The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts
The Chilean National Museum of Fine Arts, located in Santiago, Chile, is one of the major centers for Chilean art and for broader South American art. Established in 1880, the organization is managed by the "Artistic Union"; the current building, the "Palace of the Fine Arts", dates to 1910 and commemorates the first centennial of the Independence of Chile. It was designed by the Chilean architect Emile Jéquier in a full-blown Beaux-arts style and is situated in the Parque Forestal of Santiago. Behind it is located the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of Chile, in, located the old School of Fine Arts; the museum was founded on September 18, 1880, named Museo National de Pinturas. The president of Chile, Don Aníbal Pinto, the minister Don Manuel García de la Huerta, Colonel Marcos Maturana and the sculptor José Miguel Blanco together managed the creation of the museum, whose first director was the painter Juan Mochi. In 1887 the government acquired a building known as "the Parthenon", constructed by the Artistic Union for the purpose of hosting annual art expositions.
The museum changed its name to Museum of Fine Art. In 1901 the government decided to create an original building for the Museum and School of Fine Arts, Emilio Jéquier was selected; the building was built in the Parque Forestal, a landscaping work by Jorge Enrique Dubois, trained in the gardening school of Versailles in France. Upon the completion of the building, it was inaugurated on September 21, 1910, as part of an International Exposition which formed part of the celebrations for the centennial of independence; the Museum has remained in the "Palace" since. The Palacio de Bellas Artes, the current home of the Museum, is in the Neoclassical Second Empire style and the Baroque Revival style reinforced with Art Nouveau details and touches of metallic structural architecture; the central entrance is through a gigantically enlarged version of Borromini's false-perspective window reveals from Palazzo Barberini, which encloses a pedimented doorway surrounded by glass, a Beaux-Arts touch. Through a broken pediment the squared cupola rises to the top.
The internal layout and the facade are both modelled after the Petit Palais of Paris. The glass cupola that crowns the central hall was designed and manufactured in Belgium and brought to Chile in 1907; the approximate weight of the armour of the museum is 115,000 kg, of the glass of the cupola, 2,400 kg. Architectonically, the floorplan of the museum is one of a central axis marked by the entrance and a grand hall with a staircase to the second floor. In the grand hall, above a balcony from the second floor, there is a carving in high relief which depicts two angels supporting a shield, they are located in the semivault above the heads of two Caryatids that arise from the balcony, carved by Antonio Coll y Pi. 2010 Chile earthquakeThe building received substantial damage during the 2010 Chile earthquake. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes Virtual Tour in 360° view of Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes | Flip360
Hazing, initiation ceremonies, ragging, or deposition, refers to the practice of rituals and other activities involving harassment, abuse or humiliation used as a way of initiating a person into a group including a new fraternity, team, or club. Hazing is seen in many different types of social groups, including gangs, sports teams, military units, fraternities and sororities; the initiation rites can range from benign pranks to protracted patterns of behavior that rise to the level of abuse or criminal misconduct. Hazing is prohibited by law or prohibited by institutions such as colleges and universities because it may include either physical or psychological abuse, it may include nudity or sexual assault. In some languages, terms with a religious theme or etymology are preferred, such as baptism or purgatory or variations on a theme of naïveté and the rite of passage such as a derivation from a term for freshman, for example bizutage in French French, ontgroening in Netherlandic Dutch and Afrikaans, novatada in Spanish, from novato, meaning newcomer or rookie or a combination of both, such as in the Finnish mopokaste.
In Latvian, the word iesvētības, which means "in-blessings", is used standing for religious rites of passage confirmation. In Swedish, the term used is nollning "zeroing". In Portugal, the term praxe, which means "practice" or "habit", is used for initiation. In Brazil, it is called trote and is practiced at universities by older students against newcomers in the first week of their first semester. In the Italian military, the term used was nonnismo, from nonno, a jargon term used for the soldiers who had served for most of their draft period. A similar equivalent term exists in the Russian military, where a hazing phenomenon known as дедовщи́на dedovshchina exists, meaning "grandfather" or the slang term "gramps". At education establishments in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, this practice involves existing students baiting new students and is called ragging. In Polish schools, hazing is known as kocenie, it features cat-related activities, like competitive milk drinking. Other popular tasks include measuring a long distance with matches.
