Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83.1 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. With 83.1 million speakers in 2019, Marathi ranks 10th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers after Hindi and Bengali; the language has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating back to around 600 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are the Varhadi dialect. Koli and Malvani Konkani have been influenced by Marathi varieties. Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology, it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and alveolar with retroflex laterals ( and. Marathi is spoken in Maharashtra, parts of neighbouring states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, union-territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
The former Maratha ruled cities of Baroda, Gwalior and Tanjore have had sizable Marathi speaking populations for centuries. Marathi is spoken by Maharashtrian migrants to other parts of India and overseas. For instance, the people from western India, that emigrated to Mauritius in the early 19th century speak Marathi. There were 83 million native Marathi speakers in India, according to the 2011 census, making it the third most spoken native language after Hindi and Bengali. Native Marathi speakers form 6.86% of India's population. Native speakers of Marathi formed 68.93% of the population in Maharashtra, 10.89% in Goa, 7.01% in Dadra and Nagar Haveli, 4.53% in Daman and Diu, 3.38% in Karnataka, 1.7% in Madhya Pradesh and 1.52% in Gujarat. Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In Goa, Konkani is the sole official language. Marathi is included among the languages which stand a part of the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, thus granting it the status of a "scheduled language".
The Government of Maharashtra has submitted an application to the Ministry of Culture to grant classical language status to Marathi. The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas, words adapted from Sanskrit; this special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large corpus of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed. In addition to all universities in Maharashtra, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda in Vadodara, Osmania University in Hyderabad, Karnataka University in Dharwad, Gulbarga University in Kalaburagi, Devi Ahilya University in Indore and Goa University in Goa have special departments for higher studies in Marathi linguistics. Jawaharlal Nehru University has announced plans to establish a special department for Marathi.
Marathi Day is celebrated on the birthday of the poet Kusumagraj. Indian languages, including Marathi, that belong to the Indo-Aryan language family are derived from early forms of Prakrit. Marathi is one of several languages. Further change led to the Apabhraṃśa languages like Old Marathi, this is challenged by Bloch, who states that Apabhraṃśa was formed after Marathi had separated from the Middle Indian dialect; the earliest example of Maharashtri as a separate language dates to 3rd century BCE: a stone inscription found in a cave at Naneghat, Junnar in Pune district had been written in Maharashtri using Brahmi script. A committee appointed by the Maharashtra State Government to get the Classical status for Marathi has claimed that Marathi existed at least 2300 years ago alongside Sanskrit as a sister language. Marathi, a derivative of Maharashtri, is first attested in a 739 CE copper-plate inscription found in Satara. Several inscriptions dated to the second half of the 11th century feature Marathi, appended to Sanskrit or Kannada in these inscriptions.
The earliest Marathi-only inscriptions are the ones issued during the Shilahara rule, including a c. 1012 CE stone inscription from Akshi taluka of Raigad district, a 1060 or 1086 CE copper-plate inscription from Dive that records a land grant to a Brahmin. A 2-line 1118 CE Marathi inscription at Shravanabelagola records a grant by the Hoysalas; these inscriptions suggest. However, there is no record of any literature produced in Marathi until the late 13th century. After 1187 CE, the use of Marathi grew in the inscriptions of the Seuna kings, who earlier used Kannada and Sanskrit in their inscriptions. Marathi became the dominant language of epigraphy during the last half century of the dynasty's rule, may have been a result of the Yadava attempts to connect with their Marathi-speaking subjects and to distinguish themselves from the Kannada-speaking Hoysalas. Further growth and usage of the language was because of
Lost Dutchman Mine is a non-linear adventure video game which puts the player in the role of a gold miner, circa 1860. The game was the biggest success for Magnetic Images; the player was free to roam around the desert and town at will constrained only by the need to make sure they had enough food to eat and a safe place to sleep. Earning money could be accomplished in a variety of ways including panning for gold in a river, mining for gold in a cave, or capturing a wanted bandit. Food could be purchased or caught from a river if the player had acquired fishing gear; the game became well known for its free-flowing nature. The game was notable for not having a single environment for the player to operate in. Abandonware website Abandonia's Ted Striker reviewed Lost Dutchman Mine with "There are different different modes that the game will put you in, which are basic and so fun; the game runs on real-time, you need to do what you would need to do in a real expedition: get well equipped, be sure to check your supplies and don't panic once you encounter danger.
After all isn't it this feature that makes a game addictive in the first place?" Lost Dutchman's Gold Mine Al Emmo and the Lost Dutchman's Mine Lost Dutchman Mine at MobyGames Lost Dutchman Mine at Hall Of Light Lost Dutchman Mine at Atari Legend
Ivar Bengt Nilsson was a Swedish speed skater who won a bronze all-round medal at the 1962 world championships. He competed at the 1960 and 1964 Winter Olympics in 1,500 m, 5,000 m and 10,000 m events with his best achievement having been a fourth place finish in the 10,000 m event in 1960, he was not related to his speed skating rival Jonny Nilsson. Personal bests: 500 m – 42.6 1500 m – 2:10.5 5000 m – 7:42.8 10000 m – 16:02.9 Ivar Nilsson at International Olympic Committee Ivar Nilsson at Olympic Channel Ivar Nilsson at Swedish Olympic Committee Ivar Nilsson at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Ivar Nilsson in SpeedSkatingBase.eu Ivar Nilsson at SpeedSkatingNews.info Ivar Nilsson at SpeedSkatingStats.com