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Marine Biological Laboratory

The Marine Biological Laboratory is an international center for research and education in biological and environmental science. Founded in Woods Hole, Massachusetts in 1888, the MBL is a private, nonprofit institution affiliated with the University of Chicago. After being independent for most of its history, it became affiliated with the university on July 1, 2013, it collaborates with numerous other institutions. As of 2018, 58 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with MBL as students, faculty members or researchers. In addition, there are 280 members of the National Academy of Sciences and 236 Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences who have been affiliated with the lab; the Marine Biological Laboratory grew from the vision of several Bostonians and Spencer Fullerton Baird, the United States' first Fish Commissioner. Baird had set up a United States Fish Commission research station in Woods Hole in 1882, had ambitions to expand it into a major laboratory, he invited Alpheus Hyatt to move his marine biology laboratory and school which he had founded at the Norwood-Hyatt House in Annisquam, Massachusetts, to Woods Hole.

Inspired by Harvard biologist Louis Agassiz's short-lived summer school of natural history on Penikese Island, off the coast of Woods Hole, Hyatt accepted the offer. With $10,000 raised by the Woman's Education Association of Boston and the Boston Society of Natural History, land was purchased, a building was erected, the MBL was incorporated with Hyatt as the first president of the board of trustees; the Fish Commission supplied crucial support, including running sea water. Charles Otis Whitman, an embryologist, was retained as the first director of the MBL. Whitman, a professor at the University of Chicago, believed “other things being equal, the investigator is always the best instructor,” emphasized the need to combine research and education at the new laboratory; the MBL's first summer course provided a six-week introduction to invertebrate zoology. The MBL Library was established in 1889, with scientist and future MBL trustee Cornelia Clapp serving as librarian. In 1899, the MBL began publishing The Biological Bulletin, a scientific journal, still edited at the MBL. Gertrude Stein well known as a novelist and art collector, took part in MBL's Embryology course in the summer of 1897, while her brother Leo took part in the Invertebrates course.

Writing in 1972, Lewis Thomas both explained and praised the nature of the MBL as a scientific institution. He wrote about it in his recurring New England Journal of Medicine column called "Notes of a Biology-Watcher", in an installment called "The MBL", he said of the MBL of that day, "Today, it stands as the uniquely national center for biology in this country. Its influence on the growth and development of biologic science has been equivalent to that of many of the country's universities combined, for it has had its pick of the world's scientific talent for each summer's research and teaching. Someone has counted thirty Nobel Laureates who have worked at the MBL at another, it is amazing that such an institution, exerting so much influence on academic science, has been able to remain so autonomous. It has, to be sure, linkages of various kinds, arrangements with outside universities for certain graduate programs, it adheres delicately, somewhat ambiguously, to the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute just up the street.

But it has never come under the domination of any outside institution or governmental agency, nor has it been told what to do by any outside group. There is no way of predicting what the future will be like for an institution such as the MBL. One way or another, it will evolve, it may shift soon into a new phase, with a year-round program for teaching and research and a year-round staff, but it will have to accomplish this without jeopardizing the immense power of its summer programs, or all institutional hell will break loose. It will have to find new ways for relating to the universities, if its graduate programs are to expand as they should, it will have to develop new symbiotic relations with the Oceanographic Institute, since both places have so much at stake. And it will have to find more money, much more — the kind of money that only federal governments possess — without losing any of its own initiative, it will be an interesting place to watch, in the years ahead." The MBL became formally affiliated with the University of Chicago on July 1, 2013.

In order to further scientific research and education, the affiliation builds on historical ties with the university, as MBL was led by University of Chicago faculty members in its first four decades. The president of the university chairs the MBL trustee's board and with their advice appoints its members; the Laboratory is a non-profit Massachusetts corporation. In September 2018, Nipam Patel became director of the Marine Biological Laboratory, succeeding Huntington F. Willard; the MBL has 250 year-round employees, about half of which are scientists and scientific support staff. They are joined each year by more than 500 visiting scientists, summer staff, research associates from hundreds of institutions around the world, as well as a large number of faculty and students participating in MBL courses; as of 2018, among the scientists with a significant affiliation with the MBL (scientists, c

British Solomon Islands

The British Solomon Islands Protectorate was first declared over the southern Solomons in 1893, when Captain Gibson R. N. of HMS Curacoa, declared the southern islands a British Protectorate. Other islands were subsequently declared to form part of the Protectorate over a period ending in 1900; the Protectorate was first declared over the southern Solomons in 1893. The formalities in its establishment were carried out by officers of the Royal Navy, who hoisted the British flag and read Proclamations on twenty-one islands. In April 1896, Charles Morris Woodford, was appointed as an Acting Deputy Commissioner of the British Western Pacific Territories. From 30 May to 10 August 1896, HMS Pylades toured through the Solomon Islands with Woodford, sent to survey the islands, to report on the economic feasibility of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate. On 29 September 1896, in anticipation of the establishment of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, Woodford purchased the island of Tulagi, which he has selected as the site for the administrative centre.

The Colonial Office appointed Woodford as the Resident Commissioner in the Solomon Islands on 17 February 1897. He was directed to control the labour trade operating in the Solomon Island waters and to stop the illegal trade in firearms. Arthur William Mahaffy was appointed at the Deputy Commissioner in January 1889, he was based in Gizo, his duties included suppressing head hunting in New Georgia and neighbouring islands. Bellona and Rennell Islands and the Stewart Islands were added to the Protectorate in 1897, the Santa Cruz group, the Reef Islands, Anuda and Trevannion Islands and Duff group in 1898. On 18 August 1898 and 1 October 1898, the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific issued Proclamations which declared that all those islands should "henceforth" form part of the Protectorate; the two Proclamations of 1898 were superseded by one dated 28 January 1899, intended not to consolidate them but to correct geographical errors: it lists "the Reef Islands, Swallow Group" and a different group of islands referred to collectively as "the Swallow Group," and it includes Trevannion in the Santa Cruz group.

By a Convention signed in 1899 and ratified in 1900, Germany renounced her rights in the islands to the east and south-east of Bougainville, in October 1900, the High Commissioner issued a Proclamation extending the Protectorate to the islands in question, i.e. Choiseul, Ysabel and Fauro Islands, the Tasman group, Lord Howe's group and Gower Island, its establishment followed missionary activity which began in the mid 19th century and the establishment of a German Protectorate over the Northern Solomons, following an Anglo-German Treaty of 1886. German interests were transferred to the United Kingdom under the Samoa Tripartite Convention of 1899, in exchange for recognition of the German claim to Western Samoa; until about 1902 there continued to be headhunting raids against Solomon Islanders, there were instances of European traders and plantation owners being killed. The response of the colonial officials was to engage in punitive raids against the villages that were either known to have been involved in the violence, or were suspect to have been involved.

Ships of the Royal Navy would engage in punitive actions. In March 1897, the sailors of HMS Rapid exacted revenge for the deaths of traders at Rendova, New Georgia and Vella Lavella. In September 1891 the British naval warship HMS Royalist punish a village of the Kalikoqu tribe of the Roviana Lagoon, on southern side of New Georgia Island in the Solomon Islands, following a murder of a trader. Woodford used a 27-foot open whaleboat to travel between the islands, or travelled on any available trading boat or Royal Navy ship. From 1896 the Burns Philp steamship the Titus was making between four and seven voyages from Sydney to the Solomon Islands. Two ships owned by Gustavus John Waterhouse of Sydney operated in the Solomon Islands; the schooner Lark owned by J. Hawkins, from Sydney sailed in the waters of the Solomon Islands. In 1899, Woodford purchased the Lahloo, a 33-ton ketch, which he used for suppressing head-hunting in the New Georgia group; the Lahloo was wrecked in 1909. The Belama, a 100-ton steam ship, was acquired in 1909.

However, it was wreaked in February 1911. The replacement ship named Belama, arrived at Tulagi in August 1911, it was wrecked off Isabel in 1921. The policy of the colonial officials was to attempt to make the protectorate self-supporting through taxes imposed on copra and other products exported from the Islands; the long-term interests of the islanders was relegated to a secondary priority as the colonial officials focused on encouraging the Investment by Australian and English corporate trading companies and individual plantation owners. By 1902 there were about 83 Europeans in the Solomon Islands, with most engaged in the development of copra plantations; the Solomon Regulation of 1900, revisions, was intended by the British Solomon Islands administration in Tulagi, the Western Pacific High Commission in Suva, the Colonial Office in London to make land available for commercial plantations by a formal process of identifying ‘waste’ land –, land not occupied by Solomon Islanders – which could be declared “not owned, cultivated, or occupied by any native or non-native person”.

The Regulation of 1900 implemented a concept of ‘waste’ lan

Vlastimil Lejsek

Vlastimil Lejsek was a Czech composer and pianist. Lejsek was the son of the Moravian choirmaster Frantisek Kvetoslav Lejsek, he studied at the Brno Conservatory and the Academies of Music in both Prague and Brno with Frantisek Schafer, Jan Erml and František Maxián. During his studies he received awards at many competitions, such as the International Smetana Competition and Franz Liszt Competition. With his wife, Vera Lejskova, he established a famous piano duo, collaborating with composers such as Milhaud, Britten and Shostakovich, recording for the first time Dvořák's 4-hand works and many more; as a solo pianist, he premiered many works of his colleagues, as well as of his own. The main body of his musical output consists music for piano piano solo. Besides being a composer and a performing and recording pianist, Lejsek served at the music faculties of the Conservatory and Janáček Academy of Music in Brno, he was a member of Moravian Composer's Club and founder of the International Schubert Competition for Piano duos in Jesenik, one of the foremost music events of his country.

His wife is, besides a pianist, a writer and critic working for both press and radio. Together they were an inspiring couple in Czech musical life, their life and work is depicted in the book "Interviews without piano" by Jan Trojan. OperaNoc s Kobr a Štejnem, Rejvízská opera for soloists, piano 4 hands and percussion OrchestralStříbrný pochod for wind orchestra.

Child pornography laws in Australia

Child pornography laws in Australia prohibit all sexual depictions of children under an age set by state and territory legislation. The relevant ages are under 16 in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, under 17 in South Australia, under 18 in the other jurisdictions and under federal law; the laws covering child pornography are differently defined in the various Australian jurisdictions, as are the penalties. The laws cover depictions of sexual acts involving people over the threshold age who are simulating or otherwise alluding to being underage if all those involved are of a legal age. People have been prosecuted after describing acts of abuse via MMS; the possession, distribution, export, sale, or access over the internet of child pornography is punishable by a maximum of 10 years imprisonment and/or a fine up to A$275,000 as well as sex offender register requirements. It is interesting that possession of general pornography is not illegal in any state, while possession of children pornography carries significant penalties.

Furthermore, most convictions in this respect are for possession of child pornography and there have been only a few convictions for production of such material. Furthermore, there is a zero-tolerance policy in place, which covers real children as well as purely fictional children. Operation Auxin in September 2004 led to the arrest of 200 people on charges of child pornography, "sting" operations are common. In August 2007, an Australian was sentenced to pay an A$9,000 fine for attempting to import eight DVDs of Japanese anime and hentai found to contain pornographic depictions of children and 14 found to contain depictions of sexual violence. No images of real children were involved. "Customs National Manager Investigations, Richard Janeczko, said that it was important to understand that cartoons or drawings such as those depicted in anime were prohibited if they contained offensive sexual content." In December 2008, a New South Wales Supreme Court judge, Justice Michael Adams, ruled to uphold a magistrate's decision that a pornographic cartoon parodying characters on The Simpsons was child pornography, because "t follows that a fictional cartoon character one which departs from recognisable human forms in some significant respects, may be the depiction of a person within the meaning of the Act."The appellant, Alan John McEwan, was fined $3000 Aus.

Judge Adams explained the law was appropriate because cartoons could "fuel demand for material that does involve the abuse of children" adding "A cartoon character might well constitute the depiction of such a person". A BBC reporter summarized the judge's decision: "he decided that the mere fact that they were not realistic representations of human beings did not mean that they could not be considered people"; this case has attracted international attention, alongside attention to more local cases, with author Neil Gaiman commenting on it: "I suspect the Judge might have just inadvertantly granted human rights to cartoon characters. I think it's nonsensical in every way that it could be nonsensical." In March 2011, a Tasmanian man was convicted of possessing child pornography after police investigators discovered an electronic copy of a nineteenth-century written work, The Pearl by Anonymous on his computer. Harper Collins is the most recent publisher of The Pearl, available for purchase within Australia.

However the conviction was overturned on appeal. Child sexual abuse Legal status of drawn pornography depicting minors Laws regarding child pornography Child pornography laws in the United States Child pornography laws in Canada Child pornography laws in the United Kingdom Child pornography laws in the Netherlands Child pornography laws in Portugal Child pornography laws in Japan Child pornography in the Philippines Murder of Carly Ryan - details related to "Carly's Law" and online grooming laws in Australia

The Best of Laura Pausini: E ritorno da te

The Best of Laura Pausini: E ritorno da te is a compilation album of Italian singer-songwriter Laura Pausini's greatest hits, issued by CGD East West Records in 2001. Lo mejor de Laura Pausini: Volveré junto a ti is its Spanish language edition released for the hispanophone market. In addition to its collected tracks, the album features four new tracks "E ritorno da te", "Una storia che vale", "One More Time" and "Dime". Between October 2001 and June 2002, Pausini held the 2001/2002 World Tour, to support and promote the album worldwide, this is another hit for Laura because the album it has managed to sell over 3 million copies worldwide; the track "One More Time" was present on the soundtrack of the 1999 motion picture "Message in a Bottle", where it played during the credits. The song "Speranza", only present at the Platinum edition of the album, was the theme song of the Brazilian soap opera "Esperança", broadcast from June 2002 to February 2003

American silver perch

The American silver perch, Bairdiella chrysoura, is an American fish. Widespread on the eastern seaboard, the silver perch is caught by inshore anglers in search of larger species; this fish attains 9 inches. Silver perch are an underutilized resource as they are excellent table fare and a welcome addition to any Southern fall fish fry; the American silver perch has a moderately large, obliquely rising terminal mouth. The lower jaw projects further than the upper jaw; the chin has three pairs of mental pores. The preopercle, the bony plate just in front of the operculum, bears a few spines set at an angle; the dorsal fin has nineteen to twenty-three soft rays. The anal fin has two spines, the second of, sharp and more than two thirds the length of the first soft ray, eight to ten soft rays; this fish has a two-chambered swim bladder, connected to the inner ear. It has good hearing, on a par with the goldfish, renowned for its auditory ability, its general color is silvery, greenish, or bluish on the dorsal surface and silvery or yellowish on the underside.

The fins are greyish. Silver perch are similar in appearance to the sand seatrout, Cynoscion arenarius. Seatrout have 1 or 2 prominent canine teeth at the tip of upper jaw and do not have chin pores. Silver perch are native to the east coast of the United States, its range extends from New York to the Gulf of Mexico and Mexico. They are found inshore in seagrass beds, tidal creeks and rivers, marshes. Spawning takes place in shallow, saline portions of bays and other inshore areas, peaking between May and September. Silver perch mature by third year. Adults eat small fishes, they may live to 6 years. This species is not eligible for a state record. Smithsonian Marine Station Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission