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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Maremma

The Maremma is a coastal area of western central Italy, bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea. It includes much of south-western part of northern Lazio, it was mostly marshland malarial, but was drained by order of Fernando I de' Medici. It was traditionally populated by the butteri, mounted cattle herders who rode horses fitted with one of two distinctive styles of saddle, the scafarda and the bardella; the Maremma has an area of about 5000 km2. The central part corresponds with the province of Grosseto, extending northward to the Colline Metallifere and the slopes of Monte Amiata, but the region extends northward from Piombino to the mouth of the Cecina, southwards into Lazio as far as Civitavecchia; the Maremma has given its name to, several breeds of domestic animal. These include two breeds of working horse, the Maremmano and the Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale used by butteri and cavalcanti. Maremma travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Maremma at Wikimedia Commons

Wartenberg (Berlin)

Wartenberg is a German locality within the borough of Lichtenberg, Berlin. Until 2001 it was part of the former borough of Hohenschönhausen; the locality was established in the course of the German Ostsiedlung after the establishment of the Margraviate of Brandenburg by Albert the Bear in 1157. It was first mentioned in a 1270 margravial deed as Wardenberge and again in the 1375 domesday book of Emperor Charles IV; the estates of Wartenberg manor were acquired by the City of Berlin in 1882. Until 1920, it was a municipality in the former Niederbarnim district of the Prussian Brandenburg Province merged into Berlin with the "Greater Berlin Act". Wartenberg is located in the north-eastern suburb of Berlin and borders with the Brandenburger village of Lindenberg, in Barnim district, it borders with the Berliner localities of Falkenberg, Neu-Hohenschönhausen and Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow. Wartenberg is divided into 4 zones: Dorfkern Falkenhöhe Margaretenhöhe Siedlung Wartenberg The locality is served by the S-Bahn line S75 at Wartenberg station, located in Neu-Hohenschönhausen.

The tramway terminal stop "Falkenberg" is not too far from Dorfkern and Falkenhöhe and the bus lines 256, 359 and 893 cross the settlement. Media related to Wartenberg at Wikimedia Commons Wartenberg page on www.berlin.de

Bismarck Expressway

The Bismarck Expressway is a state highway in Mandan and Bismarck, North Dakota, in the United States. It carries two unsigned highways: Interstate 194 from its west end at exit 156 of I-94 to BL I-94 in Mandan, North Dakota Highway 810 from BL I-94 in Mandan, around the south side of Bismarck back to BL I-94 in Bismarck. BL I-94 takes the designation from the end of ND 810 to the designation's eastern terminus at I-94 and US 83; the portion in Mandan where it is ND 810, is a freeway. The Bismarck Expressway starts at a trumpet interchange with I-94's exit 156 and begins to run southeast through the eastern portion of the city of Mandan; the road parallels the Missouri River as it passes under a railroad operated by BNSF. Farther south, the highway interchanges with BL I-94. ND 810 shares a diamond interchange with McKenzie Drive curves to the east and crosses the Missouri River. Upon doing so, it leaves Mandan and Morton County, enters Bismarck and Burleigh County; the roadway becomes a four-lane surface road east of the Missouri River, beginning at the road's first intersection east of the river, with Washington Street.

The Bismarck Expressway and ND 810 continue east and intersect ND 1804 at a one way pair with 9th Street and 7th Street. The roadway rolls farther to the east before bending to the northeast and passing over the BNSF line and Hay Creek, it turns north and intersects Main Avenue. At this intersection, ND 810 terminates, while BL I-94 continues north. BL I-94 and the Bismarck Expressway terminate about two miles north of here at a diamond interchange with I-94 and US 83. All exits are unnumbered. I-194 I-194 North Dakota

Flag Officer, Royal Yachts

The Flag Officer, Royal Yachts styled Flag Officer Commanding Royal Yachts was a senior Royal Navy post that existed from 1884 to 1997. Royal yachts have been a feature of the Monarchy since at least 1660, during this period command of the Royal Yacht was held by a captain; the office of Flag Officer, Royal Yachts was established by letters patent on 15 October 1884. Royal Yachts was an independent command, administered by the Flag Officer, Royal Yachts, it was standard protocol for the to be appointed as an extra equerry to the Monarch and, as such, was a member of the royal household. The post existed until 1997. At various times included: Acts as the host at official receptions on behalf of the Monarch when the royal yacht visits countries when no member of the royal family is embarked. Exercises tactical control over Royal Navy and foreign warships and Royal Fleet Auxiliary forming the Royal Squadron when the Monarch or other members of the royal family are embarked. Hosts receptions on behalf of the Monarch during sea days or commercial seminars held on board in support of British industry.