Most or all of the endurance or the more serious ordeal is concentrated in a single session, which may be called hell night, or prolonged to a hell week, sometimes again at the pledge's birthday, but some traditions keep terrorizing pledges over a long period, resembling fagging. In Israel, the practice is called זובור zubur and exists in Israeli Defense Force combat units and the Israel Air Force. Unlike hazing in many other places, zubur is used to mark the achievement of important milestones, such as after a pilot's first solo flight. Hazing activities can involve forms of ridicule and humiliation within the group or in public, while other hazing incidents are akin to pranks. A snipe hunt is such a prank, when a credulous person is given an impossible task. Examples of snipe hunts include being sent to find a "dough repair kit" in a bakery, while in the early 1900s rookies in the Canadian military were ordered to obtain a "brass magnet" when brass is not magnetic. Spanking is done in the form of paddling among fraternities and similar clubs, sometimes over a lap, a knee, furniture or a pillow, but with the victim "assuming the position", i.e. bending over forward.
A variation of this is trading licks. This practice is used in the military. Alternative modes have been reported; the hazee may be humiliated by sprinkler or buckets. Olive or baby oil may be used to "show off" the bare skin, for wrestling or just slipperiness, e.g. to complicate pole climbing. Cleaning may be limited to a dive into water, hosing down or paddling the worst off, they may have to do tedious cleaning including swabbing the decks or cleaning the toilets with a toothbrush. In fraternities, pledges must clean up a mess intentionally made by brothers which can include fecal matter and dead animals. Servitude such as waiting on others or various other forms of housework with tests of obedience. In some cases, the hazee may be made to eat raw eggs, hot sauce, or drink too much alcohol; some hazing includes eating or drinking vile things such as bugs or rotting food. The hazee may have to wear an imposed piece of clothing, item or something else worn by the victim in a way that would bring negative attention to the wearer.
Examples include a uniform. Markings
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Parque Forestal is an urban park in the city of Santiago, Chile. The park was created on reclaimed land from the Mapocho River and is located in the historical downtown of Santiago, west of Plaza Baquedano and east of Estación Mapocho, it is bordered on the north by Santa María Avenue, on the south by Merced Street and Ismael Valdés Vergara Street. At its eastern end, the park becomes Balmaceda Park, forming an unbroken stretch of greenery along the Mapocho River; the park contains the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, housed in the same building as the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo. Palacio Bruna is opposite the park on Merced Street. Distinctive features of the park are its three lines of platanus orientalis trees
Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport
Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport known as Santiago International Airport and Nuevo Pudahuel Airport, located in Pudahuel, 15 km north-west of downtown Santiago, is Chile's largest aviation facility and the busiest international airport in the country. Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport has domestic and international services to destinations in Europe, Oceania and the Americas. In 2011 it was the ninth busiest airport in Latin America and the sixth busiest in South America by passenger traffic, it was the seventh busiest airport in Latin America by aircraft movements, serving 124,799 operations. Its location in Chile's most populated area, as well as in the central part of the country makes of it an ideal main hub and maintenance center for most local airlines such as LATAM and Sky Airline. LATAM Airlines accounts for 82% of the airport's total commercial operations; the airport is owned by the Chilean government and has been operated since October 2015 by Nuevo Pudahuel, a consortium of companies formed by Aéroports de Paris and Astaldi.
Air traffic control is handled by the Directorate General of Civil Aviation. Its ICAO category is 4F; the airport functions as a joint civil-military facility. It is the headquarters of the Chilean Air Force 2nd Air Brigade and where its 10th Aviation Group is based. Santiago International is the longest non-stop destination for most European carriers including Iberia, Air France and British Airways from their respective hubs in Madrid-Barajas Airport, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Rome–Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport and London–Heathrow Airport. In addition, LATAM flies to Frankfurta via Madrid; the airport is South America's main gateway to Oceania, with scheduled flights to Sydney, Easter Island and Melbourne. The Santiago – Rome non-stop flight operated by Alitalia is the longest flight to fly out of this airport; the demands of the growing metropolitan area of Santiago and the need for modern, jet-era airport facilities, which could safely accommodate both domestic and intercontinental flights, drove the need to relocate the Chilean capital's principal airport from Los Cerrillos Airport in the denser southwest metropolitan region of Santiago to the more rural northwest metropolitan area.
Construction of the original terminal building, the eastern runway, control tower, east apron and cargo facilities commenced in 1961. On February 2, 1967, the airport was commissioned Aeropuerto Internacional de Pudahuel, due to its location in the municipality of Pudahuel. On March 19, 1980, the airport was rechristened Air Commodore Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport in honour of the founder of the Chilean Air Force and Chilean carrier LATAM Chile; the facility was expanded in 1994 with a new international terminal that covered 90,000 square meters, inspired by the architecture of Marseille Provence Airport in France. The building is located between the two parallel runways; this expansion added a new control tower, jetways, a duty-free zone and greater parking area. The old terminal was used for domestic flights until 2001, when all passenger operations were merged into the same building. In 2000, Lan Chile joined Oneworld, making of Arturo Merino Benitez Airport a main hub for the alliance, its first one in Latin America and its second in the Southern Hemisphere.
As of April 2014, 71% of international and 75% of domestic passengers were carried by Oneworld member airlines. During the 2010 Chile earthquake, the passenger terminal building suffered internal damages and the collapse of a pedestrian bridge between the vehicle ramp and the departures area. Both runways and control tower were unharmed, allowing the realization of a massive humanitarian air-bridge held by the Chilean Air Force to Concepción, close to the most damaged area by this earthquake and subsequent tsunami; the airport authority had closed off all commercial flight operations after around 1200 UTC on February 27, resuming full operations on March 3, 2010. In 2011, IATA recognized the DGAC and SCL with the Exceptional Recognition Award to the cooperative efforts of SCL and DGAC Chile that facilitated a quick recovery from the devastation that followed the Chilean earthquake on 27 February 2010. "Both airport and air navigation services were restored with no impact on rates or charges for passengers or airlines.
DGAC Chile and SCL are regarded as leaders in Latin America for efficiency and customer focus. In June 2011, Santiago International Airport received the Air Cargo Excellence Award, as the best Latin American Cargo Airport. Construction on Runway 17R/35L began in 2004 and opened to traffic in September 2005. However, within months defects were discovered and the runway required repairing, completed in January 2006. Further study of the problem discovered that the initial repairs were insufficient, needing additional work. 17R/35L reopened for traffic in March 2007. In 2008, the airport terminal reached its maximum design capacity of 9.5 million annual passengers, two years earlier than forecast, with the repairs needed after the 2010 Chile earthquake, the Ministry of Public Works announced in 2012 that it would call for proposals for the expansion and administration of the airport, two years prior to the end of the contract with the current operator. The ministry decided to investigate a new airport master plan instead of an expansion of the single passenger terminal building, as init
A regatta is a series of boat races. The term comes from the Venetian language regata meaning "contest" and describes racing events of rowed or sailed water craft, although some powerboat race series are called regattas. A regatta includes social and promotional activities which surround the racing event, except in the case of boat type championships, is named for the town or venue where the event takes place. Although regattas are amateur competitions, they are formally structured events, with comprehensive rules describing the schedule and procedures of the event. Regattas may be organized as championships for a particular area or type of boat, but are held just for the joy of competition and general promotion of the sport. Sailing race events are held for a single class and last more than one day. Regattas may be hosted by a yacht club, sailing association, town or school as in the case of the UK's National School Sailing Association and Interscholastic Sailing Association regattas or Intercollegiate Sailing Association regattas.
The Three Bridge Fiasco, conducted by the Singlehanded Sailing Society of San Francisco Bay with more than 350 competitors is the largest sailboat race in the United States. One of the largest and most popular rowing regattas is the Henley Royal Regatta held on the River Thames, England. One of the largest and oldest yachting regattas in the world is Cowes Week, held annually by the Royal Yacht Squadron in Cowes and attracts over 900 sailing boats. Cowes Week is predated by the Cumberland Cup, Port of Dartmouth Royal Regatta and Port of Plymouth Regatta. North America's oldest regatta is the Royal St. John's Regatta held on Quidi Vidi Lake in St. John's, Newfoundland every year since 1818. Etymology: From Venetian regata, from regatare from recatare. 1775 - Cumberland Cup - organized by the Royal Thames Yacht Club, UK 1777 - Lough Ree Regatta - organised by Athlone Yacht Club, Ireland. 1792 - Whitstable Regatta UK 1822 - Port of Dartmouth Royal Regatta, Dartmouth, UK 1823 - Port of Plymouth Regatta, Plymouth, UK 1826 - Cowes Week, Isle of Wight, UK 1828 - Kingstown Regatta, Ireland 1828 - Royal Harwich Regatta, Harwich, UK 1834 - Lough Derg Regatta, at Killaloe and Drumineer, Ireland.
1837 - Sydney Australia Day Regatta - held every year since 1837 - longest running without a break 1838 - Royal Hobart Regatta, Australia 1840 - Auckland Anniversary Regatta, New Zealand 1844 - Royal Geelong Regatta / Audi Victoria Week, Royal Geelong Yacht Club, Australia 1845 - New York Yacht Club Regatta, United States 1949 - Pass Christian Regatta Club July 21, 1849 - twelve boats participated - First regatta on the U. S. Gulf Coast 1849 - Sandy Bay Australia Day Regatta Australia 1850 - Race to the Coast - Southern Yacht Club Regatta, Oldest continuously running regatta in the Western Hemisphere United States 1851 - America's Cup competed for in the country of the current defender/holder 1851 - Port Esperance Regatta, Australia 1857 - Gorey Regatta, Channel Islands 1882 - Kiel Week, Germany 1885 - Appledore & Instow Regatta, North Devon, UK 1886 - Torbay Royal Regatta, Torbay, UK 1894 - Britannia Boating Club, Ontario, Canada The Athlone Yacht Club Regatta on Lough Ree, Ireland Appledore & Instow Regatta - founded in 1885, tracing its origins back to 1831, is held annually on the River Torridge between the Villages of Appledore & Instow North Devon, UK.
Balaton Regatta, held every year on the Lake Balaton between the teams of Veszprém Campus and Keszthely Campus of University of Pannonia Chichester-Cowes Challenge, held annually at the end of June on the Solent, welcomes only classic wooden boats built in the 1920s-1930s. Dad Vail Regatta, Pennsylvania Head of the Charles Regatta, on the Charles River between Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts Head of the Hooch, on the Tennessee River in Chattanooga, Tennessee Henley Royal Regatta, held every year on the River Thames is one of several prestigious British events Lent and May Bumps, the two main intercollegiate bumps races of the University of Cambridge, held on the Cam. Maltese National Regatta, held bi-annually on 31 March and 8 September in the Grand Harbour, Valletta Marathon Rowing Championship a continuous 42.195-kilometre rowing regatta on Cane River Lake in Natchitoches, Louisiana Port of Dartmouth Royal Regatta, held annually at the end of August on the River Dart. Poughkeepsie Regatta was an historical regatta that hosted the IRA National Championship from 1895 until 1949.
Regata delle Antiche Repubbliche Marinare, Italy Regata Storica Venice, Italy Regattas on the River Thames lists all Thames rowing regattas and other rowing events Royal Canadian Henley Regatta, in St. Catharines, Canada, in the first week of August is one of the largest annual regattas in North America, attracting hundreds of clubs in 128 junior and master's events. Royal St. John's Regatta, held every year on Quidi Vidi Lake in St. John's, North America's oldest annual sporting events. Summer Eights, along with Torpids, the two intercollegiate bumps races of Oxford University, held on the Isis in Oxford; the Boat Race is a rowing race between the Oxford University Boat Club and the Cambridge University Boat Club. It is rowed annually each Spring on the Thames in London; the Croco's Cup, international rowing regatta at University level held every year in Paris since 1985, organised by students of ENSTA. The City of Exeter Rowing Regatta, the oldest rowing regatta in th