Maricopa Wells, Arizona
Maricopa Wells is a populated place situated in Pinal County, Arizona. It has an estimated elevation of 1,093 feet above sea level, it was an oasis around a series of watering holes in the Sierra Estrella, eight miles north of present-day Maricopa and about a mile west of Pima Butte. It developed as a trading stopping place for travelers in the mid to late 19th century. Maricopa Wells was a watering place named by travelers on the Southern Emigrant Trail who used it as a stopping place on the trail, they could water their animals. They traded with the nearby Maricopa and Pima natives for crops produced in their fields, which they irrigated by the Gila River. A settlement developed here when it was the base for the large stage station for the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and Butterfield Overland Mail, stage companies. At one time this was the primary military telegraph post for all of Arizona Territory, it was abandoned after the railroad constructed a route north through Tempe to Phoenix. Maricopaville was planned as a terminus before Tempe won a spot on the line, constructed.
The settlement moved east to. Battle of Pima Butte Google Map: Maricopa Wells, Arizona MARICOPA WELLS and the BUTTERFIELD OVERLAND STAGE HERE Topographic map of Maricopa Wells, from www.topoquest.com
Maricopa County, Arizona
Maricopa County is a county in the south-central part of the U. S. state of Arizona. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated its population was 4,307,033 as of 2017, making it the state's most populous county, the fourth-most populous in the United States, containing more than half the population of Arizona, it is more populous than 23 states. The county seat is the state capital and fifth-most populous city in the United States. Maricopa County is the central county of the Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area. Maricopa County was named after the Maricopa Indians. There are five Indian reservations located in the county; the largest are the Gila River Indian Community. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 9,224 square miles, of which 9,200 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water. Maricopa County is one of the largest counties in the United States by area, with a land area greater than that of four states. From west to east, it stretches 132 miles and 103 miles from north to south.
It is by far Arizona's most populous county, encompassing well over half of the state's residents. It is the largest county in the United States to have a capital city. La Paz County – west Yuma County – west Pima County – south Pinal County – southeast Gila County – east Yavapai County – north Sonoran Desert National Monument Tonto National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 3,072,149 people, 1,132,886 households, 763,565 families residing in the county; the population density was 334 people per square mile. There were 1,250,231 housing units at an average density of 136/sq mi; the racial makeup of the county was 77.4% White, 3.7% African American, 1.9% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 11.9% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. 29.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.1% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 1,132,886 households out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families.
24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.21. The population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 19.80% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,358, the median income for a family was $51,827. Males had a median income of $36,858 versus $28,703 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,251. About 8.0% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 3,817,117 people, 1,411,583 households, 932,814 families residing in the county; the population density was 414.9 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,639,279 housing units at an average density of 178.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.0% white, 5.0% black or African American, 3.5% Asian, 2.1% American Indian, 0.2% Pacific islander, 12.8% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 29.6% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 1,411,583 households, 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age was 34.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,054 and the median income for a family was $65,438. Males had a median income of $45,799 versus $37,601 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,816. About 10.0% of families and 13.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.
According to data provided by the United States Census Bureau in October 2015 and collected from 2009-2013, 73.72% of the population aged five years and over spoke only English at home, while 20.32% spoke Spanish, 0.56% spoke Chinese, 0.47% Vietnamese, 0.41% Tagalog, 0.37% Arabic, 0.36% German, 0.30% French, 0.25% Navajo, 0.21% Korean, 0.20% Hindi, 0.15% Italian, 0.14% Persian, 0.13% Russian, 0.13% Serbocroatian, 0.12% Telugu, 0.12% Polish, 0.11% Syriac, 0.11% Japanese, 0.11% spoke Romanian, 0.10% spoke other Native North American languages at home. The governing body of Maricopa County is its Board of Supervisors; the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors consists of five members chosen by popular vote within their own districts. The Board consists of four Republicans, each representing districts in the more affluent or conservative districts of the county, one Democrat, representing the largest district; each member serves a four-year term, with no term limits. The Maricopa County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, administers the county jail, patrols the unincorporated areas of the county plus incorporated towns by contract.
Maricopa County has a long history of being a Republican Party stronghold. While the city of Phoenix leans towards the Democratic Party, along with some other small areas within the county, the rest of the
Goodyear is a city in Maricopa County, United States. It is a suburb of Phoenix and at the 2010 census had a population of 65,275, the third fastest-growing city in Arizona between 1990 and 2000; the 2017 population estimate was 79,858. The city is home to the Goodyear Ballpark, where the Cleveland Indians and Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball hold spring training. In 2008, Goodyear won the All-America City Award, sponsored by the National Civic League; the city is named after the Goodyear Rubber Company. The company cultivated extensive farmland here to grow cotton for use in their tires. Goodyear was established in 1917 with the purchase of 16,000 acres of land by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company to cultivate cotton for vehicle tire cords. World War II was important to Goodyear in the 1940s as the current Phoenix Goodyear Airport was built, but after the war, the economy suffered. Goodyear became a town on November 19, 1946. At the time, it had 151 homes and 250 apartments, a grocery store, a barber shop, beauty shop and a gas station.
Luke Field Auxiliary #6 was built by the United States Army Air Forces in 1943. It served as a satellite airfield for Luke AAF. According to the History of Luke AFB, this airfield boasted the most facilities, it had separate buildings for crew chiefs, supply, pit latrine, crash truck shed, generator shed and a control tower. Luke AF Auxiliary #6 ceased operations by 1971; the property, in a state of complete abandonment, is owned by the State of Arizona, which has worked with developers on proposals for use. In January 1965, the Phoenix Trotting Park, a harness racing track opened, the current Interstate 10 passes north of the site; as the region lacked major roads from Phoenix to Goodyear, there was not enough business and the track closed two years later. The Park no longer stands, it was demolished in 2017; the park had been abandoned since the late 1960s. The town became a city in 1985. In the same decade, the remaining 10,000 acres of the original farmland was sold for future development; the Phoenix Goodyear Airport received its current name in 1986.
Although Goodyear was founded in 1917, the majority of construction and population growth happened after 1990. 22 communities that are completed and under construction have a total area of 20,000 acres. These communities, along with another 21 communities for future suburban development, will contain 200,000 homes, with only 25,000 built. Goodyear was affected by the 2000s American housing bubble. Since the housing market has rebounded considerably. According to Opendoor, zip code 85338 in Goodyear was the fifth most popular place in the Phoenix metro area to buy a home, based on home sales. There are a variety of home options in 2019 to accommodate families, those who are single, seniors; as the population in Goodyear grows faster than home builders and community developers are working to keep up with the demand. Estrella is the largest community in Goodyear, at 20,000 acres; the community is home to about 10,000 residents. Palm Valley, located north of Interstate 10, is 9,000 acres, with variously-sized homes.
PebbleCreek is a community for active adult living, with 45 holes of championship golf, fitness centers, restaurants. From the 1990s through the 2010s, residential development has stimulated the growth of Goodyear as a suburb of Phoenix. Goodyear's population is projected to be 358,000 by 2035. Goodyear is located at 33°27′00″N 112°21′30″W. Nearby cities include Avondale, Litchfield Park and Buckeye. Goodyear is about 17 miles west of downtown Phoenix. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.5 square miles, all of it land. The Gila River passes through the city; the largest master planned community is Estrella, south of the Gila River, located near the Estrella Mountains. The Estrella Mountain Regional Park covers 20,000 acres, most of that area is still desert, it contains eight trails over 30 mi in length combined, two baseball fields, a 9.5 mi track. Goodyear has a subtropical desert climate due to its location in the Sonoran Desert; the city receives somewhere around ten inches of rain annually.
The city has more than 300 sunny days per year. Winters are sunny with mild temperatures -- nighttime lows averaging between 40°F and 50°F and daytime highs ranging from 60°F to 75°F; the lowest temperature recorded in Goodyear is 16°F. Summers are hot, with daily high temperatures at or above 100°F for the entirety of June and August, as well as many days in May and September. An occasional heat wave will spike temperatures over 115°F briefly. Nighttime lows in the summer months average between 70°F and 80°F, with an occasional overnight low above 80°F not uncommon; the highest recorded temperature in Goodyear is 125°F. Snow is rare in the area, occurring once every several years. Lows in the winter dip below freezing, which may damage some desert plants such as saguaros and other cacti. In the summer, the North American Monsoon can hit the Phoenix area in the afternoon and evening, causing rain showers from a sunny morning. Dust storms are occasional during the summer; as of 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau reported.
