Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian II known as Max Emanuel or Maximilian Emanuel, was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the last governor of the Spanish Netherlands and duke of Luxembourg. An able soldier, his ambition led to conflicts, he was born in Munich to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria and Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy. His maternal grandparents were Victor Amadeus I of Savoy and Christine Marie of France, daughter of King Henri IV. Maximilian inherited the elector's mantle while still a minor in 1679 and remained under his uncle Maximilian Philipp's regency until 1680. By 1683 he was embarked on a military career, fighting in the defense of Vienna against the attempt of the Ottoman Empire to extend their possessions further into Europe, he returned to court for long enough to marry Maria Antonia, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Margaret Theresa of Spain, on 15 July 1685 in Vienna, Austria. This marriage was unhappy since the couple disliked each other, but it was successful in producing a desired heir for both Bavaria and the Spanish monarchy.
Maximilian Emanuel's fame was assured when, in 1688, he led the capture of Belgrade from the Turks, with the full support of Serbian insurgents under the command of Jovan Monasterlija. In the War of the Grand Alliance he again fought on the Habsburgs' side, protected the Rhine frontier, being the Emperor's son-in-law and the husband of the King of Spain's niece, was appointed governor of the Spanish Netherlands in late 1691, his Netherlands adventure catalyzed Maximilian Emanuel's dynastic ambitions. One year after his appointment as governor, Maria Antonia died in Vienna, having given birth to a son, Joseph Ferdinand, appointed heir to the Spanish monarchy, but died before acceding thereto in 1699. An alternative avenue for Maximilian Emanuel's ambition was offered by his marriage on 12 January 1694 to Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska, the death of whose father, the elected King of Poland John III Sobieski, two years offered a potential avenue of influence in Polish affairs. However, he concentrated his interests in Western Europe, making his sons by Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska, Charles Albert and Clemens August, the principal beneficiaries of his ambitions.
The unsuccessful siege and bombardment of Brussels in 1695 during the Nine Years' War by French troops and the resulting fire during Max Emanuel's rule were together the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels. Maximilian Emanuel, who had married Archduchess Maria Antonia, the sole child of Emperor Leopold's Spanish marriage, was one of the more serious claimants to the Spanish inheritance of Charles II of Spain, the birth of his son Joseph Ferdinand in October 1692 created a new pretender to the Spanish throne. In October 1698, William III of England and Louis XIV of France concluded the First Partition Treaty, which gave the Spanish crown with the Indies to Joseph Ferdinand, Milan to Emperor Joseph's younger son Archduque Charles, the rest of Spanish Italy to France; the unexpected death of Joseph Ferdinand four months voided this plan and in the Second Partition Treaty, the Bavarian portion of the inheritance was allotted to Archduque Charles. By the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1701, Maximilian Emanuel, who had long-term imperial aspirations, had hoped that his governorship of the Spanish Netherlands might yet reap the reward of a share of the Spanish inheritance from either Leopold or, failing him, Louis XIV.
Allying himself with the French against Austria, his campaign against Tyrol in 1703 did not have success and his plans were frustrated by the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704. In 1704–05, following the evacuation of the Bavarian court to the Spanish Netherlands after the defeat at the Battle of Blenheim, Max Emanuel's consort was in charge of the government in the Stewardship of Munich of the Electorate of Bavaria as Regent Princess. However, when Theresa Kunegunda had found love letters of the Countess of Arco, a mistress of Max Emanuel, she left Munich to see her mother in Venice; the army would not allow her to return. In the ensuing evacuation of his court to the Netherlands, Maximilian Emanuel's family became separated and his sons were held prisoners for several years in Austria, Klemens August being brought up by Jesuits. Bavaria was partitioned between Elector Palatine; the harsh Austrian administration which managed to extract massive amounts of money and manpower from Bavaria led to a serious peasant uprising within a year.
Maximilian Emanuel was again forced to flee the Netherlands after the Battle of Ramillies on 23 May 1706 and found refuge at the French court in Versailles where his late sister Maria Anna had been the wife of the Grand Dauphin. In 1712, Luxemburg and Namur were ceded to Maximilian Emanuel by his French allies, a cession, not definitive since France was only the occupant of what was still the Spanish Netherlands; the war between France and Austria ended in 1714 in the Treaty of Rastatt in which Louis XIV compelled Austria to implement the full restoration of his faithful ally Maximilian Emanuel, including the return of the Upper Palatinate. Maximilian Emanuel was to remain in possession of Luxemburg and Charleroi until he was restored. Back in Bavaria, Maximilian Emanuel focused on architecture projects to balance the failure of his political ambitions, it was bitter for him to witness the royal elevation of the German princes Augustus II the Strong, Frederick I of Prussia and George I of Hanover as well as of his cousin Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia while his own political dreams cou
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Croatia, Transylvania, Milan and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands, Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress, she started her 40-year reign when her father, Emperor Charles VI, died in October 1740. Charles VI paved the way for her accession with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and spent his entire reign securing it, he neglected the advice of Prince Eugene of Savoy, who averred that a strong military and a rich treasury were more important than mere signatures. He left behind a weakened and impoverished state due to the War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War. Moreover, upon his death, Prussia and France all repudiated the sanction they had recognised during his lifetime. Frederick II of Prussia promptly invaded and took the affluent Habsburg province of Silesia in the seven-year conflict known as the War of the Austrian Succession.
In defiance of the grave situation, she managed to secure the vital support of the Hungarians for the war effort. Over the course of the war, despite the loss of Silesia and a few minor territories in Italy, Maria Theresa defended her rule over most of the Habsburg empire. Maria Theresa unsuccessfully tried to reconquer Silesia during the Seven Years' War. Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, had eleven daughters, including the Queen of France, the Queen of Naples and Sicily, the Duchess of Parma, five sons, including two Holy Roman Emperors, Joseph II and Leopold II. Of the sixteen children, ten survived to adulthood. Though she was expected to cede power to Francis and Joseph, both of whom were her co-rulers in Austria and Bohemia, Maria Theresa was the absolute sovereign who ruled with the counsel of her advisers. Maria Theresa promulgated institutional and educational reforms, with the assistance of Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz and Gerard van Swieten.
She promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, reorganised Austria's ramshackle military, all of which strengthened Austria's international standing. However, she despised the Jews and the Protestants, on certain occasions she ordered their expulsion to remote parts of the realm, she advocated for the state church and refused to allow religious pluralism. Her regime was criticized as intolerant by some contemporaries; the second and eldest surviving child of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Archduchess Maria Theresa was born on 13 May 1717 in Vienna, a year after the death of her elder brother, Archduke Leopold, was baptised on that same evening. The dowager empresses, her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, were her godmothers. Most descriptions of her baptism stress that the infant was carried ahead of her cousins, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia, the daughters of Charles VI's elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, before the eyes of their mother, Wilhelmine Amalia.
It was clear that Maria Theresa would outrank them though their grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, had his sons sign the Mutual Pact of Succession, which gave precedence to the daughters of the elder brother. Her father was the only surviving male member of the House of Habsburg and hoped for a son who would prevent the extinction of his dynasty and succeed him. Thus, the birth of Maria Theresa was the people of Vienna. Maria Theresa replaced Maria Josepha as heir presumptive to the Habsburg realms the moment she was born. Charles sought the other European powers' approval for disinheriting his nieces, they exacted harsh terms: in the Treaty of Vienna, Great Britain demanded that Austria abolish the Ostend Company in return for its recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction. In total, Great Britain, Saxony, United Provinces, Prussia, Denmark, Sardinia and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. France, Saxony and Prussia reneged. Little more than a year after her birth, Maria Theresa was joined by a sister, Maria Anna, another one, named Maria Amalia, was born in 1724.
The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Elisabeth Christine and Maria Anna. The Prussian ambassador noted that she had large blue eyes, fair hair with a slight tinge of red, a wide mouth and a notably strong body. Unlike many other members of the House of Habsburg, neither Maria Theresa's parents nor her grandparents were related to each other. Maria Theresa was a reserved child who enjoyed singing and archery, she was barred from horse riding by her father, but she would learn the basics for the sake of her Hungarian coronation ceremony. The imperial family staged opera productions conducted by Charles VI, in which she relished participating, her education was overseen by Jesuits. Contemporaries thought her Latin to be quite good, but in all else, the Jesuits did not educate her well, her spelling and punctuation were unconventional and she lacked the formal manner and speech which had characterised her Habsburg predecessors. Maria Theresa developed a close relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard
Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen
Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen, was the fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Married in 1766 to Prince Albert of Saxony, the couple received the Duchy of Teschen, she was appointed Governor of the Austrian Netherlands jointly with her husband during 1781–1789 and 1791–1792. After two expulsions from the Netherlands, she lived with her husband in Vienna until her death; the fifth child and fourth daughter, Maria Christina was born on the 25th birthday of her mother, on 13 May 1742 at Vienna, Austria. The next day she was baptized in the Hofburg with the names Maria Christina Johanna Josepha Antonia, she was Maria Theresa's favourite child, as can be seen in the letters that the Empress wrote to her. Little is known about her early childhood. In a letter dated 22 March 1747 the Prussian ambassador in Vienna, Count Otto Christoph von Podewils, described the five-year-old Maria Christina as pretty and witty; the Archduchess and spirited in her youth, received a loving education from her parents.
That notorious preference that Maria Christina received from her mother caused the intense jealousy of her brothers and sisters, who avoided her and criticized her prominent position within the family more and more vehemently. Maria Christina got along badly with her governess, Princess Maria Charlotte Trautson. However, the Empress only agreed to change her governess in 1756, when she appointed the widowed Countess Maria Anna Vasquez née Kokosova to the position. Maria Christina's relationship with Vasquez was much better, a few years Countess Vasquez was named Obersthofmeisterin of Maria Christina's household. Beautiful intelligent but artistically gifted, Maria Christina enjoyed a conscientious education; the Jesuit Father Lachner taught her several languages and history. The Archduchess learned, among other things, perfect Italian and French, according to Podewils, she liked to speak, as well as quite good English, she proved early as a talented painter. In Schönbrunn Palace were exhibited drawings of the imperial family who testify her great artistic talent.
She painted some family members including herself and copy Genre painting of Dutch and French masters. One particular portrait made by Maria Christina in Gouache about 1762 showed the Imperial family celebrating Saint Nicholas: there the Emperor is showed reading the newspaper and the Empress serving the coffee, while her three youngest siblings were with their gifts; the 17 year old Maria Christina had a romance with Duke Louis Eugene of Württemberg, but a marriage between them displeased the Empress, who believed that the third son of the Duke of Württemberg wasn't of enough rank for an Archduchess. In early January 1760 arrived to the Imperial court Princes Albert and Clemens of Saxony and both were warmly received by the Emperor and Empress. Prince Albert met the lovely Archduchess on the occasion of a concert, in which she participated, soon he took a great affection for her, as he recalled in his memoirs. At the end of January 1760, Albert and Clemens returned from Vienna. In the following years, Maria Christina developed an intense love affair with Princess Isabella of Parma, who married the future Emperor Joseph II on 6 October 1760.
Among other things, the two young women played together. The beautiful and sensitive Isabella, who detested the court ceremonial and her position as wife of the Habsburg heir, wanted a more sensual destiny. While her husband loved her deeply, she was cold towards him. On the contrary, for Maria Christina she had a heartfelt affection, expressed in about 200 letters between them written in French; the two women seemed to have a romantic lesbian affair. They spent so much time together that they earned the comparison with Eurydice. Isabel and Mimi were united not only by a shared interest in music and art but by a deep mutual love; every day they wrote long letters to each other. Maria Christina made a formal description of Isabella, in which she portrayed here as amiable and generous, but she did not spare her weaknesses; the early demise of her sister-in-law on 27 November 1763 following childbirth complications, left Maria Christina heartbroken. In December 1763, Prince Albert of Saxony returned to Vienna to show his condolences to the Imperial family for Isabella of Parma's death.
He became a good friend of the late Isabella after her marriage with the future Joseph II and, as he noted in his diary developed a close relationship with Maria Christina. In 1764 the Saxon prince saw the Archduchess, firstly in the spring in Vienna and in Pressburg, the former capital of Hungary, more often. After this visits, Maria Christina became in love with Albert, despite his affection to the Archduchess, didn't believe that he could obtain her hand in marriage because of his weak and politically unstable position for the imperial standards, but he was invited to Vienna to study a new service regulation for the cavalry, to participate in hunts and amusements of the Imperial court, received the invitation of Maria Christina to give her feelings for her free rein, but not yet publicly. Maria Christina had a strong influence on her mo
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VII was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in three centuries, though he was connected to that house both by blood and by marriage. Charles Albert was born in Brussels, the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska, daughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland, his family was split during the War of the Spanish Succession and was for many years under house arrest in Austria. Only in 1715 was the family reunited. After attaining his majority in August 1715, he undertook an educational tour of Italy from 3 December 1715 until 24 August 1716. In 1717, he served with Bavarian auxiliaries in the Austro-Turkish War. On 5 October 1722, Charles Albert married Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria, whom he had met at the imperial court in Vienna, she was the younger daughter of the late Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, his wife Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
In 1725 Charles Albert visited Versailles for the wedding of Louis XV of France, established firm contacts with the French court. In 1726, when his father died, Charles Albert became Duke of Bavaria and a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he maintained good relations both with his Habsburg relatives and with France, continuing his father's policies. In 1729 he instituted the knightly Order of St George; that year, he started building the Rothenberg Fortress. In continuance of the policy of his father, Charles Albert aspired to an higher rank; as son-in-law of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles Albert rejected the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 and claimed the German territories of the Habsburg dynasty after the death of emperor Charles VI in 1740. With the treaty of Nymphenburg concluded in July 1741, Charles Albert allied with France and Spain against Austria. During the War of the Austrian Succession Charles Albert invaded Upper Austria in 1741 and planned to conquer Vienna, but his allied French troops under the Duc de Belle-Isle were redirected to Bohemia instead and Prague was conquered in November 1741.
So Charles Albert was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague. He was unanimously elected "King of the Romans" on 24 January 1742 with the vote of George II, became Holy Roman Emperor upon his coronation on 12 February 1742, his brother Klemens August of Bavaria and elector of Cologne, who sided with the Austria Habsburg-Lorraine faction in the disputes over the Habsburg succession, cast his vote for him and crowned him emperor at Frankfurt. Charles VII was the second Wittelsbach Emperor after Louis IV and the first Wittelsbach King of the Romans since the reign of Rupert of Germany. Shortly after the coronation most of Charles Albert's territories were overrun by the Austrians, Bavaria was occupied by the troops of Maria Theresa; the emperor fled Munich and resided for three years in the Palais Barckhaus in Frankfurt. Most of Bohemia was lost in December 1742 when the Austrians allowed the French under the Duc de Belle-Isle and the Duc de Broglie an honourable capitulation. Charles Albert was mocked as an emperor who neither controlled his own realm, nor was in effective control of the empire itself, though the institution of the Holy Roman Emperor had become symbolic in nature and powerless by that time.
A popular Latin saying about him was et Caesar et nihil, meaning "both Emperor and nothing", a word-play on aut Caesar aut nihil, "either Emperor or nothing". Charles Albert's general Ignaz Felix, Count of Törring-Jettenbach was compared to a drum, as people heard about him only when he was beaten. Charles VII tried to emphasise his government in Frankfurt with numerous acts of law, such as the grant of imperial privilege to the University of Erlangen in 1743 and the creation of several new imperial nobles. Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg was declared to be of full age ahead of time in 1744. Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis served as Principal Commissioner for Charles VII at the Perpetual Imperial Diet in Frankfurt am Main and in 1744 the Thurn und Taxis dynasty were appointed hereditary Postmasters General of the Imperial Reichspost; the new commander of the Bavarian army, Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff, fought Austria in a series of battles in 1743 and 1744. In 1743 his troops and their allies took Bavaria and Charles VII was able to return to Munich in April for some time.
After the allied French had to retreat after defeats to the Rhine, he lost Bavaria again. The new campaign of Frederick II of Prussia during the Second Silesian War forced the Austrian army to leave Bavaria and to retreat back into Bohemia. In October 1744 Charles VII returned. Under the mediation of the former Vice-Chancellor Friedrich Karl von Schönborn, the emperor sought a balance with Vienna, but at the same time negotiated unsuccessfully with France for new military support. Suffering from gout, Charles died at Nymphenburg Palace in January 1745, his brother Klemens August again leaned towards Austria, his son and successor Maximilian III Joseph made peace with Austria. With the Treaty of Füssen Austria recognized the legitimacy of Charles VII's election as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles Albert is buried in the crypt of the Theatinerkirche in Munich. Charles Albert's reign was the height of the Bavarian Rococo era; the Nymphenburg Palace was completed during his reign: the grand circle of baroque mansions erected there was intended as a starting point for a new city, but this was not achieved.
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was a title used by Syagrius by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope; the title referred to any elected king who had not yet been granted the Imperial Regalia and title of "Emperor" at the hands of the Pope. It came to be used for the heir apparent to the Imperial throne between his election and his succession upon the death of the Emperor, their actual title varied over time. During the Ottonian period it was King of the Franks, from the late Salian period it was Roman King or King of the Romans. In the Modern Period, the title King in Germania came into use. Modern German historiography established the term Roman-German King to differentiate it from the ancient Roman Emperor as well as from the modern German Emperor; the territory of East Francia was not referred to as the Kingdom of Germany or Regnum Teutonicum by contemporary sources until the 11th century.
During this time, the king's claim to coronation was contested by the papacy culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy. After the Salian heir apparent Henry IV, a six-year-old minor, had been elected to rule the Empire in 1056 he adopted Romanorum Rex as a title to emphasize his sacred entitlement to be crowned Emperor by the Pope. Pope Gregory VII insisted on using the derogatory term Teutonicorum Rex in order to imply that Henry's authority was local and did not extend over the whole Empire. Henry continued to use the title Romanorum Rex until he was crowned Emperor by Antipope Clement III in 1084. Henry's successors imitated this practice, were called Romanorum Rex before and Romanorum Imperator after their Roman coronations. Candidates for the kingship were at first the heads of the Germanic stem duchies; as these units broke up, rulers of smaller principalities and non-Germanic rulers were considered for the position. The only requirements observed were that the candidate be an adult male, a Catholic Christian, not in holy orders.
The kings were elected by several Imperial Estates in the imperial city of Frankfurt after 1147, a custom recorded in the Schwabenspiegel code in about 1275. All noblemen present could vote by unanimous acclamation, but a franchise was granted to only the most eminent bishops and noblemen, according to the Golden Bull of 1356 issued by Emperor Charles IV only the seven Prince-electors had the right to participate in a majority voting as determined by the 1338 Declaration of Rhense, they were the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne as well as the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Saxon duke, the Margrave of Brandenburg. After the Investiture Controversy, Charles intended to strengthen the legal status of the Rex Romanorum beyond Papal approbation. Among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome and in 1530 Charles V was the last king to receive the Imperial Crown at the hands of the Pope; the Golden Bull remained effective as constitutional law until the Empire's dissolution in 1806.
After his election, the new king would be crowned as King of the Romans at Charlemagne's throne in Aachen Cathedral by the Archbishop of Cologne. Though the ceremony was no more than a symbolic validation of the election result, it was solemnly celebrated; the details of Otto's coronation in 936 are described by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae. The kings received the Imperial Crown from at least 1024, at the coronation of Conrad II. In 1198 the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia was crowned Rex Romanorum at Mainz Cathedral, but he had another coronation in Aachen after he had prevailed against his Welf rival Otto IV. At some time after the ceremony, the king would, if possible, cross the Alps, to receive coronation in Pavia or Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy, he would travel to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope. Because it was possible for the elected King to proceed to Rome for his crowning, several years might elapse between election and coronation, some Kings never completed the journey to Rome at all.
As a suitable title for the King between his election and his coronation as Emperor, Romanorum Rex would stress the plenitude of his authority over the Empire and his warrant to be future Emperor without infringing upon the Papal privilege. Not all Kings of the Romans made this step, sometimes because of hostile relations with the Pope, or because either the pressure of business at home or warfare in Germany or Italy made it impossible for the King to make the journey. In such cases, the king might retain the title "King of the Romans" for his entire reign; the title Romanorum Rex became functionally obsolete after 1508, when the Pope permitted King Maximilian I to use the title of Electus Romanorum Imperator after he failed in a good-faith attempt to journey to Rome. At this time Maximilian took the new title "King of the Germans" or "King in Germany", but the latter was never used as a primary title; the rulers of the Empire thereafter ca
Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire, below that of Emperor and King and above that of a Grand Duke and Prince; the territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918; the English word is first recorded in 1530, derived from Middle, via Old, French archeduc, from Merovingian Latin archidux, from Greek arch-, ἀρχι- meaning "authority" or "primary" and dux "duke" "Archduke" is a title distinct from "Grand Duke", a monarchic title borne by the rulers of other European countries. The first known claim to the title of Archduke was by the rulers of Austrasia, one of the Merovingian realms resulting from the complex successions in the house of Clovis comprising Germany and the Low Countries. In the Carolingian Empire, the title Archduke was awarded not as rank of nobility, but as a unique honorary title to the Duke of Lotharingia.
The Lotharingian Duchy could be seen as the successor to the former Carolingian Kingdom of Lotharingia, a realm, of equal stature with West Francia in the dynastic divisions under the early heirs of Charlemagne. Lotharingia was absorbed by East Francia, becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire rather than a independent Kingdom. After the split of the Duchy of Lotharingia in 959 into the Duchies of Upper Lotharingia in the south and Lower Lotharingia in the north, the title Archduke disappeared for 400 years; the extended fragmentation of both territories created two "succeeding" Duchies in the Low Countries and Geldre. Both claimed archducal status but were never recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor. Archduke of Austria, the only archducal title to re-emerge, was invented in the Privilegium Maius in the 14th century by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria, it was meant to emphasize the claimed precedence of the Duchy of Austria, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on an level with the Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire, as Austria had been passed over when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that dignity to the four highest-ranking secular Imperial princes and three Archbishops.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title, as did all the other ruling dynasties of the member countries of the Empire. But Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title of Archduke; the archducal title was only recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had solidified their grip on the throne of the de jure elected Holy Roman Emperor, making it de facto hereditary. Despite that imperial authorization of the title, which showed a Holy Roman Emperor from the Habsburg dynasty deciding over a title claim of the Habsburg dynasty, many ruling dynasties of the countries which formed the Empire refused to recognize the title "Archduke". Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria, who died in 1457, did never get in his lifetime the imperial authorization to use it, accordingly, neither he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty used the title. Emperor Frederick III himself used the title "Duke of Austria", never Archduke, until his death in 1493.
The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria, who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick III granted the title of Archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria. Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy, as Archduke never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries; the title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and his son Philip in the Low Countries. Archduke was borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory—i.e. Only by males and their consorts, appanages being distributed to cadets, but these "junior" archdukes did not thereby become sovereign hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. A territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet. From the 16th century onward, "Archduke" and its female form, "Archduchess", came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg.
Upon extinction of the male line of the Habsburgs and the marriage of their heiress, the Holy Roman Empress-consort Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Archduchess of Austria, to Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, elected Holy Roman Emperor, their descendants formed the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire this usage was retained in the Austrian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the official use of titles of nobility and of all other hereditary ti
Jakub Sobieski was a Polish noble, diarist, political activist, military leader and father of King John III Sobieski. He was the son of voivode Marek Sobieski and Jadwiga Snopkowska. Sobieski was educated in Paris, he was parliamentarian. He participated in the military expedition against Russia in 1617-1618, was a member of the War Council of King Władysław IV, he took part in negotiations with Muscovy in the Truce of Deulino in 1618. Subsequently he fought in the Chocim expedition against the Ottoman Empire in 1621, the expedition against Abazy Pasa in 1633, he was one of the negotiations with Sweden in the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf in 1635. After his marriage to Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz his wealth increased as Zofia brought in her inheritance after the Żółkiewski family and part of the Daniłowski family estates, including Żółkiew Castle, he was courtier since 1617, Krajczy of the Crown since 1626, Podczaszy of the Crown since 1636, voivode of Belz Voivodeship since 1638 and of Ruthenian Voivodeship since 1641 and castellan of Kraków since 1646.
Starost of Trembowla, Jaworów, Stryj, Kałusz and Gniewo. Elected Deputy to seven Sejms between 1623 and 1632, as Sejm Marshal he led the ordinary Sejm in Warsaw on January 24 - March 5, 1623 and on January 27 - March 10, 1626, the extraordinary Sejm in Warsaw on June 27 - July 18, 1628 and the Election Sejm in Warsaw on September 24 - November 15, 1632, he was considered by his contemporaries a honorable person. Member of many commissions and diplomatic bodies, he acted as a mediator or as a guardian of orphaned children. In politics, he supported king's plans, but was a defender of the nobility rights and religious tolerance. Marek became starost. John became Marshal and King of Poland. Katarzyna married Władysław Dominik Zasławski and Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł. Anna Rozalia became a Benedictine nun in Lwów. During the Chocim expedition in 1621 he wrote a diary called Commentariorum chotinensis belli libri tres, published in 1646 in Danzig, it was used by Wacław Potocki as a basis for his epic poem, Transakcja wojny chocimskiej.
He authored Commentariorum Chotinensis belli libri tres and instructions for his sons journeying to Kraków and France which are seen as a prime example of liberal education of that era. Zolochiv Castle Jakub Sobieski, entry from PSB Jakub Sobieski, the King's Father at the Wilanów Palace Museum