These events bring FORY into direct and frequent contact with Heads of State and Government, captains of industry. Keeps the First Sea Lord and Commander in Chief, Fleet informed of all plans in relation to HM Royal Yachts programme. Responsible for HM Royal Yachts efficient operation at all times, and for the detailed planning of its programme. Note: Royal Squadron should not be confused with Royal Yacht Squadron. Post holders included: Vice-Admiral Sir John R. T. Fullerton: October 1884-April 1901 Rear-Admiral the Hon. Hedworth Lambton: April 1901-April 1903 Rear-Admiral Sir Archibald Berkeley Milne, Bt.: April 1903-August 1905 Rear-Admiral Sir Colin R. Keppel: August 1905-August 1909 Commodore Norman C. Palmer: August 1909-December 1913 Commodore Douglas R. L. Nicholson: December 1913-August 1914 Rear-Admiral the Hon. Sir Hubert G. Brand: May 1919-April 1922 Admiral Sir Henry T. Buller: April 1922-December 1931 Admiral the Hon. Sir Herbert Meade Fetherstonhaugh: April 1931-December 1934 Vice-Admiral Sir Dudley B. N. North: December 1934-September 1939 Vice-Admiral Sir E. M. Conolly Abel Smith: February 1953-January 1958 Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Dawnay: January 1958-January 1962 Rear-Admiral Sir Joseph C.

C. Henley: January 1962-March 1965 Rear-Admiral Sir Patrick J. Morgan: March 1965-August 1970 Rear-Admiral Sir Richard J. Trowbridge: August 1970-September 1975 Rear-Admiral Sir Hugh P. Janion: September 1975-February 1981 Rear-Admiral Sir Paul W. Greening: February 1981-September 1985 Rear-Admiral Sir John Garnier: September 1985-September 1990 Rear-Admiral Sir Robert N. Woodard: September 1990-April 1995 Commodore Anthony J. C. Morrow: April 1995-December 1997Note: Post holders sometimes styled as Admiral, Vice-Admiral, Rear-Admiral or Commodore Commanding Royal Yachts or HM Yachts Royal Yacht Squadron Footnotes Sources Hansard "Flag Officer Royal Yachts, vol 236 cc171-2W". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Hansard. Harley, Simon. "H. M. Yachts". Www.dreadnoughtproject.org. Harley and Lovell, England, UK. Mackie, Colin. "British Armed Forces: Royal Navy Appointments from 1865". Gulabin.com. Scotland, UK. Naval History Society "The Royal Yacht Britannia: Naval Historical Review". Www.navyhistory.org.au

Norbert Perrimon

Norbert Perrimon is a geneticist and developmental biologist at Harvard Medical School. He is known for developing a number of techniques for use of Drosophila, as well as specific substantive contributions to signal transduction and developmental biology. Perrimon co-developed the GAL4/UAS system method, described as “a fly geneticist's Swiss army knife”, with Andrea Brand to control gene expression. With Tze-bin Chou he developed the FLP-FRT DFS method to analyze the maternal effect of zygotic lethal mutations. With Jianquan Ni, he improved methods for in vivo RNAi, his lab has pioneered high-throughput whole-genome RNAi screening. In 2003 he created the Drosophila RNAi Screening Center at Harvard Medical School and in 2008, he initiated the Transgenic RNAi Project to generate transgenic RNAi lines for the community using optimized shRNA vectors that his lab developed. Perrimon was born in 1958 in France, he earned his undergraduate degree at the University of Paris VI, in 1981 completed his doctorate in 1983 with Madeleine Gans at the University of Paris.

From 1983 to 1986 Perrimon was a postdoctoral researcher with Anthony Mahowald at Case Western Reserve University, in 1986 at the age of 27 he accepted appointment as faculty at Harvard Medical School. He is the James Stillman Professor of Developmental Biology in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, he has been an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute since 1986. Perrimon was elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences in April 2013, after naturalizing as an American citizen. Lucille P. Markey Scholar in Biomedical Sciences, 1985. Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 1986–present Chaire d’Etat. College de France. Paris, 2003 George W. Beadle Medal, Genetics Society of America, 2004 RNAi Innovator Award, 2009 Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2008 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2009 Associate member of the European Molecular Biology Organization 2011 Fellow of the United States National Academy of Sciences, 2013

Death of Latasha Harlins

Latasha Harlins was a 15-year-old African-American girl, fatally shot by Soon Ja Du, a 51-year-old Korean-born female convenience store owner. Du was tried and convicted of voluntary manslaughter in Harlins' death and sentenced to time served, five years of probation, 400 hours of community service, a $500 restitution, funeral expenses; some have cited the shooting of Latasha Harlins as one of the causes of the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Harlins' death came 13 days after the videotaped beating of Rodney King. Latasha Harlins was born July 14, 1975 in East St. Louis, Illinois, to Crystal Harlins and Sylvester "Vester" Acoff Sr. Latasha had a younger brother, Vester Acoff Jr. and a younger sister, Christina. The family moved from Illinois to South-central Los Angeles in 1981; when Latasha was six years old, her father took a job in a steel foundry while her mother worked as a waitress in a local tavern. They lived near 89th St. and Broadway, just a few blocks from where Latasha would be killed ten years later.

Acoff Sr. was known to be abusive towards Crystal Harlins, attacking her in front of Latasha and her siblings. Both parents drank and smoked crack cocaine, their unstable marriage ended in 1983. On November 27, 1985, Crystal was brutally shot dead outside a Los Angeles nightclub by Cora Mae Anderson, Acoff's new girlfriend, leaving Latasha and her siblings in the care of their maternal grandmother, Ruth Harlins; the death of her mother had a devastating impact on Latasha who began to rebel and argue with her grandmother and her aunt Denise. Their relationship worsened further when Latasha 14, was groomed by counselor at the local recreational center named Jerry Foster, between 29 and 32 years-old. At the time of her death, Latasha was a student at Westchester High School. Soon Ja Du's store, Empire Liquor, located in the intersection of 91st St. and Figueroa Ave. Vermont Vista, Los Angeles, was staffed by Du's husband and son. However, on the morning of the shooting, Du was working behind the counter, her husband was outside resting in the family van.

Shortly before 10:00 am on Saturday March, 16, Harlins entered the store. Du observed Harlins putting a $1.79 bottle of orange juice in her backpack. Du concluded Harlins was attempting to steal, did not see the money Harlins held in her hand. Du claimed to have asked Harlins if she intended to pay for the orange juice, to which Du claimed Harlins responded, "What orange juice?" Two eyewitnesses disputed that claim, saying that Du called Harlins a "bitch" and accused her of trying to steal, to which they claimed Harlins replied that she intended to pay for the orange juice. After speaking with the two eyewitnesses present and viewing the videotape of the incident, recorded by a store security camera, the police concluded that Harlins intended to pay for the beverage; the videotape showed that Du snatched her backpack. Harlins struck Du with her fist twice, knocking Du to the ground. After Harlins backed away, Du threw a stool at her. Harlins picked up the orange juice bottle that dropped during the scuffle, Du snatched the bottle from her, Harlins turned to leave.

Du reached under the counter, retrieved a revolver, fired at Harlins from behind at a distance of about three feet. The gunshot struck Harlins in the back of the head. Du's husband, Billy Heung Ki Du, rushed into the store. After speaking to his wife, who asked for the whereabouts of Harlins before fainting, he dialed 9-1-1 to report an attempted holdup. Du testified on her own behalf, claiming that the shooting was in self-defense and that she believed her life was in danger, but her testimony was contradicted by the statements of the two witnesses present at the time, as well as the store's security camera video, which showed Du shooting Harlins in the back of the head as the teenager turned away from Du and attempted to leave the store. The Los Angeles Police Department ballistics report found that the handgun Du used was altered in such a way that it required much less pressure on the trigger to fire than an ordinary handgun. On November 15, 1991 a jury found that Du's decision to fire the gun was within her control and that she fired the gun voluntarily.

The jury found Du guilty of voluntary manslaughter, an offense that carries a maximum prison sentence of 16 years. The jury recommended the maximum sentence for Du. However, the trial judge, Joyce Karlin, did not accept the jury's sentencing recommendation and instead sentenced Du to five years of probation, 400 hours of community service, a $500 fine. Judge Karlin suggested, she stated, "Did Mrs. Du react inappropriately? Absolutely, but was that reaction understandable? I think that it was." Karlin added, "this is not a time for revenge...and no matter what sentence this court imposes Mrs. Du will be punished every day for the rest of her life." The court stated that Du shot Harlins under extreme provocation and duress and deemed it unlikely that Du would commit a serious crime again. Furthermore, Karlin deemed that Du's capacity to act rationally in the situation was undermined by her experience with past robberies. A state appeals court unanimously upheld Judge Karlin's sentencing decision in April 1992, a week before the riots.

In July 1992, the Harlins family was awarded $300,000 in settlement. The incident and reduced sentencing by the court exacerbated the existing tensions between African-American residents and Asian-American merchants in South-central Los Angeles; those tensions were interpreted by some members of the public and activists as being one of the catalysts for the 1992 Los Angeles riots. The Los