England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
A visa is a conditional authorisation granted by a territory to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that territory. Visas may include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, areas within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits or an individual's right to work in the country in question. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a territory and thus are, in most countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry, can be revoked at any time. A visa most takes the form of a sticker endorsed in the applicant's passport or other travel document. Immigration officials were empowered to permit or reject entry of visitors on arrival at the frontiers. If permitted entry, the official would issue a visa, when required, which would be a stamp in a passport.
Today, travellers wishing to enter another country must apply in advance for what is called a visa, sometimes in person at a consular office, by post or over the internet. The modern visa may be a sticker or a stamp in the passport, or may take the form of a separate document or an electronic record of the authorisation, which the applicant can print before leaving home and produce on entry to the visited territory; some countries do not require visitors to apply for a visa in advance for short visits. Visa applications in advance of arrival give countries a chance to consider the applicant's circumstances, such as financial security, reason for travelling, details of previous visits to the country. Visitors may be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the port of entry; some countries require that their citizens, as well as foreign travellers, obtain an "exit visa" to be allowed to leave the country. Uniquely, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty.
Some countries—such as those in the Schengen Area—have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists requiring a visa before travelling was at its lowest level in 2015. In Western Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century and visas were not necessary for moving from one country to another; the high speed and large movements of people traveling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used. Passports and visas became necessary as travel documents only after World War I. Long before that, in ancient times and visas were the same type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become separate secondary travel documents, with passports acting as the primary travel documents; some visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at the country's embassy or consulate, or through a private visa service specialist, specialised in the issuance of international travel documents.
These agencies are authorised by the foreign authority, embassy, or consulate to represent international travellers who are unable or unwilling to travel to the embassy and apply in person. Private visa and passport services collect an additional fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents, submitting them to the appropriate authority. If there is no embassy or consulate in one's home country one would have to travel to a third country and try to get a visa issued there. Alternatively, in such cases visas may be pre-arranged for collection on arrival at the border; the need or absence of need of a visa depends on the citizenship of the applicant, the intended duration of the stay, the activities that the applicant may wish to undertake in the country he visits. The issuing authority a branch of the country's foreign ministry or department, consular affairs officers, may request appropriate documentation from the applicant; this may include proof that the applicant is able to support himself in the host country, proof that the person hosting the applicant in his or her home exists and has sufficient room for hosting the applicant, proof that the applicant has obtained health and evacuation insurance, etc.
Some countries ask for proof of health status for long-term visas. The exact conditions depend on the category of visa. Notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, the HIV test requirement is sometimes not enforced. Other countries require a medical test that includes an HIV test for a short-term tourism visa. For example, Cuban citizens and international exchange students require such a test approved by a medical authority to enter Chilean territory; the issuing authority may require applicants to attest that they have no criminal convictions, or that they not participate in certain activities. Some countries will deny visas if travellers' passports show evidence of citizenship of, or travel to, a country, considered hostile by that country. For example, some Arabic-oriented countries will not issue visas to nationals of Israel and those whose passports bear evidence of visiting Israel. Many countries demand strong evid
Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e. without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they hold, but whether this renunciation causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved; the massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
In some rare cases, laws for mass naturalization were passed. As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another, many western democracies were not ready to naturalize large numbers of people; this included the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century, but they included the aristocratic Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, the Spanish refugees. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation, wherein their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land. Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of migrants, most of them economic migrants.
For economic, political and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, such as by marriage to a national – jus matrimonii – or by having ancestors who are nationals of that country, in order to reduce the scope of this category. However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrant population in an illegal status, albeit with some massive regularizations, for example, in Spain by José Luis Zapatero's government and in Italy by Berlusconi's government; the People's Republic of China gives citizenship to persons with one or two parents with Chinese nationality who have not taken residence in other countries. The country gives citizenship to people born on its territory to stateless people who have settled there. Furthermore, individuals may apply for nationality if they have a near relative with Chinese nationality, if they have settled in China, or if they present another legitimate reason. In practice, only few people gain Chinese citizenship.
The naturalization process starts with a written application. Applicants must submit three copies, written with a ball-point or fountain pen, to national authorities, to provincial authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Public Security Bureau. Applicants must submit original copies of a foreign passport, a residence permit, a permanent residence permit, four two-and-a-half inch long pictures. According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application"; the Indian citizenship and nationality law and the Constitution of India provides single citizenship for the entire country. The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant Indian legislation is the Citizenship Act 1955, amended by the Citizenship Act 1986, the Citizenship Act 1992, the Citizenship Act 2003, the Citizenship Ordinance 2005.
