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Maria II of Portugal

Dona Maria II "the Educator" or "the Good Mother", reigned as Queen of Portugal from 1826 to 1828, again from 1834 to 1853. Born in Rio de Janeiro, she was the first child of Emperor Pedro I of Brazil and his first wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina, thus a member of the House of Braganza. One of the two surviving children born when Pedro was still heir apparent to Portugal, she inherited Portuguese titles and was placed in the line of succession to the former Portuguese throne after becoming a member of the Brazilian Imperial Family, from which she was excluded in 1835 after her definitive ascension to the Portuguese throne. Maria II was born Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga on 4 April 1819 in the Palace of São Cristóvão in Rio de Janeiro, Kingdom of Brazil, she was the eldest daughter of the Prince Pedro de Alcântara, future King of Portugal as Pedro IV and first Emperor of Brazil as Pedro I, his first wife Maria Leopoldina, herself a daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor.

She was titled Princess of Beira upon her birth. Born in Brazil, Maria was the only European monarch to have been born outside of Europe, though she was still born in Portuguese territory; the death of Maria's grandfather, King João VI, in March 1826 sparked a succession crisis in Portugal. The king had a male heir, but Pedro had proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822 with himself as Emperor; the late king had a younger son, but he was exiled to Austria after leading a number of revolutions against his father and his liberal regime. Before his death, the king had nominated his favourite daughter, Isabel Maria, to serve as regent until "the legitimate heir returned to the kingdom" — but he had failed to specify which of his sons was the legitimate heir: Pedro, the liberal Emperor of Brazil, or Miguel, the absolutist exiled prince. Most people considered Pedro to be the legitimate heir, but Brazil did not want him to unite Portugal and Brazil's thrones again. Aware that his brother's supporters were ready to bring Miguel back and put him on the throne, Pedro decided for a more consensual option: he would renounce his claim to the Portuguese throne in favour of his daughter Maria, that she was to marry her uncle Miguel, who would accept the liberal constitution and act as a regent until his niece reached majority.

Miguel pretended to accept, but upon his arrival in Portugal he deposed Maria and proclaimed himself king, abrogating the liberal constitution in the process. During his reign of terror, Maria traveled to many European courts, including her maternal grandfather's in Vienna, as well as London and Paris. Maria's first reign was interrupted by the absolutist uprising led by her uncle, fiancé and regent Miguel, who proclaimed himself King of Portugal on 23 June 1828. Began the Liberal Wars that lasted until 1834, the year in which Maria was restored to the throne and Miguel exiled to Germany; the Marquis of Barbacena, arriving in Gibraltar with the princess on 3 September 1828, was informed by an emissary of what was happening in Portugal. He had the foresight to understand that Miguel had come from Vienna determined to put himself at the head of the absolutist movement, advised by Prince Klemens von Metternich, directing European politics, so it was dangerous for the young Queen to go to Vienna.

Taking responsibility, he changed the direction of the journey, departed for London, where he arrived on 7 October. English policy was not conducive to its purpose; the Duke of Wellington's office sponsored Miguel, so the asylum the Marquis had sought was not safe. Maria II was received in court with the honors due to her high hierarchy, but the British prevented their subjects there emigres to go to reinforce the garrison of the island Terceira. Miguel's coup d'état had not gone unrevealed. On 16 May 1828, the garrison of Porto revolted, in Lagos an infantry battalion; the revolts were stifled. Saldanha and others, who had come to take charge of the movement in Porto, re-embarked on Belfast ship, which had brought them. At the head of a small liberal expedition, the Marquis of Saldanha attempted to disembark in Terceira, but was not allowed to take the English cruise, whose vigilance he could not avoid for some time after the Count of Vila Flor of Terceira, was able to disembark. In time, because in August 1829 appeared in front of the island a huge Miguelist squad that sent to soil a body of disembarkation.

There was the Battle of August 11 in the village of Praia, where the miguelists were defeated. When the emigrants in England received the news of the victory, they felt great enthusiasm, they soon lost hope of knowing that the young queen was returning to the Brazilian Empire to her father. In fact, the situation of Maria II in the English court, next to the ministry in the power, became embarrassing and humiliating; the Queen left London to meet Amélie of Leuchtenberg. They left together on 30 August 1829 for Rio de Janeiro, arriving on 16 October; the constitutional cause was thought to have been lost. The dispersed emigres were divided into rival factions. Only Terceira Island recognized the constitutional principles, there appeared miguelists guerillas. France was ready to recognize Miguel's government when the revolution of July broke out in Paris in 1830, which encouraged the Portuguese liberals. In 7 April 1831, Pedro I abdicated the i

William Alexander Stewart

William Alexander Stewart was a linguist specializing in creoles, known for his work on African American Vernacular English. Stewart was born in Honolulu, Hawaii to Scottish parents, grew up speaking four languages. At the age of 8, he moved with his family California, his parents were killed in a car crash one year and he was raised by his father's parents. He served as an army translator before enrolling at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he obtained his Bachelor's and Master's degrees. Working for the Center for Applied Linguistics, Stewart undertook pioneering work on creoles in the Caribbean in the early 1960s. In 1965, he discovered that reading problems of some African-American children were caused not by vocabulary or pronunciation, but by differences between the grammar of African American Vernacular English and standard English. In the late 1960s, he explored the sociolinguistics of multilingualism, introducing the notions of polycentric languages and heteronomy. Standard language Language planning Post-creole continuum Monogenetic theory of pidgins List of diglossic regions Works by or about William Alexander Stewart in libraries William Alexander Stewart at Library of Congress Authorities

Paul M. Lisnek

Paul M. Lisnek was born on June 19, 1958 and is an attorney, legal consultant, political analyst, public speaker and radio talk show host and interviewer, author, he analyzed numerous nationally recognized legal cases. He resides in Chicago. Lisnek graduated from the University of Illinois in 1980 with a B. A. in political science and an M. A. in speech communication.. In 1983, Lisnek received a J. D. from the University of Illinois College of Law. In 1986, he completed a Ph. D. in speech communication from the same institution. At the start of his career, Lisnek was the Assistant Dean at the Loyola University Chicago School of Law, a visiting professor at Pepperdine University School of Law’s Institute for Dispute Resolution, DePaul University, the University of Illinois. In 1991 he founded the consulting firm Lisnek & Associates, he is a co-founder and current CEO of Decision Analysis, a California-based national legal consultation firm specializing in jury selection. Lisnek is a lecturer for BarBri on the subjects of Constitutional Law and Ethics.

He is a commissioner and inquiry panel chairperson for the Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission, a position he has held for over 20 years and for which he was recognized in 2009 by the Illinois Attorney and Disciplinary Commission. Lisnek has consulted and commentated on several legal cases of national attention, including O. J. Simpson murder case, Whitewater controversy, Heidi Fleiss, R. Kelly, Tony Rezko, he has appeared on national television news programs including CNN’s Anderson Cooper 360°, Court TV, CBS News, Fox News. Lisnek has been the Political Analyst for Chicago television station WGN-TV since 2008 and its 24-hour news channel sister station, CLTV, since 2009. Lisnek is featured discussing national and local political and sometimes legal issues. Lisnek is the host of "Politics Tonight" a nightly political talk show which airs on CLTV in Chicago, he hosts the television shows "Political Update" on the Comcast Network and "Newsmakers" on CNN Headline News, as well as the entertainment and politics radio talk show "The Paul Lisnek Show" on WVON in Chicago.

He appeared in the 2009 film Were the World Mine as a newscaster. In 2008, Lisnek won a Chicago/Midwest Chapter Emmy award for co-hosting the Chicago premiere of the movie Ocean’s 13 along with Lisa Aprati. In 2009, Lisnek received the Cablefax Award for Best Host of an Educational/Instructional program for "Political Update," and an Honorable Mention for Best Show or Series, Public Affairs, for "Political Update." Lisnek was awarded the Beacon Award for Best Series, "Political Update," in 2009 as well. Lisnek & Associates The Official TV & Radio Website of Paul Lisnek