prince of Wales, their retinues stayed once at the residence. Durham House remained an episcopal palace until Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall relinquished it to King Henry VIII, who contracted to give the bishop in return Coldharbour in Dowgate Ward and other residences but never honoured that promise. Anne Boleyn lived in the Durham House in 1532 while Henry courted her prior to their marriage in 1533. Henry granted Durham House to his daughter Lady Elizabeth for life, or until she was otherwise advanced.
Henry's son King Edward VI confirmed the grant, thereby deprived Tunstall of his palace. However, on her accession to the throne Queen Mary removed the house from the possession of Lady Elizabeth and restored it to Tunstall, together with his see, as it had become apparent Tunstall no longer had a London residence. Mary's predecessor, Lady Jane Grey, the "Nine Days" Queen of England, was married at Durham House on May 21 or 25, 1553 to Guilford Dudley. Upon her accession, Elizabeth seized possession of Durham House again, deprived Tunstall of his see. Raleigh lived there until Elizabeth's death. John Aubrey said, it was in Durham House that Raleigh hosted Manteo and Wanchese, the first Native American Algonquin Indians to travel to England from the New World. In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh had dispatched the first of a number of expeditions to Roanoke island to explore and settle the new land of Virginia. Early encounters with the natives were friendly, despite the difficulties in communication, the explorers were able to persuade "two of the savages, being lustie men, whose names were Wanchese and Manteo" to accompany them on the return voyage to London,Once safely delivered to England, the two Indians made a sensation at the royal court.
Raleigh's priority however was not publicity but rather intelligence about his new land of Virginia, he restricted access to the exotic newcomers, assigning the scientist Thomas Harriot the job of deciphering and learning the Carolina Algonquian language, using a phonetic alphabet of his own invention in order to effect the translation. Upon Elizabeth's death and Raleigh's resultant loss of influence at court, Tobias Matthew bishop of Durham, reclaimed Durham House for the see and offered it for use of the Privy Council; the new king, James I, approved the move. Neither Matthew nor any of his successors resided at Durham House, it became dilapidated as a result; the stables were demolished for construction of the New Exchange, a market, occupied by milliners and seamstresses in shops along upper and lower tiers on each side of a central alley. In the 1630s it was the setting for the Durham House Group, including Richard Neile, William Laud and other high church Anglicans; the best portion of the house was tenanted by Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry "Lord Keeper Coventry", who died there in 1640.
What remained of the house was subsequently obtained by Philip Herbert, 5th Earl of Pembroke. He rented it from the see for £200 per year and intended to build a fine house on the site, never realised. Instead, he constructed on the site Durham Street, which ran through the old remains down to the River Thames and the upper portion of which survives at its junction with the Strand, it is a short, steep street that descends under the headquarters of the Society of Arts and disappears in the gloom of the dark arches of the Adelphi. The last portion of the ruins was cleared away early in the reign of King George III, when the brothers Robert Adam and James Adam constructed the Adelphi Buildings thereby raising the whole level on lofty arches. Durham House Borer, Mary Cathcart; the City of London: A History. Milton, Big Chief Elizabeth - How England's Adventurers Gambled and Won the New World, Hodder & Stoughton, London Stone, Lawrence. Family and Fortune: Studies in Aristocratic Finance in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.
Stow, John A Survey of London. Reprinted from the Text of 1603. Ed. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford. 2 vols. Other Strand mansions: York House, Strand Somerset House
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate