The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds; the black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", without them, a horse cannot be considered a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings. Bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings -. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both a black base coat; the addition of other genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are simple, the genes themselves and the mechanisms that cause shade variations within the bay family are quite complex and, at times, disputed; the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but subsequently pulled from the market. Sooty genetics appear to darken some horses' bay coats, that genetic mechanism is yet to be understood. Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs, no black points; the pigment in a bay horse's coat, regardless of shade, is rich and saturated. This makes bays lustrous in the sun if properly cared for; some bay horses exhibit dappling, caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple; the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays have a two-toned hair shaft, which, if shaved too may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter, a somewhat dull orange-gold like a dun. However, as the hair grows out, it will darken again to the proper shade.
This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but not seen in darker shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft. There are many terms that are used to describe particular qualities of a bay coat; some shade variations can be related to nutrition and grooming, but most appear to be caused by inherited factors not yet understood. The palest shades, which lack specific English terminology found in other languages, are called wild bays. Wild bays are true bays with pigmented reddish coat color and black manes and tails, but the black points only extend up to the pastern or fetlock. Wild bay is found in conjunction with a trait called "pangare" that produces pale color on the underbelly and soft areas, such as near the stifle and around the muzzle. Bay horses have black skin and dark eyes, except for the skin under markings, pink. Skin color can help an observer distinguish between a bay horse with white markings and a horse which resembles bay but is not; some breed registries use the term "brown" to describe dark bays.
However, "liver" chestnuts, horses with a red or brown mane and tail as well as a dark brownish body coat, are sometimes called "brown" in some colloquial contexts. Therefore, "brown" can be an ambiguous term for describing horse coat color, it is clearer to refer to dark-colored horses as dark bays or liver chestnuts. However, to further complicate matters, the genetics that lead to darker coat colors are under study, there exists more than one genetic mechanism that darkens the coat color. One is a theorized sooty gene; the other is a specific allele of Agouti linked to a certain type of dark bay, called seal brown. The seal brown horse has dark brown body and lighter areas around the eyes, the muzzle, flanks. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; some foals are born bay, but carry the dominant gene for graying, thus will turn gray as they mature until their hair coat is white.
Foals that are going to become gray must have one parent, gray. Some foals may be born with a few white hairs visible around the eyes and other fine-haired, thin-skinned areas, but others may not show signs of graying until they are several months old. Chestnuts, sometimes called "Sorrels," have a reddish body coat similar to a bay, but no black points, their legs and ear edges are the same color as the rest of their body and their manes and tails are the same shade as their body color or a few shades lighter. Black is confused with dark bays and liver chestnuts because some black horses "sunburn," that is, when kept out in the sun, they develop a bleached-out coat that looks brownish in the fine-haired areas around the flanks. However, a true black can be recognized by looking at the fine hairs around eyes; these hairs are always black on a black horse, but are reddish, brownish, or a light gold on a bay or chestnut. Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat
Mounted police are police who patrol on horseback or camelback. Their day-to-day function is picturesque or ceremonial, but they are employed in crowd control because of their mobile mass and height advantage and in the UK for crime prevention and high visibility policing roles; the added height and visibility that the horses give their riders allows officers to observe a wider area, but it allows people in the wider area to see the officers, which helps deter crime and helps people find officers when they need them. Mounted police may be employed for specialized duties ranging from patrol of parks and wilderness areas, where police cars would be impractical or noisy, to riot duty, where the horse serves to intimidate those whom it is desired to disperse through its larger size, or may be sent in to detain trouble makers or offenders from the crowd. For example, in the UK, mounted police are most seen at football matches, although they are a common sight on the streets of many towns and cities as a visible police presence and crime deterrent during the day and night.
Some mounted police units are trained in search and rescue due to the horse's ability to travel where vehicles cannot. The French Maréchaussée—direct predecessors of the gendarmerie and the first national police force in a modern sense—were a corps of mounted constabulary from their establishment in the early 18th century. Poor roads and extensive rural areas made horse-mounted police a necessity in European states until the early 20th century; the establishment of organized law-enforcement bodies throughout Africa and the Americas during the colonial and post-colonial eras made the concept of predominantly horse-police accepted world-wide. Notable examples included the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Mexican Rurales, the British South African Police, the Turkish/Cypriot Zapiteh and the caballeria of the Spanish Civil Guard. Tack used by mounted police is similar to standard riding tack, with adaptations for police use. Synthetic saddles are favored over those made of natural leather to reduce weight, important both because of long riding hours and because police officers must carry numerous articles of personal equipment.
High-traction horseshoes made of speciality metals or fitted with rubber soles are used in urban areas in place of standard steel horseshoes, which are prone to slip on pavement. Rubber soled shoes produce less noise than steel shoes and jar the hoof less. Horses working in riot control wear facial armor, made of perspex; the officers themselves are equipped with long wooden or polycarbonate batons for use on horseback, as standard patrol batons would have insufficient length to strike individuals at ground level. The Metropolitan Police Mounted Branch is the mounted section of the Metropolitan Police, the police force of Greater London; the Mounted Branch is the oldest section of the Metropolitan Police. The Metropolitan Police Mounted Branch undertakes crowd control duties at football matches, but conducts general street patrols and escorts the Royal Guard change every morning; the New South Wales Mounted Police is a mounted section of the New South Wales Police Force, the oldest continuous mounted group in the world.
They have a strength of 36 officers and around 38 mounts and their duties include traffic and crowd management and ceremonial protocol duties. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is a well-known mounted police force, although horses are no longer in use operationally. However, horses are still used in the Musical Ride as well as by several provincial and municipal police detachments; the Royal Oman Police have many camel mounted troopers. The United States Border Patrol had 200 horses in 2005. Most of these are employed along the U. S.-Mexico border. In Arizona, these animals are fed special processed feed pellets so that their wastes do not spread non-native plants in the national parks and wildlife areas they patrol. Many cities in the United States have mounted units, New York having one of the largest with 55 horses as of 2016, but numerous mounted units were disbanded or downsized in the 2010s. For example, units in Boston and San Diego were disbanded by 2011, while New York City’s mounted unit was reduced over the last decade with 79 police officers and 60 horses in 2011 – down from the 130 officers and 125 horses it had before the downsizing.
Philadelphia's mounted police unit was disbanded in 2004, but reinstated in 2011 with four horses from the disbanding unit of Newark, New Jersey. The Houston, Texas Police Department's Mounted Patrol Unit, started in 1983 and now consisting of 1 lieutenant, 4 sergeants and 24 officers, has become well known due to the decision to, by the middle of 2008, remove the shoes of all its 38 mounted horses and embrace the concept of naturalizing their horses' diet and care in addition to riding them barefoot. Although the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canada's national and federal police force, is called the "Mounted Police", today it only has a small mounted section and horses are now used for ceremonies. A few other Canadian police forces have mounted units: Royal Newfoundland Constabulary has had a mounted unit since 1873, but full time after 2003.
Chestnut is a hair coat color of horses consisting of a reddish-to-brown coat with a mane and tail the same or lighter in color than the coat. Genetically and visually, chestnut is characterized by the absolute absence of true black hairs, it is one of the most common horse coat colors, seen in every breed of horse. Chestnut is a common coat color but the wide range of shades can cause confusion; the lightest chestnuts may be mistaken for palominos, while the darkest shades can be so dark as to resemble a black coat. Chestnuts have dark brown eyes, black skin, a coat, devoid of true black hairs. Typical chestnuts are some shade of reddish brown; the mane and legs may be lighter or darker than the body coat, but are never black. They may have pink skin beneath any white markings under the areas of white hair, if such white markings include one or both eyes, the eyes may be blue. Chestnut is produced by a recessive gene. Unlike many coat colors, chestnut can be true-breeding; some breeds, such as the Budyonny, Suffolk Punch, Haflinger are chestnut.
Other breeds, such as the Belgian are predominantly chestnut. However, a chestnut horse need not have two chestnut parents. For example, Friesian horses have been selected for many years to be uniformly black, but on rare occasions chestnuts are born; the Ariegeois pony is another example. Chestnuts can vary in shade and different terms are sometimes used to describe these shades though they are genetically indistinguishable. Collectively, these coat colors are called "red" by geneticists. A basic chestnut or "red" horse has a solid copper-reddish coat, with a mane and tail, close to the same shade as the body coat. Sorrel is a term used by American stock horse registries to describe red horses with manes and tails the same shade or lighter than the body coat color. In these registries, chestnut describes the darker shades of red-based coats. Colloquially, in the American west all copper-red chestnuts are called "sorrel." In other parts of the English-speaking world, some consider a "sorrel" to be a light chestnut with a flaxen mane and tail.
Liver chestnut or dark chestnut are not a descriptive term. The genetic controls for the depth of shade are not presently understood. Liver chestnuts are a dark-reddish brown. Liver chestnuts are included in the term "dark chestnut." The darkest chestnuts common in the Morgan horse, may be indistinguishable from true black without careful inspection. Confusingly called "black chestnuts," they may be identified by small amounts of reddish hair on the lower legs and tail, or by DNA or pedigree testing, it has been suggested that the trait or traits that produce certain darker shades of chestnut and bay, referred to as "sooty" coloration follow a recessive mode of inheritance. Flaxen chestnut and blond chestnut are terms that describe manes and/or tails that are flaxen, or lighter than the body color. Sometimes this difference is only a shade or two, but other flaxen chestnuts have near-white or silverish manes and tails. Haflingers are of this shade, it is considered desirable in other breeds, though the genetic mechanism is not understood.
Some flaxen chestnuts can be mistaken for palominos and have been registered in palomino color registries. Pangare or mealy is thought to be controlled by a single gene, unrelated to chestnut color, produces distinct characteristics common to wild equids: pale hairs around the eyes and muzzle and a pale underside. Haflingers and Belgians are examples of mealy chestnuts; the flaxen characteristic is sometimes associated with pangare, but not always. Chestnut is considered a "base color" in the discussion of equine coat color genetics. Additional coat colors based on chestnut are described in terms of their relationship to chestnut: Palominos have a chestnut base coat color, genetically modified to a golden shade by a single copy of the incomplete dominant cream gene. Palominos can be distinguished from chestnuts by the lack of true red tones in the coat; the eyes of chestnuts are dark brown, while those of a palomino are sometimes a lighter amber. Some color breed registries that promote palomino coloring have accepted flaxen chestnuts because registration is based on a physical description rather than a genetic identity.
Cremellos homozygous for the cream gene. They have a cream-colored coat, blue eyes and pigmented pink skin. Red duns have a chestnut base coat with the dun gene, their body color is pale, dusty tan shade that resembles the light undercoat color of a body-clipped chestnut but with a bold, dark dorsal stripe in dark red, a red mane and legs. They may have additional primitive markings, which distinguish a red dun from a light or body-clipped chestnut. Gold champagnes have a chestnut base coat with the champagne gene, they resemble a palomino, or they may be an all-over apricot shade, but can be distinguished from other colors by amber or green eyes and lightened skin color with freckling. Red or "strawberry" roans have a chestnut base coat with the classic roan gene. A skewbald, "chestnut pinto" or "sorrel Paint" is a pinto horse with white patches. Combinations of multiple dilution genes do not always have consistent names. For example, "dunalinos" are one copy of the cream gene. Bay horses have reddish coats, but they have a black mane, tail and other "points"
The Haflinger known as the Avelignese, is a breed of horse developed in Austria and northern Italy during the late nineteenth century. Haflinger horses are small, are always chestnut with flaxen mane and tail, have distinctive gaits described as energetic but smooth, are well-muscled yet elegant; the breed traces its ancestry to the Middle Ages. Haflingers, developed for use in mountainous terrain, are known for their hardiness, their current conformation and appearance are the result of infusions of bloodlines from Arabian and various European breeds into the original native Tyrolean ponies. The foundation sire, 249 Folie, was born in 1874. All Haflingers can trace their lineage back to Folie through one of seven bloodlines. World Wars I and II, as well as the Great Depression, had a detrimental effect on the breed, lower-quality animals were used at times to save the breed from extinction. During World War II, breeders focused on horses that were shorter and more draft-like, favored by the military for use as packhorses.
The emphasis after the war shifted toward animals of increased height. In the postwar era, the Haflinger was indiscriminately crossed with other breeds and some observers feared the breed was in renewed danger of extinction. However, starting in 1946, breeders focused on producing purebred Haflingers and a closed stud book was created. Interest in the breed increased in other countries and between 1950 and 1974 the population grew while the overall European horse population decreased. Population numbers continued to increase and as of 2005 250,000 Haflingers existed worldwide. There are breeding farms in several countries, although most of the breeding stock still comes from Austria. In 2003, a Haflinger became the first horse to be cloned. Haflingers have many uses including light draft, harness work and various under-saddle disciplines such as endurance riding, equestrian vaulting and therapeutic riding, they are still used by the Austrian and German armies for work in rough terrain. The World Haflinger Federation, the international governing body that controls breed standards for the Haflinger, is made up of a confederation of 22 national registries, helps set breeding objectives and rules for its member organizations.
The name "Haflinger" comes from the village of Hafling. The breed is called the Avelignese, from the Italian name for Hafling, Avelengo or Aveligna. Haflingers are always chestnut in color and come in shades ranging from a light gold to a rich golden chestnut or liver hue; the mane and tail are flaxen. The height of the breed has increased since the end of World War II, when it stood an average of 13.3 hands. The desired height today is between 15 hands. Breeders are discouraged from breeding horses under the minimum size, but taller individuals may pass inspection if they otherwise meet requirements of the breed registry; the breed has a refined light poll. The neck is of medium length, the withers are pronounced, the chest deep; the back is medium-long and muscular, the croup is long sloping and well-muscled. The legs are clean, with broad, flat knees and powerful hocks showing clear definition of tendons and ligaments; the Haflinger has ground-covering gaits. The walk is energetic; the trot and canter are elastic and athletic with a natural tendency to be light on the forehand and balanced.
There is some knee action, the canter has a distinct motion forwards and upwards. One important consideration in breeding during the second half of the 20th century was temperament. A requirement for a quiet, kind nature has become part of official breed standards and is checked during official inspections; some sources recognize two types of Haflinger, a shorter, heavier type used for draft work and a taller, lighter type used for pleasure riding, light driving and under-saddle competition. The Food and Agriculture Organization recognizes both an "Avelignese" and an "Avelignese Tradizionale" as existing in Italy, although, as of 2007, only 13 of the latter existed, including only one breeding stallion. However, all breed organizations register only one type. All Haflingers today trace their lineage through one of seven stallion lines to Folie, the foundation stallion of the breed. Colts are given a name beginning with the letter or letters denoting their stallion line, fillies are given a name beginning with the first letter of their dam's name.
The exceptions are France, where foals are given a name beginning with a letter of the alphabet designated to be used for that year. The seven stallion lines are: A-line. Founded by Anselmo, born 1926. One of the most prevalent lines today, descendants include the second-largest number of stallions at stud. Anselmo was brought back to stud at the age of 21, when a lack of stallions after World War II led to concerns that the line would not survive, produced several stallions now represented in all Haflinger breeding populations worldwide. B-line. Founded by Bolzano, born 1915. Bolzano's less common line, although strong in Austria, is not prevalent elsewhere; the line is spreading nevertheless. S. and several European countries including Great Britain are establishing Bolzano lines. M-line. Founded by Massimo, born 1927. An Italian
The Maremma is a coastal area of western central Italy, bordering the Tyrrhenian Sea. It includes much of south-western part of northern Lazio, it was mostly marshland malarial, but was drained by order of Fernando I de' Medici. It was traditionally populated by the butteri, mounted cattle herders who rode horses fitted with one of two distinctive styles of saddle, the scafarda and the bardella; the Maremma has an area of about 5000 km2. The central part corresponds with the province of Grosseto, extending northward to the Colline Metallifere and the slopes of Monte Amiata, but the region extends northward from Piombino to the mouth of the Cecina, southwards into Lazio as far as Civitavecchia; the Maremma has given its name to, several breeds of domestic animal. These include two breeds of working horse, the Maremmano and the Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale used by butteri and cavalcanti. Maremma travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Maremma at Wikimedia Commons
A draft horse, draught horse or dray horse, less called a carthorse, work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred to be a working animal doing hard tasks such as plowing and other farm labor. There are a number of breeds, with varying characteristics, but all share common traits of strength, a docile temperament which made them indispensable to generations of pre-industrial farmers. Draft horses and draft crossbreds are versatile breeds used today for a multitude of purposes, including farming, draft horse showing, logging and other uses, they are commonly used for crossbreeding to light riding breeds such as the Thoroughbred, for the purpose of creating sport horses of warmblood type. While most draft horses are used for driving, they can be ridden and some of the lighter draft breeds are capable performers under saddle. Draft horses are recognizable by their tall stature and muscular build. In general, they tend to have a more upright shoulder, producing more upright movement and conformation, well-suited for pulling.
They tend to have broad, short backs with powerful hindquarters, again best suited for the purpose of pulling. Additionally, the draft breeds have heavy bone, a good deal of feathering on their lower legs. Many have a straight profile or "Roman nose". Draft breeds range from 16 to 19 hands high and from 1,400 to 2,000 lb. Draft horses crossbred on light riding horses adds height and weight to the ensuing offspring, may increase the power and "scope" of the animal's movement; the largest horse in recorded history was a Shire named Sampson, born in 1846. He stood 21.2 hands high, his peak weight was estimated at 1,524 kilograms. At over 19 hands, a Shire gelding named Goliath was the Guinness Book of World Records record holder for the world's tallest horse until his death in 2001. Humans needed them to perform a variety of duties. One type of horse-powered work was the hauling of heavy loads, plowing fields, other tasks that required pulling ability. A heavy, patient, well-muscled animal was desired for this work.
Conversely, a light, more energetic horse was needed for rapid transport. Thus, to the extent possible, a certain amount of selective breeding was used to develop different types of horse for different types of work, it is a common misunderstanding that the Destrier that carried the armoured knight of the Middle Ages had the size and conformation of a modern draft horse, some of these Medieval war horses may have provided some bloodlines for some of the modern draft breeds. The reality was that the high-spirited, quick-moving Destrier was closer to the size and temperament of a modern Andalusian or Friesian. There were working farm horses of more phlegmatic temperaments used for pulling military wagons or performing ordinary farm work which provided bloodlines of the modern draft horse. Records indicate that medieval drafts were not as large as those today. Of the modern draft breeds, the Percheron has the closest ties to the medieval war horse. By the 19th century, horses weighing more than 1,600 pounds that moved at a quick pace were in demand.
Tall stature, muscular backs, powerful hindquarters made the draft horse a source of “horsepower” for farming, hauling freight and moving passengers. The railroads increased demand for working horses, as a growing economy still needed transport over the'last mile' between the goods yard or station and the final customer. In the 20th century, draft horses were used for practical work, including over half a million used during World War I to support the military effort, until motor vehicles became an affordable and reliable substitute. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, thousands of draft horses were imported from Western Europe into the United States. Percherons came from Belgians from Belgium, Shires from England, Clydesdales from Scotland. Many American draft registries were founded in the late 19th century; the Percheron, with 40,000 broodmares registered as of 1915, was America's most numerous draft breed at the turn of the 20th century. A breed developed in the U. S. was the American Cream Draft.
Beginning in the late 19th century, with increasing mechanization in the 20th century following World War I in the US and after World War II in Europe, the popularity of the internal combustion engine, the tractor, reduced the need for the draft horse. Many were sold to slaughter for horsemeat and a number of breeds went into significant decline. Today draft horses are most seen at shows, pulling competition and entered in competitions called "heavy horse" trials, or as exhibition animals pulling large wagons. However, they are still seen on some smaller farms in the Europe, they are popular with groups such as Amish and Mennonite farmers, as well as those individuals who wish to farm with a renewable source of power. They are sometimes used during forestry management to remove logs from dense woodland where there is insufficient space for mechanized techniques. Crossbred draft horses played a significant role in the development of a number of warmblood breeds, popular today in international FEI competition up to the Olympic Equestrian level.
Small areas still exist where draft horses are used as transportation, d