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Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi was an Italian biologist and physician, referred to as the "Founder of microscopical anatomy, histology & Father of physiology and embryology". Malpighi's name is born by several physiological features related to the biological excretory system, such as the Malpighian corpuscles and Malpighian pyramids of the kidneys and the Malpighian tubule system of insects; the splenic lymphoid nodules are called the "Malpighian bodies of the spleen" or Malpighian corpuscles. The botanical family Malpighiaceae is named after him, he was the first person to see capillaries in animals, he discovered the link between arteries and veins that had eluded William Harvey. Malpighi was one of the earliest people to observe red blood cells under a microscope, after Jan Swammerdam, his treatise De polypo cordis was important for understanding blood composition, as well as how blood clots. In it, Malpighi described how the form of a blood clot differed in the right against the left sides of the heart.

The use of the microscope enabled Malpighi to discover that invertebrates do not use lungs to breathe, but small holes in their skin called tracheae. Malpighi studied the anatomy of the brain and concluded this organ is a gland. In terms of modern endocrinology, this deduction is correct because the hypothalamus of the brain has long been recognized for its hormone-secreting capacity; because Malpighi had a wide knowledge of both plants and animals, he made contributions to the scientific study of both. The Royal Society of London published two volumes of his botanical and zoological works in 1675 and 1679. Another edition followed in 1687, a supplementary volume in 1697. In his autobiography, Malpighi speaks of his Anatome Plantarum, decorated with the engravings of Robert White, as "the most elegant format in the whole literate world."His study of plants led him to conclude that plants had tubules similar to those he saw in insects like the silk worm. Malpighi observed that when a ring-like portion of bark was removed on a trunk a swelling occurred in the tissues above the ring, he interpreted this as growth stimulated by food coming down from the leaves, being blocked above the ring.

Malpighi was born on 10 March 1628 at Crevalcore near Italy. The son of well-to-do parents, Malpighi was educated in his native city, entering the University of Bologna at the age of 17. In a posthumous work delivered and dedicated to the Royal Society in London in 1697, Malpighi says he completed his grammatical studies in 1645, at which point he began to apply himself to the study of peripatetic philosophy, he completed these studies about 1649, where at the persuasion of his mother Frances Natalis, he began to study physics. When his parents and grandmother became ill, he returned to his family home near Bologna to care for them. Malpighi studied Aristotelian philosophy at the University of Bologna while he was young. Despite opposition from the university authorities because he was non-Bolognese by birth, in 1653 he was granted doctorates in both medicine and philosophy, he graduated as a medical doctor at the age of 25. Subsequently, he was appointed as a teacher, whereupon he dedicated himself to further study in anatomy and medicine.

For most of his career, Malpighi combined an intense interest in scientific research with a fond love of teaching. He was invited to correspond with the Royal Society in 1667 by Henry Oldenburg, became a fellow of the society the next year. In 1656, Ferdinand II of Tuscany invited him to the professorship of theoretical medicine at the University of Pisa. There Malpighi began his lifelong friendship with Giovanni Borelli and naturalist, a prominent supporter of the Accademia del Cimento, one of the first scientific societies. Malpighi questioned the prevailing medical teachings at Pisa, tried experiments on colour changes in blood, attempted to recast anatomical and medical problems of the day. Family responsibilities and poor health prompted Malpighi's return in 1659 to the University of Bologna, where he continued to teach and do research with his microscopes. In 1661 he identified and described the pulmonary and capillary network connecting small arteries with small veins. Malpighi's views evoked increasing controversy and dissent from envy and lack of understanding on the part of his colleagues.

In 1653, his father and grandmother being dead, Malpighi left his family villa and returned to the University of Bologna to study anatomy. In 1656, he was made a reader at Bologna, a professor of physics at Pisa, where he began to abandon the disputative method of learning and apply himself to a more experimental method of research. Based on this research, he wrote some Dialogues against the Peripatetics and Galenists, which were destroyed when his house burned down. Weary of philosophical disputation, in 1660, Malpighi returned to Bologna and dedicated himself to the study of anatomy, he subsequently discovered a new structure of the lungs which led him to several disputes with the learned medical men of the times. In 1662, he was made a professor of Physics at the Academy of Messina. Retiring from university life to his villa in the country near Bologna in 1663, he worked as a physician while continuing to conduct experiments on the plants and insects he found on his estate. There he made discoveries of the structure of plants.

At the end of 1666, Malpighi was invited to return to the public academy at Messina, which he did in 1667. Although he accepted temporary chairs at the universities of Pisa

Ganges Barrage Project

The Ganges Barrage Project is a proposed project in Bangladesh to hold back rain water of the monsoon season because of the periodic drying up of the Ganges River in Bangladesh due to the Farakka Barrage. In 1963, Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton, a consulting firm from New York, proposed to the Pakistan government to construct a counter-barrage to hold water in the monsoon and supply it to the Gorai and other rivers in the lean period. In 2013, a feasibility study commissioned by the Government of Bangladesh for a barrage in Pangsha Upazila in Rajbari District, Bangladesh was completed, after four years of work, at a cost of US$5 million. Construction was to begin in 2014 and end in 2020. On 10 April 2017, at the conclusion of meetings in Delhi, Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of Bangladesh and Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India, confirmed their commitment to joint development of the Ganges Barrage, to the visit of an Indian technical team to Bangladesh and the establishment of a Joint Technical Sub-Group on Ganges Barrage Project.

On 11 April, at a news conference in Dhaka, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina characterized the feasibility study and project design for a barrage in Pangsha as ‘completely flawed... suicidal, like Teesta barrage was.' She accused water resources officials behind the plan of wanting to'make profits from the project's funds.' She stated that she had instructed the water resources ministry to find alternative sites for storage of Ganges monsoon flows for utilization during the lean period, that she had requested West Bengal chief minister Mamata Banerjee to look for sites there as well. On 12 April, Minister of Water Resources Anisul Islam Mahmud announced that the government had abandoned the project and would explore alternative options for utilization of Ganges waters in Bangladesh, he said the barrage how it would be built. The feasibility study estimated the cost of construction at US$4 billion. By April 2017, this had increased to US$5 billion; the reservoir as designed is over 100 km long, with a pond area of 625 km2 and capacity of 2890 million m3.

The pond level is 12.5 mPWD and the spillway sill level is 0.0 mPWD. When full the reservoir extends into Indian territory. Benefits of a barrage at Pangsha were estimated to include about 100 megawatts of electricity and 250,000 metric tons of fish. Water could be brought into the reservoir from the Bramahaputra River by pumping; this in turn would allow transferred Bramhaputra water to be pumped into the Hoogly River to augment flows diverted through Farakka Barrage. Electricity sector in Bangladesh List of power stations in Bangladesh Pollution of the Ganges Sharing the water of the Ganges

Gramercy Bridge

The Gramercy Bridge, is a cantilever bridge over the Mississippi River connecting Gramercy, Louisiana in St. James Parish with St. John the Baptist Parish, it is the second newest Mississippi River bridge in Louisiana, one of many built to replace the ferry system following a 1976 accident that killed 78 when a ferry sank after being struck by a ship. The bridge and its approaches are Louisiana Highway 3213, which runs 3.79 miles from Louisiana Highway 18 on the west bank north over the bridge, past an interchange with Louisiana Highway 44, to its terminus at Louisiana Highway 641. LA 3213 now extends from the bridge to LA 3127 on a two lane roadway that crosses over railroad tracks about halfway down the road. List of crossings of the Lower Mississippi River Weeks III, John A. "LA-3213 Veterans Memorial Bridge, Gramercy, LA". Http:// Retrieved January 31, 2006. Gramercy Bridge at Structurae

Shoaib Ahmed Sheikh

Shoaib Ahmed Shaikh is a Pakistani-Kittitian businessman and money launderer who founded diploma mill company Axact. He was arrested on May 19, 2015 after the May 17th edition of The New York Times published an in-depth report exposing the fake degree business. Subsequently, Axact was sealed on May 28, 2015 and the Information ministry requested the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority to close down BOL, he was given bail prior to his conviction, the case filed against him on the charges of alleged fraud and money laundering. In July 2018, the court announced a 20-year jail sentence to him along with 22 others regarding the fake degree case, was subsequently sentenced in September 2018. Following the publication of the New York Times article, Pakistan's Interior Minister Khizer directed the country's Federal Investigation Agency to begin inquiry into whether the company was involved in any legal business. Following the interior minister’s order, cyber crime team of FIA raided Axact’s office in Karachi and Islamabad and seized computers, recorded statements of employees as well taking into custody 25 employees of the company and 28 employees from Rawalpindi office.

The FIA team found and seized several blank degrees as well as fake letterhead of the US State Department. The investigation was transferred from the FIA's cyber crime department to its corporate department; the issue was taken up in Senate of Pakistan where Chairman of the Senate Raza Rabbani constituted a committee to probe into the issue. Pakistan's tax authorities and the SECP initiated investigations into the company. On May 26, 2015, Federal Investigation Agency arrested Shoaib Ahmed Shaikh for investigation; the case was filed against him on May 2015 in Karachi, Pakistan. On September 26, 2018, Shaikh was sentenced to 7 years in prison for the diploma mill conspiracies, along with several other accomplishes, his wife was acquitted of all charges. Shaikh holds a Saint Kitts and Nevis passport, which he acquired through the country's citizenship-by-investment program


Jōei was a Japanese era name after Kangi and before Tenpuku. This period spanned the years from April 1232 to April 1233; the reigning emperors were Go-Horikawa-tennō and Shijō-tennō. 1232 Jōei gannen: The era name was changed to mark an event or a number of events. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Kangi 4. 1232: Kujō Yoritsune is raised to the second rank of the 3rd class in the dōjō kuge. 1232: In the 11th year of Emperor Go-Horikawa's reign, he abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Shijō is said to have acceded to the throne. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.

1982 FIFA World Cup qualification (AFC and OFC)

Listed below are the dates and results for the 1982 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds for the Asian and Oceanian zone. For an overview of the qualification rounds, see the article 1982 FIFA World Cup qualification. A total of 21 AFC and OFC teams entered the competition. However, Iran withdrew; the Asian and Oceanian zone was allocated 2 places in the final tournament. There would be two rounds of play: First Round: The remaining 20 teams would be divided into 4 groups; the groups had different rules, as follows: Group 1 had 5 teams. The teams played against each other on a home-and-away basis; the group winner would qualify. Group 2 had 5 teams; the teams played against each other once in Saudi Arabia. The group winner would qualify. Group 3 had 4 teams; the teams played against each other once in Kuwait. The group winner would qualify. Group 4 had 6 teams. All matches. There would be four stages of play: Classification matches: All teams would be paired up to play preliminary matches to determine group classification.

Group stage: Based on the results of the classification matches, the 6 teams were divided into 2 groups of 3 teams each. The teams played against each other once; the group winners and runners-up would advance to the semifinals. Semifinals: The winner of Group A played against the runner-up of Group B in a single match, the winner of Group B played against the runner-up of Group A in a single match; the winners would advance to the Final. Final: The 2 teams played against each other in a single match; the winner would advance to the Final Round. Final Round: The 4 teams played against each other on a home-and-away basis; the group winner and runner-up would qualify. New Zealand advanced to the Final Round. Saudi Arabia advanced to the Final Round. Kuwait advanced to the Final Round. Based on the results, China PR, Japan and Macau were placed in Group A, while Hong Kong, Korea DPR and Singapore were placed in Group B. China and Japan advanced to the Group 4 Semifinals. Korea DPR and Hong Kong advanced to the Group 4 Semifinals.

Korea DPR advanced to the Group 4 Final. China PR advanced to the Group 4 Final on penalties. China PR advanced to the Final Round. Notes China PR and New Zealand finished level on points and goal difference, a play-off on neutral ground was played to decide who would qualify. Kuwait and New Zealand qualified. 9 goals 8 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal 1 own goal 1982 FIFA World Cup qualification 1982 FIFA World Cup qualification 1982 FIFA World Cup qualification 1982 FIFA World Cup qualification To date, this was the last time that South Korea failed to qualify for a FIFA World Cup