The Citizenship Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005. Following these reforms, Indian nationality law follows the jus sanguinis as opposed to the jus soli; the Italian Government grants Italian citizenship for the following reasons. Automatically Jus sanguinis: for birth. Following declaration By descent. Indonesian nationality is regulated by Law No. 12/2006. The Indonesia
Star Trek: Nemesis
Star Trek: Nemesis is a 2002 American science fiction film directed by Stuart Baird and based on the franchise of the same name created by Gene Roddenberry. It is the tenth film in the Star Trek film series, as well as the fourth and last to star the cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation, it was written by John Logan from a story developed by Logan, Brent Spiner, producer Rick Berman. In the film, the crew of the USS Enterprise-E are forced to deal with a threat to the United Federation of Planets from a Reman clone of Captain Picard named Shinzon, who has taken control of the Romulan Star Empire in a coup d'état. Principal photography for the film took place from November 2001 to March 2002. Jerry Goldsmith composed the film's score; the film was released in North America on December 13, 2002, by Paramount Pictures, received mixed reviews, with publications criticizing it for being the least successful in the Star Trek franchise. The film went on to earn $67 million worldwide. Following the failure of the film and the cancellation of Star Trek: Enterprise and Erik Jendresen began development on the unproduced Star Trek: The Beginning.
Four years Viacom split from CBS Corporation, Paramount rebooted the film series in 2009 with Star Trek, directed by J. J. Abrams. On Romulus, members of the Romulan Imperial Senate debate whether to accept the terms of peace and alliance with the Reman rebel leader Shinzon; the Remans are a slave race of the Romulan Empire, used as cannon fodder. A faction of the military is in support of Shinzon, but the Praetor and Senate are opposed to an alliance. After rejecting the motion, the Praetor and remaining senators are disintegrated by a device left in the room by a military-aligned senator. Meanwhile, the crew of the USS Enterprise prepare to bid farewell to first officer Commander William Riker and Counselor Deanna Troi, who are being married on Betazed. En route, they discover a positronic energy reading on a planet in the Kolaran system near the Romulan Neutral Zone. Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Lieutenant Commander Worf, Lieutenant Commander Data land on Kolarus III and discover the remnants of an android resembling Data.
When the android is reassembled it introduces itself as B-4. The crew deduce it to be a less advanced, early version of Data. Vice Admiral Kathryn Janeway contacts Picard and orders the Enterprise on a diplomatic mission to nearby Romulus. Janeway explains that the Romulan Empire has been taken over in a military coup by Shinzon, who says he wants peace with the Federation and to bring freedom to Remus. On arrival, they learn Shinzon is a clone of Picard, secretly created by the Romulans to plant a high-ranking spy into the Federation; the project was abandoned when Shinzon was still a child and he was left on Remus to die as a slave. After many years, Shinzon became a leader of the Remans, constructed his armed flagship, the Scimitar. Diplomatic efforts go well, but the Enterprise crew discover that the Scimitar is producing low levels of thalaron radiation, what had been used to kill the Imperial Senate and is deadly to nearly all life forms. There are unexpected attempts to communicate with the Enterprise computers, Shinzon himself violates Troi's mind through the telepathy of his Reman viceroy.
Dr. Crusher discovers that Shinzon is aging because of the process used to clone him, the only possible means to stop it is a transfusion of Picard's blood. Shinzon kidnaps Picard from the Enterprise, as well as B-4, having planted the android on the nearby planet to lure Picard to the Border. However, Data reveals he has swapped places with B-4, rescues Picard, returns with Picard to the Enterprise, they have now seen enough of the Scimitar to know that Shinzon plans to use the warship to invade the Federation using its thalaron-radiation generator as a weapon, with the eradication of all life on Earth being his priority. The Enterprise races back to Federation space but is ambushed by the Scimitar in the Bassen Rift, a region that prevents any subspace communications. Two Romulan Warbirds come to the aid of the Enterprise, not wanting to be complicit in Shinzon's plans, but Shinzon destroys one and disables the other. Recognizing the need to stop the Scimitar at all costs, Picard orders the Enterprise to ram it.
The collision leaves both ships damaged and destroys most of the Scimitar's primary weapons. Shinzon orders the Scimitar to back away activates the thalaron weapon. Picard boards the Scimitar to face Shinzon alone, kills him by impaling him on a metal strut. Data jumps the distance between the two ships with a personal transporter to get Picard back to the Enterprise and sacrifices himself when he fires his phaser at the thalaron generator, destroying the Scimitar; the crew mourn Data, the surviving Romulan commander offers them her gratitude for saving the Empire. On the Enterprise, now back at Earth drydock for extensive repairs, Picard bids farewell to the newly promoted Captain Riker, leaving to command the USS Titan and begin a possible peace negotiation mission with the Romulans. Picard meets with B-4, discovers that Data had downloaded the engrams of his neural net into B-4's positronic matrix before he boarded the Scimitar. Picard leaves B4's quarters walking down a corridor smiling, knowing that one day, Data will return.
Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard Jonathan Frakes as Commander / Captain William T. Riker Brent Spiner as Lieutenant Commander Data / B-4 LeVar Burton as Lieutenant Commander Geordi La Forge Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Commander Worf Gates McFadden as Doctor Beverly Crusher Marina Sirtis as Counselor Deanna Troi-Riker. According to Sirtis, she was "ecstatic" about the role Troi plays in the m
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
Guildhall School of Music and Drama
The Guildhall School of Music and Drama is an independent music and dramatic arts school, founded in 1880 in London, England. Students can pursue courses in music, opera and technical theatre arts; the modern Guildhall School is a major European conservatoire, both a music school and a drama school, one, involved in technical theatre, professional development and music therapy. The school numbers 900 students 700 of whom are undergraduate and postgraduate music students and 175 on the acting and technical theatre programmes. In any given year, about 40% of the students are from outside the UK representing over 50 nationalities; the chairman of Guildhall is David Andrew Graves, elected a governor in 2009 he became deputy of the board and chairman in 2012. Guildhall’s principal is Lynne Williams. A previous principal, Barry Ife, made the Guildhall School the UK's largest provider of music education to under 18s by incorporating the Centre for Young Musicians and creating new music "hubs" in Norfolk and Somerset.
Ife led the Guildhall School’s application for taught-degree awarding powers, which were granted by the Privy Council in April 2014. The Guildhall School of Music first opened its doors on 27 September 1880, housed in a disused warehouse in the City of London. With 62 part-time students, it was the first municipal music college in Great Britain; the school outgrew its first home, in 1887 it moved to new premises in John Carpenter Street in a complex of educational buildings built by the Corporation of London to house it and the City's two state schools. The new building was completed by 9 December 1886 and the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Reginald Hanson, attended the opening ceremony. Teaching continued under the first principal of the school, Thomas Henry Weist Hill, who had some ninety teaching staff; the new site, designed by the architect Sir Horace Jones, comprised a common room for professors and 45 studios, each surrounded by a one-foot thick layer of concrete to "deaden the sound". Each room contained both an upright piano.
Additionally, there was an organ room and a "practice" room, in reality a small concert hall, used for orchestral and choir rehearsals. The practice room was the venue for the fortnightly school concerts Initially, all tuition was on a part-time basis, but full-time courses were introduced to meet demand in 1920. Departments of speech and acting were added, by 1935 the school had added "and Drama" to its title; the school moved to its present premises in the heart of the City of London's Barbican Centre in 1977 and continues to be owned and administered by the City of London. In 1993 the Corporation of London leased a nearby courtyard of buildings that in the 18th century had been the centre of Samuel Whitbread's first brewery, renovated and converted this to provide the school with its hall of residence, Sundial Court. About three minutes' walk from the school, Sundial Court offers self-catering single-room accommodation for 178 students. In 2001 the Secretary of State, Baroness Blackstone, announced that the Barbican Centre, including the Guildhall School, was to be Grade II listed.
The school numbers over 800 students 700 of whom are undergraduate and postgraduate music students. As of 2017, about 135 are studying in the technical theatre programmes. In any given year, about 40% of the students are from outside the UK represent over 40 nationalities; the school is of the European Association of Conservatoires. It formed a creative alliance with its neighbours, the Barbican Centre and the London Symphony Orchestra, to create a centre for performance and education in the performing and visual arts. In 2005 the school was awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize for its development and outreach programme, Guildhall Connect, in 2007 it won a further Queen's Anniversary Prize in recognition of the work of the opera programme over the last two decades; the school was rated No. 1 specialist institution in the UK in the Guardian University Guide 2013 and 2014. The most significant investment in the Guildhall School's future came to fruition via the £90 million redevelopment of the neighbouring Milton Court site.
The new building, which opened in 2013, houses three new performance spaces: a concert hall, a theatre and a studio theatre in addition to drama teaching and administration spaces. The school offers both undergraduate and graduate degree programs as well as the Junior Guildhall, a Saturday school serving students from 4 to 18 years of age; the school was awarded a further Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2007 in recognition of the outstanding achievements and work of the Opera Programme. In August 2014, the Guildhall had a logo change to a more minimalist modern style, it was changed due to the school thinking that it needed something to reflect its types of teachings. The Guildhall offers undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs in music and production arts as well as summer and holiday courses and the Junior Guildhall, a Saturday school serving students from 4 to 18 years of age; the school's performance facilities include, in Milton Court, a concert hall, a theatre and a studio theatre plus, in the Silk Street building, a 308-seat drama and opera the
Data (Star Trek)
Data is a character in the fictional Star Trek franchise. He appears in the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation and the feature films Star Trek Generations, Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection, Star Trek: Nemesis. Data is portrayed by actor Brent Spiner. Data was found by Starfleet in 2338 as the sole survivor on Omicron Theta in the rubble of a colony left after an attack from the Crystalline Entity, he was a synthetic life form with artificial intelligence and designed and built by Doctor Noonien Soong in his own likeness. Data is a self-aware, sapient and anatomically functional android who serves as the second officer and chief operations officer aboard the Federation starship USS Enterprise-D and the USS Enterprise-E, his positronic brain allows him impressive computational capabilities. He experienced ongoing difficulties during the early years of his life with understanding various aspects of human behavior and was unable to feel emotion or understand certain human idiosyncrasies, inspiring him to strive for his own humanity.
This goal led to the addition of an "emotion chip" created by Soong, to Data's positronic net. Although Data's endeavor to increase his humanity and desire for human emotional experience is a significant plot point throughout the series, he shows a nuanced sense of wisdom and curiosity, garnering respect from his peers and colleagues. Data is in many ways a successor to the original Star Trek's Spock, in that the character offers an "outsider's" perspective on humanity. Gene Roddenberry told Brent Spiner that over the course of the series, Data was to become "more and more like a human until the end of the show, when he would be close, but still not quite there; that was the idea and that's the way that the writers took it." Spiner felt that Data exhibited the Chaplinesque characteristics of a tragic clown. To get into his role as Data, Spiner used the character of Robby the Robot from the film Forbidden Planet as a role model. Commenting on Data's perpetual albino-like appearance, he said: "I spent more hours of the day in make-up than out of make-up", so much so that he called it a way of method acting.
Spiner portrayed Data's manipulative and malignant brother Lore, Data's creator, Dr. Noonien Soong. Additionally, he portrayed another Soong-type android, B-4, in the film Star Trek: Nemesis, one of Soong's ancestors in three episodes of Star Trek: Enterprise. Spiner said his favorite Data scene takes place in "Descent", when Data plays poker on the holodeck with a re-creation of the famous physicist Stephen Hawking, played by Hawking himself. Spiner reprised his role of Data in the Star Trek: Enterprise series finale "These Are the Voyages..." in an off-screen speaking part. Spiner felt that he had visibly aged out of the role and that Data was best presented as a youthful figure. Dialog in "Datalore" establishes some of Data's backstory, it is stated that he was deactivated in 2336 on Omicron Theta before an attack by the Crystalline Entity, a spaceborne creature which converts life forms to energy for sustenance. He reactivated by Starfleet personnel two years later. Data went to Starfleet Academy from 2341–45 and served in Starfleet aboard the USS Trieste.
He was assigned to the Enterprise under Captain Jean-Luc Picard in 2364. In "Datalore", Data discovers his amoral brother and learns that he was created after Lore. Lore fails in an attempt to betray the Enterprise to the Crystalline Entity, Wesley Crusher beams Data's brother into space at the episode's conclusion. In "Brothers", Data reunites with Dr. Soong. There he meets again with Lore. Lore fatally wounds Soong. Lore returns in the two-part episode "Descent", using the emotion chip to control Data and make him help with Lore's attempt to make the Borg artificial lifeforms. Data deactivates Lore, recovers, but does not install the damaged emotion chip. In "The Measure of a Man", a Starfleet judge rules; the episode establishes that Data has a storage capacity of 800 quadrillion bits and a total linear computational speed of 60 trillion operations per second. Data's family is expanded in "The Offspring", which introduces Lal, a robot based on Data's neural interface and whom Data refers to as his daughter.
Lal “dies” shortly after activation. His mother Julianna appears in the episode "Inheritance" and reunites with Data, though the crew discovers she was an android duplicate built by Soong after the real Julianna's death, programmed to die after a long life, to believe she is the true Julianna, unaware of the fact she is an android. Faced with the decision, Data chooses not to disclose this to her and allow her the chance to continue on with her normal life. In "All Good Things...", the two-hour concluding episode of The Next Generation, Captain Picard travels between three different time periods. The Picard of 25 years into the future goes with La Forge to seek advice from Professor Data, a luminary physicist who holds the Lucasian Chair at Cambridge University. In "The Child" Data clarifies to the newly arrived ship's chief medical officer, Dr. Katherine Pulaski, that the correct pronunciation of his name is Day'ta, not Dah'ta. Although several androids and artificial intelligences were seen in the original