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Marie Taglioni

Marie Taglioni, Comtesse de Voisins was a Swedish ballet dancer of the Romantic ballet era, a central figure in the history of European dance. She was one of the most celebrated ballerinas of the romantic ballet, cultivated at Her Majesty's Theatre in London, at the Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musique of the Paris Opera Ballet, she is credited with being the first ballerina to dance en pointe. Taglioni was born in Stockholm, Sweden, to Italian choreographer Filippo Taglioni and Swedish ballet dancer Sophie Karsten, maternal granddaughter of the Swedish opera singer Christoffer Christian Karsten and of the Polish opera singer and actress Sophie Stebnowska, her brother, was a dancer and an influential choreographer. Taglioni was married to Comte Auguste Gilbert de Voisins in 1835, but separated in 1836, she fell in love with Eugene Desmares, a loyal fan, who had defended her honour in a duel. Desmares and Taglioni gave birth to a child in 1836. Three years Desmares died in a hunting accident.

In 1842 she gave birth to her second child. It is unknown who the father is though the birth certificate states the father as Gilbert de Voisins. Taglioni's children's names were Georges Philippe Marie Gilbert de Voisins and Eugenie-Marie-Edwige Gilbert de Voisins. Taglioni moved to Vienna with her family at a young age where she began her ballet training under the direction of Jean-Francois Coulon and her father. After Filippo was appointed the ballet master at the court opera in Vienna there was a decision that Marie would debut in the Habsburg capital. Though Marie had trained with Coulon, her technique was not up to the standards that would impress the Viennese audiences, her father created a rigorous six-month training regimen for his daughter where she would hold positions for 100 counts. The training was conducted daily and consisted of two hours in the morning with difficult exercises focusing on her legs and two hours in the afternoon focusing on adagio movements that would help her refine poses in ballet.

Taglioni had a rounded back that caused her to lean forward and had distorted proportions. She worked hard to disguise her physical limitations by increasing range of motion and developing her strength. Taglioni focused her energy on her shape and form to the audience and less on bravura tricks and pirouettes. In Vienna, Marie danced her first ballet choreographed by her father titled "La Reception d'une Jeune Nymphe à la Cour de Terpsichore". Before joining the Paris Opéra, Taglioni danced in both Munich and Stuttgart, at age 23 debuted in another ballet choreographed by her father called "La Sicilien" that jump-started her ballet career. Taglioni rose to fame as a danseuse at the Paris Opéra when her father created the ballet La Sylphide for her. Designed as a showcase for Taglioni's talent, it was the first ballet where dancing en pointe had an aesthetic rationale and was not an acrobatic stunt involving ungraceful arm movements and exertions, as had been the approach of dancers in the late 1820s.

In 1837 Taglioni left the Ballet of Her Majesty's Theatre to take up a three-year contract in Saint Petersburg with the Imperial Ballet. It was in Russia after her last performance in the country and at the height of the "cult of the ballerina", that a pair of her pointe shoes were sold for two hundred rubles to be cooked, served with a sauce and eaten by a group of balletomanes. In July 1845, she danced with Lucile Grahn, Carlotta Grisi, Fanny Cerrito in Jules Perrot's Pas de Quatre, a ballet representing Taglioni's ethereal qualities, based on Alfred Edward Chalon’s lithographic prints. Pas de Quatre was choreographed to be presented to Queen Victoria, who attended the third performance. Taglioni retired from performing in 1847; when the ballet of the Paris Opéra was reorganized on stricter, more professional lines, she was its guiding spirit. With the director of the new Conservatoire de danse, Lucien Petipa, Petipa's former pupil, the choreographer Louis Mérante, she figured on the six-member select jury of the first annual competition for the corps de ballet, held 13 April 1860.