71.9% of the city's population was White, 6.7% were Black, 1.3% were Native American, 4.3% were Asian. 27.8 % were Latino of any race. There were 25,027 housing
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Ak-Chin Indian Community
The Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa Indian Reservation is a federally recognized tribe and Native American community located in the Santa Cruz Valley in Pinal County, Arizona, 37 miles south of Phoenix and near the City of Maricopa. The Community is composed of Akimel Oʼodham and Tohono Oʼodham, as well as some ethnic Hia-Ced Oʼodham members; the Maricopa Reservation was established by the federal government in 1912, under President William Howard Taft. Gaining federal recognition in 1961, the tribe has established a large agricultural operation, aided by gaining water rights to the Colorado River in a 1984 federal settlement; this settlement enabled it to continue using irrigation to support other needs. The Community opened a gaming casino in 1994, Harrah's Ak-Chin Casino, with related hotel facilities. In 2011 the casino and resort was the major contributor to the economy of Pinal County. In July 2011, the casino underwent a $20 million expansion, with addition of a new 152-room hotel tower that doubled its capacity.
The resort now has 300 rooms, an outdoor swimming pool, completed in 2012. The resort features five restaurants, an entertainment venue and conference space, the only bingo hall in the Caesars organization, it has generated revenues. In 2006, the Ak-Chin Indian Community purchased the Phoenix Regional Airport, renamed Ak-Chin Regional Airport. Located near the Santa Cruz Commerce Center, the 170-acre Ak-Chin Regional Airport consists of an airport building with a 5,000 ft. runway. On July 1, 2010, the Ak-Chin Indian Community purchased the Royal Dunes golf course and renamed it as the Ak-Chin Southern Dunes Golf Club; the course was designed and built in 2002 by Fred Couples and Schmidt Curley. Ak-Chin Southern Dunes Golf Club has been named among the "Best Top Casino Courses, Resort Courses and Courses You Can Play" by Golfweek. In April 2012, the Community opened the new Vekol Market, which includes a deli, a wide selection of groceries, culturally indigenous foods, a café, a patio with outside seating, space for a seasonal farmer's market.
On November 14, 2012, the Community opened UltraStar Multi-Tainment Center at Ak-Chin Circle. The center features a state-of-the-art movie theater, arcade games, laser tag and multiple dining options; the Maricopa Reservation was established by the federal government in 1912, under President William Howard Taft, at 47,600 acres in size. Within months the administration gave in to opposition from European-American farmers and other non-Natives and reduced the reservation to 22,000 acres; the reservation is located in Pinal County within the Sonoran Desert, about 40 miles south of Phoenix and next to Maricopa. Averaging an elevation of 1,186 feet, the reservation is located 37 miles south of Phoenix. Much of the land is good for farming, 15,000 acres are under irrigation; the Ak-Chin Indian Community is headquartered in Arizona. In the mid-20th century it reorganized, creating a written constitution, by-laws, elected government, gaining federal recognition in 1961. Prior to 2017, Tribal Council Members served three-year terms, were elected annually on a staggered basis.
The Council elected a vice-chairman. Beginning with 2017, the Chairman and Vice Chairman were elected at-large to serve four-year terms; the three Council Members will serve two-year terms. The November 2016 election was historic because it was the first time that Community members were able to vote directly for Chairman and Vice Chairman. A change to the constitution was adopted in July 2016 allowing for candidates to run for a specific office and for Community members to vote for the Chairman and Vice Chairman in addition to Council Members; as of 2017, the tribal council members and presiding officers are the following: Council Member: Robert Miguel, Chairman Council Member: Gabriel Lopez, Vice Chairman Council Member: Delia M. Carlyle Council Member: Lisa Garcia Council Member: Octavio Machado As of the 2000 census, the population living in the community was 742, with a median age of 24.2, compared to a median age of 37.1 for all of Pinal County. According to the census, 89.4% of the population identified as American Indian, alone or in combination with other races.
Most of the population lives in the western part of the reservation. Part of the city of Maricopa lies within reservation territory; as of January 2019, the current population of the Ak-Chin Indian Community is over 1100 members. The Ak-Chin Indian Community has its own written form of the Oʼodham language, it is in the Piman group of the Uto-Aztecan language family. The name Ak-Chin is an Oʼodham word that means the "mouth of the arroyo." Ak-Chin Farms Enterprises is the Community's agricultural business. It controls 15,000 acres, it has long used irrigation to support this enterprise. In 1984 the tribe gained a federal settlement for water rights, being entitled to 75,000 acre-feet of Colorado River water; the farms raise cotton, barley and milo. The tribe owns and operates Harrah's Ak-Chin Casino, which opened in 1994, related resort facilities: Agave's Southwestern Restaurant, Copper Cactus Grill, Harvest Buffet, the Range restaurant, hotel, all located in Maricopa; the tribe owns the naming rights for the Ak-Chin Pavilion, a venue in Phoenix designed for various entertainment acts.
The casino and resort draw customers from Maricopa and nearby county population, as well a
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan