Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. There are two main types of boiling: nucleate boiling where small bubbles of vapour form at discrete points, critical heat flux boiling where the boiling surface is heated above a certain critical temperature and a film of vapor forms on the surface. Transition boiling is an unstable form of boiling with elements of both types; the boiling point of water is 100 °C or 212 °F but is lower with the decreased atmospheric pressure found at higher altitudes. Boiling water is used as a method of making it potable by killing microbes; the sensitivity of different micro-organisms to heat varies, but if water is held at 70 °C for ten minutes, many organisms are killed, but some are more resistant to heat and require one minute at the boiling point of water. Boiling is used in cooking.
Foods suitable for boiling include vegetables, starchy foods such as rice and potatoes, eggs, "meats", sauces and soups. As a cooking method, it is suitable for large-scale cookery. Tough meats or poultry can be given a long, slow cooking and a nutritious stock is produced. Disadvantages include loss of water-soluble minerals. Commercially prepared foodstuffs are sometimes packed in polythene sachets and sold as "boil-in-the-bag" products. Nucleate boiling is characterized by the growth of bubbles or pops on a heated surface, which rises from discrete points on a surface, whose temperature is only above the liquids. In general, the number of nucleation sites are increased by an increasing surface temperature. An irregular surface of the boiling vessel or additives to the fluid can create additional nucleation sites, while an exceptionally smooth surface, such as plastic, lends itself to superheating. Under these conditions, a heated liquid may show boiling delay and the temperature may go somewhat above the boiling point without boiling.
As the boiling surface is heated above a critical temperature, a film of vapor forms on the surface. Since this vapor film is much less capable of carrying heat away from the surface, the temperature rises rapidly beyond this point into the transition boiling regime; the point at which this occurs is dependent on the characteristics of boiling fluid and the heating surface in question. Transition boiling may be defined as the unstable boiling, which occurs at surface temperatures between the maximum attainable in nucleate and the minimum attainable in film boiling; the formation of bubbles in a heated liquid is a complex physical process which involves cavitation and acoustic effects, such as the broad-spectrum hiss one hears in a kettle not yet heated to the point where bubbles boil to the surface. If a surface heating the liquid is hotter than the liquid film boiling will occur, where a thin layer of vapor, which has low thermal conductivity, insulates the surface; this condition of a vapor film insulating the surface from the liquid characterizes film boiling.
As a method of disinfecting water, bringing it to its boiling point at 100 °C, is the oldest and most effective way since it does not affect the taste, it is effective despite contaminants or particles present in it, is a single step process which eliminates most microbes responsible for causing intestine related diseases. Water's boiling point rests at around 100.0 degrees Celsius, when at an elevation of 0. In places having a proper water purification system, it is recommended only as an emergency treatment method or for obtaining potable water in the wilderness or in rural areas, as it cannot remove chemical toxins or impurities; the elimination of micro-organisms by boiling follows first-order kinetics—at high temperatures, it is achieved in less time and at lower temperatures, in more time. The heat sensitivity of micro-organisms varies, at 70 °C, Giardia species can take ten minutes for complete inactivation, most intestine affecting microbes and E. coli take less than a minute. Boiling does not ensure the elimination of all micro-organisms.
Thus for human health, complete sterilization of water is not required. The traditional advice of boiling water for ten minutes is for additional safety, since microbes start getting eliminated at temperatures greater than 60 °C and bringing it to its boiling point is a useful indication that can be seen without the help of a thermometer, by this time, the water is disinfected. Though the boiling point decreases with increasing altitude, it is not enough to affect the disinfecting process. Boiling is the method of cooking food in boiling water or other water-based liquids such as stock or milk. Simmering is gentle boiling; the boiling point of water is considered to be 100 °C or 212 °F. Pressure and a change in the composition of the liquid may alter the boiling point of the liquid. For this reason, high elevation cooking takes longer since boiling point is a function of atmospheric pressure. In Denver, Colorado, USA, at an elevation of about one mile, water boils at 95 °C or 203 °F. Depending on the type of food and the elevation, the boiling water may not be hot enough to cook the food properly.
Vinaigrette is made by mixing an oil with something acidic such as vinegar or lemon juice. The mixture herbs and/or spices, it is used most as a salad dressing, but can be used as a marinade. Traditionally, a vinaigrette consists of 3 parts oil and 1 part vinegar mixed into a stable emulsion, but the term is applied to mixtures with different proportions and to unstable emulsions which last only a short time before separating into layered oil and vinegar phases. "Vinaigrette" is the diminutive form of the French word "vinaigre". It was known as "french dressing" in the 19th century. In general, vinaigrette consists of 3 parts of oil to 1 part of vinegar whisked into an emulsion. Salt and pepper are added. Herbs and shallots are added when it is used for cooked vegetables or grains. Sometimes mustard is used as an emulsifier; some vinaigrettes use a small amount such as maple syrup. Vinaigrette may be made with a variety of vinegars. Olive oil and neutral vegetable oils such as soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, or grape seed oil are all common.
In northern France, it may be made with walnut oil and cider vinegar and used for Belgian endive salad. In the United States, vinaigrettes may include a wide range of additions such as lemon, raspberries, sugar and cherries. Cheese, parmesan or blue cheese being the most common, may be added. Commercially bottled versions may include emulsifiers such as lecithin. In Southeast Asia, rice bran oil and white vinegar are used as a foundation with fresh herbs, chili peppers and lime juice. In China and Japan, a similar salad dressing is made with sesame oil/sesame rice vinegar. In north China, sometimes mustard is added to enhance the texture of the sauce. Different vinegars, such as raspberry, create different flavors, lemon juice or alcohol, such as sherry, may be used instead of vinegar. Balsamic vinaigrette is made by adding a small amount of balsamic vinegar to a simple vinaigrette of olive oil and wine vinegar. In Brazil, a mix between olive oil, alcohol vinegar, tomatoes and sometimes bell peppers is called vinagrete.
It is served on Brazilian churrasco on Sundays. In classical French cuisine, a vinaigrette is used as a salad dressing and, as a cold sauce, accompanies cold artichokes and leek. Vinaigrette gave its name to a salad in Russian cuisine called vinegret. Italian dressing
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig. It is the most consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC. Pork is eaten both freshly preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork. Pork is the most popular meat in Eastern and Southeastern Asia, is very common in the Western world in Central Europe, it is prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture. Consumption of pork is forbidden by Jewish and Rastafarian dietary law, for religious reasons, with several suggested possible causes. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, sausage, galantines, pâtés, confit from pig. Intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavors that are derived from the preservation processes.
In 15th century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers; the members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only "raw" meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard; the charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, sausages, bacon and head cheese. Before the mass production and re-engineering of pigs in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, apples have been a staple pairing to fresh pork; the year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates. Pigs are the most eaten animal in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide.
Consumption varies from place to place. The meat is taboo to eat in the Middle East and most of the Muslim world because of Jewish kosher and Islamic Halal dietary restrictions. But, pork is consumed in East and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania; as the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Jamón is the most famous Spanish inlay, made with the front legs of a pig. Feijoada for example, the national dish of Brazil, is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears and feet. According to the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006. Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, a further 5% increase projected in 2007. In 2015 recorded total 109.905 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide. By 2017, half the world's pork was consumed in China. Pork is popular throughout eastern Asia and the Pacific, where whole roast pig is a popular item in Pacific Island cuisine.
It is consumed in a great many ways and esteemed in Chinese cuisine. China is the world's largest pork consumer, with pork consumption expected to total 53 million tons in 2012, which accounts for more than half of global pork consumption. In China, pork is preferred over beef for aesthetic reasons. Domestic pigs feed on human waste, thus reducing cost of feeding and helping in recycling; the colours of the meat and the fat of pork are regarded as more appetizing, while the taste and smell are described as sweeter and cleaner. It is considered easier to digest. In rural tradition, pork is shared to form bonding. In China, pork is so important that the nation maintains a "strategic pork reserve". Red braised pork, a delicacy from Hunan Province, inspired Mao Zedong. Other popular Chinese pork dishes are sweet and sour pork and charsiu. In the Philippines, due to 300 years of Spanish colonization and influence, an entire roasted suckling pig, is the national delicacy. Pork may be cured over time. Cured meat products include bacon.
The carcass may be used in many different ways for fresh meat cuts, with the popularity of certain cuts and certain carcass proportions varying worldwide. Most of the carcass can be used to produce fresh meat and in the case of a suckling pig, the whole body of a young pig ranging in age from two to six weeks is roasted. Danish roast pork or flæskesteg, prepared with crispy crackling is a national favourite as the traditional Christmas dinner. Pork is common as an ingredient in sausages. Many traditional European sausages are made with pork, including chorizo, Cumberland sausage and salami. Many brands of American hot dogs and most breakfast sausages are made from pork. Processing of pork into sausages and other products in France is described as charcuterie. Ham and bacon are made from fresh pork by curing with smoking. Shoulders and legs are most cured in this manner for Picnic shoulder and ham, whereas streaky and round bacon come from the side. Ham and bacon are popular foods in the west, their consumption has increased with industrialisation.
Non-western cuisines use preserved meat produc
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of high-quality protein and nutrients. Beef skeletal muscle meat can be used as is by cutting into certain parts roasts, short ribs or steak, while other cuts are processed. Trimmings, on the other hand, are mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages; the blood is used in some varieties called blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, the heart, the brain, the kidneys, the tender testicles of the bull; some intestines are cooked and eaten as is, but are more cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is similar. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies; the meat from older bulls, because it is tougher, is used for mince. Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot, where they are fed a ration of grain, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.
Beef is the third most consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef. According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef were India and Australia. Beef production is important to the economies of Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina and Nicaragua; the word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow, from Middle English cou. After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England used French words to refer to the meats they were served.
Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal by the peasants, but the meat was called boef by the French nobles — who did not deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals and their meat, found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry. Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times. People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent, it is unknown when people started cooking beef. Cattle were used across the Old World as draft animals, for milk, or for human consumption. With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey and Wagyū.
Some breeds have been selected for both milk production, such as the Brown Swiss. In the United States, the growth of the beef business was due to expansion in the Southwest. Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets. Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching and Intensive animal farming. Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat butchering; these are basic sections from which other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, sometimes use the same name for a different cut.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans. Seafood prominently includes shellfish. Shellfish include various species of molluscs and echinoderms. Sea mammals such as whales and dolphins have been consumed as food, though that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are eaten as seafood around the world in Asia. In North America, although not in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible aquatic life may be referred to as seafood. For the sake of completeness, this article includes all edible aquatic life; the harvesting of wild seafood is known as fishing or hunting, the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture, or fish farming in the case of fish. Seafood is distinguished from meat, although it is still animal and is excluded in a vegetarian diet. Seafood is an important source of protein in many diets around the world in coastal areas.
Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a significant proportion is used as fish food to farm other fish or rear farm animals. Some seafoods are used as food for other plants. In these ways, seafoods are indirectly used to produce further food for human consumption. Products, such as oil and spirulina tablets, are extracted from seafoods; some seafood is used to feed domestic pets, such as cats. A small proportion is used industrially for non-food purposes; the harvesting and consuming of seafoods are ancient practices with archaeological evidence dating back well into the Paleolithic. Findings in a sea cave at Pinnacle Point in South Africa indicate Homo sapiens harvested marine life as early as 165,000 years ago, while the Neanderthals, an extinct human species contemporary with early Homo sapiens, appear to have been eating seafood at sites along the Mediterranean coast beginning around the same time. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old anatomically modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish.
Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food; the ancient river Nile was full of fish. The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in tomb scenes and papyrus documents; some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime. Fishing scenes are represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. However, Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180; this is the earliest such work. The consumption of fish varied in accordance with the location of the household.
In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood were common. They were eaten locally but more transported inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens, they were sometimes sold fresh, but more salted. A stele of the late 3rd century BCE from the small Boeotian city of Akraiphia, on Lake Copais, provides us with a list of fish prices; the cheapest was skaren. Common salt water fish were yellowfin tuna, red mullet, swordfish or sturgeon, a delicacy, eaten salted. Lake Copais itself was famous in all Greece for its eels, celebrated by the hero of The Acharnians. Other fresh water fish were pike-fish and the less appreciated catfish. Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics. At a certain time the goatfish was considered the epitome of luxury, above all because its scales exhibit a bright red color when it dies out of water. For this reason these fish were allowed to die at the table. There was a recipe where this would take place in garo, in the sauce.
At the beginning of the Imperial era, this custom came to an end, why mullus in the feast of Trimalchio could be shown as a characteristic of the parvenu, who bores his guests with an unfashionable display of dying fish. In medieval times, seafood was less prestigious than other animal meats, seen as an alternative to meat on fast days. Still, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. While large quantities of fish were eaten fresh, a large proportion was salted, and, to a lesser extent, smoked. Stockfish, cod, split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was common, though preparation could be time-consuming, meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water. A wide range of mollusks including oysters and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days. Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations in Central Europe, therefo
The lemon, Citrus limon Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to South Asia North eastern India. The tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world for its juice, which has both culinary and cleaning uses; the pulp and rind are used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, with a pH of around 2.2, giving it a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie; the origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam, northern Burma or China. A genomic study of the lemon indicated it was a hybrid between bitter citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no than the second century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome. However, they were not cultivated, they were introduced to Persia and to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD. The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.
It was distributed throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century; the lemon was introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds, it was used as an ornamental plant and for medicine. In the 19th century, lemons were planted in Florida and California. In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known as an important dietary ingredient; the origin of the word lemon may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, from the Persian līmūn, a generic term for citrus fruit, a cognate of Sanskrit. The'Bonnie Brae' is oblong, thin-skinned and seedless; these are grown in San Diego County, USA.
The'Eureka' grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon known as'Four Seasons' because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year; this variety is available as a plant to domestic customers. There is a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green and yellow variegated outer skin. The'Femminello St. Teresa', or'Sorrento' is native to Italy; this fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The'Yen Ben' is an Australasian cultivar. Lemons are a rich source of vitamin C, providing 64% of the Daily Value in a 100 g serving. Other essential nutrients, have insignificant content. Lemons contain numerous phytochemicals, including polyphenols and tannins. Lemon juice contains more citric acid than lime juice, nearly twice the citric acid of grapefruit juice, about five times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice. Lemon juice and peel are used in a wide variety of foods and drinks; the whole lemon is used to make lemon curd and lemon liqueur.
Lemon slices and lemon rind are used as a garnish for food and drinks. Lemon zest, the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings and other dishes. Lemon juice is used to make lemonade, soft drinks, cocktails, it is used in marinades for fish, where its acid neutralizes amines in fish by converting them into nonvolatile ammonium salts. In meat, the acid hydrolyzes tough collagen fibers, tenderizing the meat, but the low pH denatures the proteins, causing them to dry out when cooked. In the United Kingdom, lemon juice is added to pancakes on Shrove Tuesday. Lemon juice is used as a short-term preservative on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced, such as apples and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes. In Morocco, lemons are preserved in barrels of salt; the salt penetrates the peel and rind, softening them, curing them so that they last indefinitely. The preserved lemon is used in a wide variety of dishes. Preserved lemons can be found in Sicilian, Italian and French dishes.
The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked seafoods. Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid before the development of fermentation-based processes; the juice of the lemon may be used for cleaning. A halved lemon dipped in salt or baking powder is used to brighten copper cookware; the acid dissolves the tarnish, the abrasives assist the cleaning. As a kitchen cleaning agent the juice can deodorize, remove grease, bleach stains, disinfect; the oil of the lemon's peel has various uses. It is used as a wood cleaner and polish, where its solvent property is employed to dissolve old wax and grime. Lemon oil and orange oil are used as a nontoxic insecticide treatment. Lemon oil may be used in aromatherapy. Lemon oil aroma may contribute to relaxation. One educational science experiment involves attaching electrodes to a lemon and using it as a battery to produce electricity. Although low power, several lemon batteries can power a small digital watch; these experiments work with other fruits and vegetables.
Lemon juice may
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine