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Margarine is a spread used for flavoring and cooking, first made in France in 1869. It was created by Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès in response to a challenge by Emperor Napoleon III to create a butter substitute from beef tallow for the armed forces and lower classes, it was named oleomargarine from Latin for oleum and Greek margarite but was named margarine. Butter is made from the butterfat of milk, whereas modern margarine is made of refined vegetable oil and water. In some places in the United States, it is colloquially referred to as oleo, short for oleomargarine. In Britain and Australia, it can be referred to colloquially as marge. Margarine consists of a water-in-fat emulsion, with tiny droplets of water dispersed uniformly throughout a fat phase in a stable crystalline form. In some jurisdictions, margarine must have a minimum fat content of 80 percent to be labelled as such, the same as butter. Colloquially in the United States, the term margarine is used to describe "non-dairy spreads" with varying fat contents.

Due to its versatility, margarine can be used as an ingredient in other food products, such as pastries, doughnuts and cookies. Margarine originated with the discovery by French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1813 of margaric acid. Scientists at the time regarded margaric acid, like oleic acid and stearic acid, as one of the three fatty acids that, in combination, form most animal fats. In 1853, the German structural chemist Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz analyzed margaric acid as a combination of stearic acid and the unknown palmitic acid. Emperor Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory butter alternative, suitable for use by the armed forces and the lower classes. French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès invented a substance he called oleomargarine, which became shortened to the trade name margarine. Mège-Mouriès patented the concept in 1869 and expanded his initial manufacturing operation from France, but had little commercial success. In 1871, he sold the patent to the Dutch company Jurgens, now part of Unilever.

In the same year a German pharmacist, Benedict Klein from Cologne, founded the first margarine factory "Benedict Klein Margarinewerke", producing the brands Overstolz and Botteram. John Steele wrote in his 1850 California gold miner's journal: "I became acquainted with Mr. Daniels, from Baltimore, who... manufactured butter from tallow and lard, it looked and tasted so much like real butter, that... I could not tell the difference. However, he sold it for just what it was, he never explained the process of its manufacture, whether he was the originator of oleomargarine I do not know." The principal raw material in the original formulation of margarine was beef fat. In 1871, Henry W. Bradley of Binghamton, New York received U. S. Patent 110,626 for a process of creating margarine that combined vegetable oils with animal fats. By the late 19th century, some 37 companies were manufacturing margarine in opposition to the butter industry, which protested and lobbied for government intervention leading to the 1886 Margarine Act imposing punitive fees against margarine manufacturers.

Shortages in beef fat supply combined with advances by Boyce and Sabatier in the hydrogenation of plant materials soon accelerated the use of Bradley's method, between 1900 and 1920 commercial oleomargarine was produced from a combination of animal fats and hardened and unhardened vegetable oils. The depression of the 1930s, followed by the rationing of World War II, led to a reduction in supply of animal fat and butter, and, by 1945, "original" margarine completely disappeared from the market. In the United States, problems with supply, coupled with changes in legislation, caused manufacturers to switch completely to vegetable oils and fats by 1950, the industry was ready for an era of product development. While butter that cows produced had a yellow color, margarine had a white color, making the margarine look more like lard, which many people found unappetizing. Around the late 1880s, the manufacturers began coloring the margarine yellow to improve sales. Dairy firms in Wisconsin, became alarmed and succeeded in getting legislation passed to prohibit the coloring of the stark white product.

In response, the margarine companies distributed the margarine together with a packet of yellow food coloring. The product was placed in the coloring mixed in manually; this took some time and effort, it was not unusual for the final product to be served as a light and dark yellow, or white, striped product. During World War II, there was a shortage of butter in the United States, "oleomargarine" became popular. In 1951, the W. E. Dennison Company received U. S. Patent 2,553,513 for a method to place a capsule of yellow dye inside a plastic package of margarine. After purchase, the capsule was broken inside the package, the package was kneaded to distribute the dye. Around 1955, the artificial coloring laws were repealed, margarine could once again be sold colored like butter. Around the 1930s and 1940s, Arthur Imhausen developed and implemented an industrial process in Germany for producing edible fats by oxidizing synthetic paraffin wax made from coal; the products were fractionally distilled and the edible fats were obtained from the C9-C16 fraction which were reacted with glycerol such as that synthesized from propylene.

Margarine made from them was found to be nutri

Socialist Party (Argentina)

The Socialist Party is a social-democratic political party in Argentina. Founded in 1896, it is one of the oldest still-active parties in Argentina, alongside the Radical Civic Union; the party lacks representation in the National Congress. The history of socialism in Argentina began in the 1890s, when a group of people, notably Juan B. Justo, expressed the need for a greater social focus; the PS itself was founded in 1896, led by Justo and Nicolás Repetto, thus becoming the first mass party in the country. The party affiliated itself with the Second International. Between 1924 and 1940 it was a member of the Socialist International. Through its life, the party suffered from various splits: the International Socialist Party, the Independent Socialist Party were the most notable; the most important of those was in the 1960s, when the party divided itself in half, giving birth to the more radical Argentine Socialist Party, the more moderate Democratic Socialist Party. In 1966, two factions departed the PSA: Partido Socialista de Vanguardia.

In 1972, the remaining of the PSA together with other leftist groups formed the Popular Socialist Party. The PSP and PSD were rejoined in 2002. Among the socialist leaders of Argentina, the most remarkable are Alfredo Palacios, the first socialist parliamentarian in the Americas and a Senator in the 1960s. Justo, philosopher and leader of the party until his death in 1928; the Socialist Party of Argentina maintains an electoral stronghold in the province of Santa Fe, in Rosario, where mayors have been socialists since 1989. Former two-term mayor Hermes Binner became acknowledged as a reference character for the party. In the 2005 parliamentary elections a Socialist-Radical alliance led by Binner won 5 seats in the national Lower House, in the elections of 2007 Binner, leading a broad, centre-leftist political coalition, became the first Socialist to be elected governor of an Argentine province. In the 2011 General Elections, Binner was the Socialist candidate and achieved 2nd place with 16.8% of votes.

Despite this number being well below the 54.1% achieved by Peronist leader Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, the Socialist Party considered the results of the election as significant and a sign of renewed interest by a sector of the population. In May 2012, Binner became the Socialist Party's president. For the 2015 general election, the PS entered in coalition with other centre-left and left-wing parties to form the Progresistas front, which endorsed Margarita Stolbizer for the presidency. Stolbizer landed 5th in the election with just over 2.5% of the vote, failing to pass the threshold for the run-off. During the same elections, Socialist Miguel Lifschitz was elected Governor of Santa Fe, succeeding Antonio Bonfatti. In April 2016, Bonfatti was chosen to succeed Binner as national president of the party. Following the 2017 legislative election, the party was left with a single national deputy, Luis Contigiani, no representatives in the Senate. In 2018, Contigiani left the Socialist Party's bloc in the Chamber of Deputies after being criticized by his party for refusing to vote in favor of a bill that would legalize abortion in the country.

In 2019 election PS didn't elect any deputies. Comité de Propaganda Gremial Centro de Estudios Carlos Marx Jeremy Adelman, "Socialism and Democracy in Argentina in the Age of the Second International," Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 211–238. In JSTOR

Pool of Radiance

Pool of Radiance is a role-playing video game developed and published by Strategic Simulations, Inc in 1988. It was the first adaptation of TSR's Advanced Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game for home computers, becoming the first episode in a four-part series of D&D computer adventure games; the other games in the "Gold Box" series used the game engine pioneered in Pool of Radiance, as did D&D titles such as the Neverwinter Nights online game. Pool of Radiance takes place in the Forgotten Realms fantasy setting, with the action centered in and around the port city of Phlan. Just as in traditional D&D games, the player starts by building a party of up to six characters, deciding the race, sex and ability scores for each; the player's party is enlisted to help the settled part of the city by clearing out the marauding inhabitants that have taken over the surroundings. The characters move on from one area to another, battling bands of enemies as they go and confronting the powerful leader of the evil forces.

During play, the player characters gain experience points, which allow them to increase their capabilities. The game uses a first-person perspective, with the screen divided into sections to display pertinent textual information. During combat sequences, the display switches to a top-down "video game isometric" view. Well received by the gaming press, Pool of Radiance won the Origins Award for "Best Fantasy or Science Fiction Computer Game of 1988"; some reviewers criticized the game's similarities to other contemporary games and its slowness in places, but praised the game's graphics and its role-playing adventure and combat aspects. Well-regarded was the ability to export player characters from Pool of Radiance to subsequent SSI games in the series. Pool of Radiance is based on the same game mechanics as the Advanced Dragons rule set; as in many role-playing games, each player character in Pool of Radiance has a character race and a character class, determined at the beginning of the game. Six races are offered, including halflings, as well as four classes.

Non-human characters have the option to become multi-classed, which means they gain the capabilities of more than one class, but advance in levels more slowly. During character creation, the computer randomly generates statistics for each character, although the player can alter these attributes; the player chooses each character's alignment, or moral philosophy. The player can customize the appearance and colors of each character's combat icon. Alternatively, the player can load a pre-generated party to be used for introductory play; these characters are combined with two slots open for NPCs. Players create their own save-game files, assuring character continuation regardless of events in the game. On an MS-DOS computer, the game can be copied to the hard-disk drive. Other computer systems, such as the Commodore 64, require a separate save-game disk; the game's "exploration" mode uses a three-dimensional first-person perspective, with a rectangle in the top left of the screen displaying the party's current view.

During gameplay, the player accesses menus to allow characters to use objects. Players can view characters' movement including an aerial view; the game uses three different versions of each sprite to indicate differences between short-, medium-, long-range encounters. In combat mode, the screen changes to a top-down mode with dimetric projection, where the player decides what actions the characters will take in each round; these actions are taken rather than after all commands have been issued as is standard in some RPGs. Optionally, the player can let the computer choose character moves for each round. Characters and monsters may make an extra attack on a retreating enemy. If a character's hit points fall below zero, he or she must be bandaged by another character or the character will die; the game contains random encounters, game reviewers for Dragon magazine observed that random encounters seem to follow standard patterns of encounter tables in pen and paper AD&D game manuals. They observed that the depictions of monsters confronting the party "looked as though they had jumped from the pages of the Monster Manual."Different combat options are available to characters based on class.

For example, fighters can wield ranged weapons. As fighters progress in level, they can attack more than once in a round. Fighters gain the ability to "sweep" enemies attacking each nearby low-level creature in the same turn. Magic-users and clerics are allowed to cast a set number of spells each day. Once cast, a spell must be memorized again before reuse; the process requires hours of inactivity for all characters. This chore of memorizing spells each night added to the amount of game management required by the player; as characters defeat enemies, they gain experience points. After gaining enough XP, the characters "train up a level" to become more powerful; this training is purchased in special areas within the city walls. In addition to training, mages can learn new spells by transcribing them from scrolls fo

Minister of Justice (Hungary)

The Minister of Justice of Hungary is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of Justice. The current justice minister is László Trócsányi; the position was called People's Commissar of Justice during the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919, Minister of Justice and Law Enforcement from 2006 to 2010 and Minister of Public Administration and Justice between 2010 and 2014. This page is a list of Ministers of Justice of Hungary. Parties Opposition Party Parties Opposition Party After the collapse of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Hungarian Kingdom became an integral part of the Austrian Empire until 1867, when dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was created. Parties Deák Party/Liberal Party/National Party of Work National Constitution Party F48P/F48P–Károlyi Civic Democratic Party Civic Radical Party Independent Parties Civic Radical Party F48P–Károlyi Parties MSZP/SZKMMP Parties Independent Parties MSZDP Parties National Democratic Civil Party Independent Parties National Democratic Civil Party National Smallholders and Agricultural Labourers Party EP–NEP–MÉP Independent Parties Arrow Cross Party Parties MSZDP Parties MSZDP MDP Parties MDP-MSZMP Parties MSZP MDF Independent Parties Independent Parties Fidesz Parties Independent List of heads of state of Hungary List of Prime Ministers of Hungary List of Ministers of Agriculture of Hungary List of Ministers of Civilian Intelligence Services of Hungary List of Ministers of Croatian Affairs of Hungary List of Ministers of Defence of Hungary List of Ministers of Education of Hungary List of Ministers of Finance of Hungary List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Hungary List of Ministers of Interior of Hungary List of Ministers of Public Works and Transport of Hungary Politics of Hungary

Geoffrey de Bocland

Geoffrey de Bocland, was an English justice, both a lawyer and a churchman. He was a justiciar in the years 1195—7, 1201-4, 1218, in all which years fines were levied before him on the feast of St. Margaret at Westminster; as early as the beginning of King John's reign he was connected with the exchequer, as late as 1220 he was a justice itinerant in the county of Hereford. His ecclesiastical career begins in 1200. Between 1200 and 1216 the churches of Tenham and Pageham were granted him, in the latter year, 25 March, he is found dean of St. Martin's-le-Grand, preferment which he obtained from the crown, he was concerned in the First Barons' War in 1216, twice in the year time and a safe-conduct were given him to appear before the king. In this year his manor of Tacheworth in Herefordshire was forfeited and granted to Nicholas de Jelland. On Henry III's accession he was restored to his judicial position, in 1224 he was still alive. In that year a claim was made against him by the Archdeacon of Colchester for Newport, an important portion of his deanery, he obtained a prohibition by writ against the archdeacon.

Shortly before there had been a dispute as to a vicarage in Colchester archdeaconry, that of Wytham, between Bocland and the canons of St. Martin's; the dean at last resigned whatever right he had to Eustace de Fauconbergh, Bishop of London, who granted it to the canons of St. Martin's, ordaining a perpetual vicarage there, but by February 1231 he was dead, had been succeeded by Walter de Maitland as dean of St. Martin's. Maitland was appointed 14 September 1225. An elder brother of his, William de Bocland, married a daughter of Geoffrey de Saye, sister-in-law of Geoffrey Fitz Peter, on the latter's death in 1214 Geoffrey de Bocland was ordered to sell to the king, at the market price, the corn and stock on Fitz Peter's estate at Berkhampstead. About the middle of the fourteenth century Maud, widow of William de Bocland, confirmed to the monastery of Walden the grant of the advowson of Essenham vicarage in the archdeaconry of Colchester; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Bocland, Geoffrey de".

Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

Nowa Huta. Okruchy ┼╝ycia i meandry historii

The Nowa Huta. Okruchy życia i meandry historii is a 2003 photo anthology compiled by Jerzy Aleksander Karnasiewicz and illustrated with photographs of Nowa Huta district of Kraków, Poland; the book, published bilingually in Polish and English, contains essays, sociological dissertations and the homilies of future Pope John Paul II given during his visits to Nowa Huta. The anthology was unveiled by the president of Kraków, prof. Jacek Majchrowski on October 14, 2003, with the honorary patronage of Cardinal Franciszek Macharski. Nowa Huta was to become a model socialist city for Stalinist propaganda. Following the establishing of the People's Republic of Poland, the Communist authorities commenced building a satellite industrial town near Kraków; the adjoining Vladimir Lenin Steelworks began operations on July 22, 1954. The new city was constructed according to a new doctrine of Socialist realism in Poland, its central avenue featured a countrywide-known statue of Vladimir Lenin. However, as early as in 1960, inhabitants of Nowa Huta began fighting for permit to build a church.

In that year, violent street-fights erupted over a wooden cross, erected by the locals who were supported by Bishop Karol Wojtyła. In the 1980s Nowa Huta became a place of demonstrations and violent street protests of the Solidarity movement, fought by the police, it was one of the most important centers of antiCommunist resistance, with numerous strike actions. The book follows this sociological phenomenon across several decades from its heyday until the fall of Communism, its aftermath. "There is an apparent paradox in Nowa Huta now being characterised as a place of insecurity, declining mobility and uncertainty, in contrast to its earlier characterisation as a place of opportunity and stability." The monument to the leader of the October Revolution was unveiled in Nowa Huta on April 28, 1973 in the avenue of Roses. It was a work of sculptor Marian Konieczny; the bronze monument depicted Lenin marching forward. The cast - made by the steelworks - was expensive, resulting in the workers' annual bonuses and their three-month premiums being cut by the conglomerate.

From the beginning the inhabitants didn't accept the presence of this gigantic statue. On the night of April 18, 1979 at around 3 a.m. a secret attempt was made to blow it up. The blast had such enormous striking power, that the window panes from all apartment blocks around the monument were blown out; however the explosion didn't cause the intended effect. Lenin lost only a part of the right foot; the perpetrators of the assault were never found. As envisioned by the Communist Party, Nowa Huta was the first town in Polish history deliberately built without a church. In 1959, Bishop Karol Wojtyła of Kraków - future Pope John Paul II - began an annual custom of celebrating Christmas Midnight Mass there in an open field; the persistent pressure by the Catholics succeeded, in 1977 a church was erected. The anthology Nowa Huta features two homilies by the future Pope: one from his 1979 visit to nearby Mogiła and the other, from 1983, given during his consecration of the church he fought for. Professor Alison Stenning came to Nowa Huta in 2000 on a two-year research project from the University of Birmingham to document the impact of the collapse of Communism in Poland.

As a socioeconomic geographer, she conducted interviews with the district inhabitants, studies of the diminishing role of the local steelworks in their daily lives. The respondents were not chosen accidentally, among them the present and the former factory employees. Stenning wanted to learn, how the everyday life had changed in Nowa Huta under the conditions of post-Socialism. Karnasiewicz took part in her research project and in November 2002 attended a meeting with dr Stenning by members of the forum, at which she presented her report entitled "Living in the Spaces of Post-Socialism: the Case of Nowa Huta", her material concerning the relation of the local community, the steel mill, the work of municipal government was interesting enough to merit its publication in the anthology. The book was conceived by an art photographer Jerzy Aleksander Karnasiewicz born in Tarnów, member of the Fotoklub of the Republic of Poland who's been taking photographs for over 28 years. He's a member of the Kraków Photographic Club.

Photo anthology Nowa Huta features some archival, as well as street photographs and psychological portraits taken by Karnasiewicz at the height of his artistic career. Featured there is an essay by prof. Ryszard Terlecki, historian an publicist, who presented an historical overview of the city, written from the European perspective, entitled "Pół wieku z widokiem na Nową Hutę". Meanwhile, Father Niward Karsznia from the 13th century Cistercian monastery in nearby Mogiła, writes about the order of Cistercian monks which he joined in 1948 in Nowa Huta, he arrived at Mogiła from Czarnolas. At that time, the monks led a contemplative lifestyle, focused on work. Everything changed, when the construction of steelworks encroached on their requsitioned monastic fields; the book features poems by two authors connected with the city, Barbara Urbańska, Ryszard Tylman. Tylman's long poem about the nighttime assault on the statue of Lenin, published in his book Koty marcowe, is illustrated with black and white photographs of the damaged monument, taken by Karnasiewicz secretly the following morni