Her only choreographic work was Le papillon for her student Emma Livry, remembered for dying in 1863 when her costume was set alight by a gas lamp used for stage lighting. Johann Strauss II composed the "Marie Taglioni Polka" in honour of Marie Taglioni's niece, Marie "Paul" Taglioni known as "Marie the Younger"; the two women, having the same name, have been conflated, or confused with each other. In England, she taught social dance and ballroom to children and society ladies in London, she resided at #14 Connaught Square, London from 1875 to 1876. Taglioni died in Marseille on 22 April 1884, the day before her 80th birthday, her body was moved to Paris. There is some debate over whether she is buried in Montmartre or in Père Lachaise, or if the grave Montmartre site belongs to her mother; the local dancers began leaving their worn pointe shoes on the Montmartre grave as a tribute and thanks to the first pointe dancer. Women in dance This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Taglioni, Maria". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. Wurzbach, von, ed.. "Taglioni, Marie". Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. 43. Pp. 17–23 – via Wikisource

Henry Sealy

Henry John Sealy was a New Zealand surveyor and farmer. Sealy was baptised in 1838 in Coity, Wales. Forebears had become rich in Barbados as plantation owners, his paternal grandparents died young and his father and aunt were brought up by relatives in England. Henry Sealy became an orphan when his father, the author Thomas Henry Sealy, died in 1848. Henry and his younger brother Edward were brought up by their aunt Maria Sealy; the brothers emigrated to New Zealand on the Clontarf, which arrived in Lyttelton on 5 January 1859. John Acland, a Canterbury high country runholder, was on this ship; the brothers' intention was to proceed to Hawke's Bay but the ship lay in Lyttelton Port for a month as much of the crew had deserted. In mid-February, they set off from Wellington on the Emily Allison to meet up with their relative Henry Bowman Sealy, who lived at Patoka, inland from Napier; the family connection is uncertain. The brothers worked on his farm, learning the basics of farming, they helped out land survey parties that worked in the district and during 1861, both of them worked as surveyors.

Henry left for Otago on 30 August 1861 to join the Otago Gold Rush at Gabriel's Gully. But within a week, he sold his digging implements and worked for a storekeeper in Dunedin for the rest of the year. In early 1862, he joined a survey party in Tuapeka. After two months, he joined a survey team with his brother. There, he experienced the February 1863 Hawke's Bay earthquake. Soon after, his brother encouraged him to come to Canterbury to work on the West Coast, but he ended up in Geraldine in South Canterbury instead to survey that town, he worked for a telegraph company during most of 1865 and on the weekends, he worked in the Land office in Timaru. He spent Christmas 1865 with the Studholme family. From 1866 until February 1868, he stayed with fellow surveyor Sam Hewlings when in Timaru, he fell out with Hewlings over having become interested in his daughter Fanny, afterwards boarded at the Royal Hotel instead. Over Christmas and New Year 1867, the brothers caught up and over the space of a few days socialised with the Canterbury elite: Francis Jollie at Christmas Day, John Acland at Boxing Day on to Charles George Tripp followed by Dr Ben Moorhouse.

Moving on to Christchurch, the brothers socialised with the family of Julius von Haast. Henry Sealy was from March 1872 surveying between the Orari rivers in South Canterbury. In 1874, the brothers won a tender for a survey contract further inland. By the end of 1874, Henry was surveying between the Waitaki River. From February to May 1876, he surveyed the township of Saint Andrews. Henry Sealy started buying land in 1866, he purchased 12 sections in Waimate. In the following year, he purchased more land including a farm house outside of Timaru on the Brockley station, he joined the Timaru Choral Society in 1867. In 1870, he bought 100 acres at Glengummel, adjacent to Brockley. From 1871, he spent more time working on his farms than surveying. In 1872, he bought further sections in Waimate. Christmas 1872 was spent at'Greta Peaks' where his brother had become engaged to one of the daughters – Frances. From North Canterbury, the party moved to Christchurch to spend time new year's with the von Haast family.

During 1874, he bought land in Waimate and near Timaru. In 1875, he bought rented reserves. Purchases included 140 fruit trees, 300 pine trees, 684 sheep. During 1876, he took loans of NZ£1500 and in the year another NZ£3000. In September 1876, he applied for 204 acres, available if it was to be planted in trees. Henry first mentioned Emma Askin in his diary in January 1873, they met through their shared love for music. Her family had come to New Zealand for her father to manage a bank in Wellington, but they all fell ill with typhus on the journey and her father died within a week of arrival in 1856, her stepmother set up a school and brought up the children. Her stepmother remarried to Timaru. Henry Sealy and Emma Askin married on 17 July 1873 at St Mary's Church in Timaru; the honeymoon was spent in Napier with his uncle. Upon their return to Timaru, Henry went surveying and his wife went to stay with her stepmother as they had nowhere else to live, his brother, had started building a house on his run Southerndown in preparation for his marriage.

Edward Sealy's house was ready when they returned from their honeymoon in Sydney and Melbourne in January 1874, Emma and Henry Sealy moved in with them. Henry Sealy owned the adjacent section of 50 acres, where they built their house, they moved into Heathcliffe in November 1874. Holm, Janet. Caught mapping: the life and times of New Zealand's early surveyors. Christchurch: Hazard Press. OCLC 636380050

Joseph Rabban

Joseph Rabban was a prominent Jewish merchant-cum-aristocrat in the entrepôt of Kodungallur on the Malabar Coast, India in early 11th century CE. According to the Jewish copper plates of Cochin, a charter issued by the Chera king at Kodungallur, Rabban was granted the rights of merchant guild anjuman/hanjamana along with several other trade rights and aristocratic privileges, he was exempted from all payments made by other settlers in the city of Muyirikkottu to the king. These rights and privileges were given perpetuity to all his descendants. Anjuman was a south Indian merchant guild organised by Jewish and Islamic merchants from West Asian countries. Rabban's descendants continued to have prominence over other Jews of the Malabar coast for centuries. A conflict broke out between descendants, Joseph Azar, his brother in the 1340s. Both "Black Jews" and the "White Jews" of Malabar claimed that they are the true inheritors of the old Jewish culture. Blady, Ken. Jewish Communities in Exotic Places.

Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc. 2000. Pp. 115–130

Eucalyptus moluccana

Eucalyptus moluccana known as the grey box, gum-topped box or terriyergro, is a medium-sized to tall tree with rough bark on part or all of the trunk, smooth bark above, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, white flowers and cup-shaped to barrel-shaped fruit. It is found in near-coastal areas of New South Wales. Eucalyptus moluccana is a tree that grows to a height of 30 m and forms a lignotuber, it has persistent rough, fibrous or flaky bark on part or all of the trunk, smooth whitish or light grey bark above, sometimes with a shiny surface. Young plants and coppice regrowth have egg-shaped leaves that are paler on the lower surface, 40–80 mm long, 25–55 mm wide and petiolate. Adult leaves are lance-shaped to broadly lance-shaped, the same glossy green on both sides, 70–170 mm long and 15–65 mm wide on a petiole 10–25 mm long and with many oil glands; the flower buds are arranged on the ends of branchlets in groups of seven, on a branched peduncle 6–13 mm wide, the individual buds on pedicels 2–5 mm long.

The buds are 4 -- 8 mm long and 2 -- 4 mm wide with a conical operculum. Flowering has been recorded in most months and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody cup-shaped to barrel-shaped capsule 4–7 mm long and 3–6 mm wide with the valves enclosed. Eucalyptus moluccana was first formally described in 1832 by William Roxburgh in his Flora Indica; the specific epithet is a misnomer. The Dharawal people know this species as terriyergro. Grey box is widespread on the coastal plains and ranges northwards from Jervis Bay in New South Wales to the area between Rockhampton and Mackay in Queensland. Further north there is a substantial gap, with occurrences in the ranges from west of Paluma to the southern part of the Atherton Tableland and two small disjunct patches east of Clermont near Eungella Dam. Features of the gum-topped box

Allegany, Oregon

Allegany is an unincorporated community in Coos County, United States. It lies at the upstream end of the Millicoma River, where the East Fork Millicoma River and West Fork Millicoma River join to form the main stem, a short tributary of the Coos River. Oregon Route 241 passes through Allegany; the community borders the Elliott State Forest. The Golden and Silver Falls State Natural Area is a state park northeast of Allegany, it features two 100-foot waterfalls in an old-growth forest setting. A post office was established at Allegany in March 25, 1893, it is unknown why this spelling was chosen. Allegany is used for several geographic features in the state of New York, while Allegheny is the preferred spelling in Pennsylvania. William Vincamp was the first post master, he is buried at the Allegany Cemetery. Due to the lack of good roads and other more modern transportation in these areas, the small gasoline-propeller Welcome, built 1919, was on the run up the Coos River from Marshfield to Allegany until 1948

Société des observateurs de l'homme

Société des observateurs de l'homme, rendered in English as Society of Observers of Man, was a French learned society founded in Paris in 1799. Long considered the birthplace of French anthropology, the society dissolved in 1804; the Société des observateurs de l'homme was founded on Christian principles by Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard, Louis-François Jauffret and Joseph de Maimieux. The brevity of its existence and relative dearth of records provide scant history, but they did leave traces of their involvement with feral child Victor of Aveyron, as well as the Baudin expedition to Australia; the Constitution of the Society was set at its inaugural meeting in the Rue de Seine, August 1799. There they brought together naturalists, philosophers, historians, linguists and archaeologists under the chairmanship of John de Maimieux. Louis-François Jauffret, at whose home they met, was named permanent secretary. In 1800, the Society offered a 600 franc prize for study of young children with an eye toward discovering the extent to which their physical and moral faculties are supported or opposed by the influences of the objects and people in the child's environment.

Déterminer par l'observation journalière de un ou plusieurs enfants au berceau l'ordre dans lequel les facultés physiques, intellectuelles et morales se développent et jusqu'à quel point ce développement est secondé ou contrarié par l'influence des objets et des personnes qui environnent l'enfant. The Society went silent in 1804, was forgotten until the time of the French Third Republic, when Paul Broca of the Society of Anthropology of Paris cited the existence of the Observateurs in his claim that French anthropological societies predated those of Great Britain, which were in ascendency. Pierre Bonnefous - Mathieu-Antoine Bouchaud - Louis Antoine de Bougainville - Antoine-Marie-Henri Boulard - Simon-Jérôme Bourlet de Vauxcelles - Pierre-Roland-François Butet de La Sarthe - Guillaume de Sainte-Croix - Adamance Coray - Frédéric Cuvier - Jean-Baptiste-Gaspard d'Ansse de Villoison - Joseph-Marie de Gérando - Joseph-Philippe-François Deleuze - Joseph de Maimieux - Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu - André Marie Constant Duméril - Antoine-François Fourcroy - Marie-Nicolas-Silvestre Guillon-Pastel - Jean Noël Hallé - Jean Itard - Gaspard-André Jauffret - Louis-François Jauffret - Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu - Bernard Germain de Lacépède - Pierre-Henri Larcher - Pierre Laromiguière - Auguste-Savinien Leblond - Théodoric-Nilammon Lerminier - Jean-Joseph Marcel - Aubin-Louis Millin de Grandmaison - Mathieu de Montmorency-Laval - Louis-Jacques Moreau de la Sarthe - Pierre-Henry Nysten - Ambroise Marie François Joseph Palisot de Beauvois - Jean-Pierre Papon - Eugène Louis Melchior Patrin - Philippe Pinel - Joseph Marie Portalis - Louis Ramond de Carbonnières - Dominique Ricard - Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard - Antoine-Isaac Silvestre de Sacy - Charles-Nicolas-Sigisbert Sonnini de Manoncourt - Charles Athanase Walckenaer Nicolas Baudin - Pierre-Justin Bernier - Frédéric de Bissy - Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus - Hyacinthe de Bougainville - Jean Cailleau - Pierre Faure - Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert - Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin - Urbain-René-Thomas Le Bouvier-Desmortiers - François Levaillant - René Maugé de Cely - André Michaux - François Péron - Gottlieb Konrad Pfeffel - Anselme Riedle Jean Copans and Jean Jamin, Aux origines de l’anthropologie française, Paris, Le Sycomore, 1978.

Jean-Luc Chappey, The ‘Société des Observateurs de l’homme’ and the history of French anthropology How Napoléon Bonaparte ended the French Revolution online PDF Efram Sera-Shriar, The Making of British Anthropology, 1813-1871, London: Pickering & Chatto and Routledge, 2013, pp. 53-80. Institut de France