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Maratha (caste)

The Maratha caste is formed from the amalgamation of families from the agricultural castes in Maharashtra. Many of them took to military service in the 16th century such as the Deccan sultanates or the Mughals. In the 17th and 18th centuries, they served in the armies of the Maratha empire, founded by Shivaji; the leading Maratha generals were granted fiefs by the rulers for their service. According to the Maharashtrian historian B. R. Sunthankar, scholars such as Rajendra Vora, the "Maratha caste" is a "caste of peasants" which formed the bulk of the Maharashtrian society together with the other Kunbi peasant caste. Vora adds that the Maratha caste is the largest caste of India and dominate the power structure in Maharashtra because of their numerical strength in the rural society. According to Jeremy Black, British historian at the University of Exeter, "Maratha caste is a coalescence of peasants, ironworkers, etc. as a result of serving in the military in the 17th and 18th century". According to one scholar, Marathas are dominant in rural areas and constitute the landed peasantry.

As of 2018, 80% of the members of the Maratha caste were farmers. Marathas are subdivided into 96 different clans, known as the 96 Kuli Marathas or Shahānnau Kule The general body of lists are at great variance with each other; the Maratha king Shivaji established the Maratha empire that included warriors and other notables from Maratha and several other castes from Maharashtra. This empire was the dominant force against the Mughal Empire until 1818; the term "Maratha" referred broadly to all the speakers of the Marathi language. In the 17th century, it served as a designation for peasants from the Deccan Plateau who served as soldiers in the armies of Muslim rulers and in the armies of Shivaji Maharaj. Thus, the term'Maratha' became a marker of an endogamous caste for them. A number of Maratha warriors, including Shivaji's father, Shahaji served in those Muslim armies. By the mid-1660s, Shivaji had established an independent Maratha kingdom. After Shivaji's death, Marathas fought under his sons and defeated Aurangzeb in the Mughal–Maratha Wars.

The Maratha empire was further expanded into a vast empire by the Maratha Confederacy including Peshwas, stretching from central India in the south to Peshawar on the Afghanistan border in the north, with expeditions to Bengal in the east. By the 19th century, the empire had become a confederacy of individual states controlled by Maratha chiefs such as Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore, the Scindias of Gwalior, the Puars of Dhar and Dewas, Bhonsles of Nagpur; the Confederacy remained the pre-eminent power in India until their defeat by the British East India Company in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. By the 19th century, the term Maratha had several interpretations in the British administrative records. In the Thane District Gazetteer of 1882, the term was used to denote elite layers within various castes: for example, "Maratha-Agri" within the Agri caste and "Maratha-Koli" within the Koli caste. In the Pune District, the words Kunbi and Maratha had become synonymous, giving rise to the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex.

The Pune District Gazetteer of 1882 divided the Kunbis into two classes: Marathas and other Kunbis. The 1901 census listed three groups within the Maratha-Kunbi caste complex: "Marathas proper", "Maratha Kunbis" and Konkan Maratha. According to Steele, in the early 19th century, who were agriculturists, the Marathas who claimed Rajput descent and Kshatriya status, were distinguished by their customs related to widow remarriage; the Kunbis allowed it and the higher status Marathas prohibited it. However, there is no statistical evidence for this. However, the Kunbis and Marathas had hypergamous inter-community marriages – a rich Kunbi could always marry his daughter to a poor Maratha; as per academic scholars the Maratha population comprised more than 31% of the population in Maharashtra and the Kunbi was 7%, whereas the upper castes, Marathi Brahmins, Saraswat Brahmins, Prabhus, were earlier only about 4% of the population. The Other Backward Class population was 27% while the population of the Mahars was 12%.

The term Maratha came to denote an endogamous caste. From 1900 onwards, the Satyashodhak Samaj movement defined the Marathas as a broader social category of non-Brahmin groups; these non-Brahmins gained prominence in the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement. In independent India, these Marathas became the dominant political force in the newly-formed state of Maharashtra; the ritual caste hierarchy in Maharashtra is led by the Deshasthas, Karhades and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. The Maratha are ranked lower under this classification than the above castes but are considered higher than the Kunbi, backward castes and castes that were considered ritually impure. According to the Chairperson of the Centre for Social Justice and Governance, this caste ranking is significant in recent times in inter-caste matrimonial alliances between Maharashtrians. Modern research has revealed that the Kunbi have the same origin. Most the Kunbi origin of the Maratha has been explained in detail by Professor Richard Eaton from the University of Arizona and Professor Stewart Gordon from the University of Michigan.

Marathas, who were distinguished from the Kunbi, in the past claimed genealogical connections with Rajputs of northern India. However, modern researchers demonstrate. Modern scholars agree that Kunbi are the same. Anthropologist J. V. Ferreira, from the University of Mumbai states: "

List of drugs: Ad-Ak

This multi-page article lists pharmaceutical drugs alphabetically by name. Many drugs have more than one name and, the same drug may be listed more than once. Brand names and generic names are differentiated by the use of capital initials for the former. See the list of the top 100 bestselling branded drugs, ranked by sales. Abbreviations are used in the list as follows: INN = International Nonproprietary Name BAN = British Approved Name USAN = United States Adopted Name Two-letter codes for countriesList of drugs1–9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z Aa–Ab | Ac | Ad–Ak | Al | Am | An–Ap | Aq–Ar | As–Az Adacel adafenoxate Adagen Adagen Adalat adalimumab adamexine adapalene adaprolol adargileukin alfa adarotene adatanserin Adderall adefovir adelmidrol ademetionine Adenocard Adenoscan adenosine phosphate aderbasib adibendan adicillin adimolol adinazolam Adipex-P adiphenine adipiodone adipiplon Adipost aditeren aditoprim adomiparin adosopine Adoxa adozelesin Adphen adrafinil adrenalone Adriamycin Adrucil Adrucil adsorbocarpine Adsorbonac Advair Diskus Advicor Advil Aeroaid Aerobid known as flunisolide AeroChamber Aerolate Aerolone Aeroseb-Dex Aeroseb-HC Aerosporin afacifenacine afalanine afamelanotide afatinib afloqualone afovirsen AFP-Cide Afrin Afrinol afurolol afutuzumab agalsidase alfa agalsidase beta aganepag aganirsen aganodine agatolimod Agenerase Aggrastat Aggrenox aglepristone AgNO3 agomelatine Agrylin AH-Chew AHA AHF Airomir known as salbutamol AK-Con AK-Dex AK-Fluor AK-Mycin AK-Pentolate AK-Poly-Bac AK-Pred AK-Rinse AK-Sulf AK-T-Caine AK-Taine AK-Tracin AK-Trol AK-Zol Akbeta Akineton aklomide Akne-Mycin Akpentolate Akpro Akrinol Aktob Akwa Tears

Dinhata (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Dinhata is an assembly constituency in Cooch Behar district in the Indian state of West Bengal. As per orders of the Delimitation Commission, No. 7 Dinhata covers Dinhata municipality, Dinhata II community development block, Bhetaguri I, Dinhata Gram I, Dinhata Gram II and Putimari I gram panchayats of Dinhata I community development block. Dinhata is part of No. 1 Cooch Behar. Udayan Guha, the Forward Bloc MLA from Dinhata, Joined Trinamool Congress on 1 October 2015.. In the 2016 election, Udayan Guha of Trinamool Congress defeated his nearest rival Akshay Thakur of All India Forward Bloc. Udayan Guha, the Forward Bloc MLA from Dinhata, joined Trinamool Congress on 1 October 2015.. In the 2011 election, Udayan Guha of AIFB defeated his nearest rival Dr. Md Fazle Haque Independent; the outgoing Trinamool Congress MLA, Ashok Mondal, was publicly expelled by Mamata Banerjee for campaigning for Dr. Md. Fazle Haque, dissident Congress leader and MLA from Sitai. Dr. Md. Fazle Haque, contesting as an Independent Candidate, was a rebel congress leader.

Nationalist Congress Party did not contest this seat in 2006. In the 2006 election, Ashok Mondal of AITC defeated his nearest rival Udayan Guha of AIFB In the 2001 election, Kamal Guha of AIFB defeated his nearest rival Dipak Sengupta of AITC In the 2006 state assembly elections, Ashok Mandal of Trinamool Congress won the Dinhata seat defeating his nearest rival Udayan Guha of Forward Bloc. Contests in most years were multi cornered but only winners and runners are being mentioned. Kamal Guha won the seat in a row from 1977 to 2001, he represented Forward Bloc in all years except 1996, when he represented the break away Forward Bloc, which subsequently was reunited with the parent body. He defeated Dipak Sengupta representing Trinamool Congress in 2001 and representing Forward Bloc in 1996, Alok Nandi of Congress in 1991 and 1987, Ramkrishna Pal of Congress in 1982 and Alok Nandy of Congress in 1977. Jogesh Chandra Sarkar of Congress won the Dinhata seat in 1972 and 1971. Animesh Mukharjee of Congress won it in 1969.

Kamal Guha of Forward Bloc won it 1967 and 1962. In 1957 Dinhata was double seat reserved for SC. Bhawani Prasanna Talukdar and Umesh Chandra Mandal won. In independent India’s first election in 1951, Satish Chandra Roy Singha and Umesh Chandra Mandal won from Dinhata