United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
San Clemente, California
San Clemente is a city in Orange County, United States. The population was 63,522 at the 2010 census. Located on the California Coast, midway between Los Angeles and San Diego, the southernmost city of Orange County is known for its ocean and mountain views, a pleasant climate and its Spanish colonial-style architecture. San Clemente's city slogan is "Spanish Village by the Sea"; the official city flower is the bougainvillea, the official city tree is the coral. Prior to colonization by Spaniards, the area was inhabited by the Juaneño people, it remained uninhabited until 1776, when Mission San Juan Capistrano was established by Father Junipero Serra, which led both Native Americans and Spanish settlers to establish villages nearby. After the founding of Mission San Juan Capistrano, local natives were conscripted to work for the mission. Property rights to the land exchanged hands several times, but few ventured to build on it until 1925, when former Mayor of Seattle, Ole Hanson, an out-of-town major land developer and designed a 2,000-acre community with the financial help of a syndicate headed by Hamilton Cotton.
Hanson believed the area's pleasant climate, beautiful beaches, fertile soil would serve as a haven to Californians tired of "the big city." He named the city after San Clemente Island, which in turn was named by the explorer Sebastián Vizcaino in 1602 after Saint Clement. Hanson envisioned it as a Mediterranean-style coastal resort town, his "San Clemente by the Sea." He had a clause added to the deeds requiring all building plans to be submitted to an architectural review board in an effort to ensure future development would retain red tile roofs and white exteriors. This proved to be short-lived. Hanson succeeded in selling property, he built public structures such as the Beach Club, the community center, the pier and San Clemente Plaza, now known as Max Berg Plaza Park. The area was incorporated as a City on February 27, 1928 with a council-manager government. Referring to the way he would develop the city, Hanson proclaimed, "I have a clean canvas and I am determined to paint a clean picture.
Think of it - a canvas five miles long and one and one-half miles wide!... My San Clemente by the Sea." Soon after San Clemente was incorporated, the need for a fire station was realized. The headlines in San Clemente’s first newspaper, El Heraldo de San Clemente June 1928 read: "Building to house local fire department will be constructed by popular subscription and turned over to the city when completed!" Individual subscriptions were received in the amounts from $6.00 to $1500.00 from the citizenry. In 1969, President Richard Nixon bought part of the H. H. Cotton estate, one of the original homes built by one of Hanson's partners. Nixon called it "La Casa Pacifica" and was nicknamed the "Western White House," a term for a President's vacation home, it sits above one of the West Coast's premier surfing spots and just north of historic surfing beach San Onofre. Many world leaders visited the home during Nixon's tenure, including Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev, Mexican President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Prime Minister of Japan Eisaku Sato, Henry Kissinger, businessman Bebe Rebozo.
After his resignation, Nixon retired to San Clemente to write his memoirs. He moved to New York City; the property has historical ties to the Democratic side of the aisle. Cotton was known to host Franklin D. Roosevelt, who would visit to play cards in a small outbuilding overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Known as the “Spanish Village by the Sea”, San Clemente has long been known for its Spanish style architecture. Downtown San Clemente restaurants and shops are adorned with red tile roofs, cream stucco walls, dark wood doors and windows; the historic "North Beach" area is home to San Clemente's Casino Building and Ole Hanson Beach Club, which were renovated in 2010 and 2016. The homes in the area stick to the Spanish theme for the most part; the area's oldest homes are in Southwest San Clemente, directly south of downtown and "North Beach" area, directly north of downtown. The homes in the Southwest Riviera neighborhood include several new constructions in the Cape Cod style, as well as new modern residences.
The more traditional, older homes sit in the Lasuen "boot" district. The neighborhood surrounding Lasuens or "Lost Winds" beach is characterized by a variety of styles in both single and double story fashion, with the traditional Spanish style sprinkled throughout, crafting an eclectic atmosphere; the renovations to historic buildings in North Beach have sparked a revival in the area, attracting new residents and business owners. San Clemente is located at 33°26′16″N 117°37′13″W. To the south of town are Camp Pendleton and Trestles surf beach. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 19.5 square miles. 18.7 square miles of it is land and 0.8 square miles of it is water. San Clemente has a Mediterranean climate where temperatures tend to average in the 70s °F; the warmest month of the year is August, with an average temperature of 79 °F. The coldest month is December with an average temperature of 64 °F; the annual rainfall in 2010 was 10.5 inches and the annual days of sunshine 310.
Interstate 5 runs through San Clemente. The Foothill Transportation Corridor had proposed to connect Mission Viejo to the Orange/San Diego county line, running along the east side of San Clemente and through San Onofre State Beach on its way to I-5; the California Coastal Commission rejected this proposal 8–2. Reasons cited for rejecti
Oceanside is a coastal city located on California's South Coast. It is the third-largest city in California; the city had a population of 167,086 at the 2010 census. Together with Carlsbad and Vista, it forms a tri-city area. Oceanside is located just south of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. Inhabited by Native Americans, the first European explorers arrived in 1769. Spanish missionaries under Father Junipero Serra founded Mission San Luis Rey de Francia on a former site of a Luiseño Indian village on the banks of the San Luis Rey River. In the early 19th century, the introduction of farming and grazing changed the landscape of what would become Oceanside; the area—like all of California—was under Spanish rule in 1821 under Mexican rule, the U. S. in 1848. In the late 1850s, Andrew Jackson Myers lived in San Joaquin County. A native of LaSalle County, Illinois, he lived in San Luis Rey. In 1882 Myers moved on the land, the original town site for Oceanside. A patent for the land was issued in 1883 by the federal government.
It was incorporated on July 3, 1888. The city hall as of the early 21st century stands on the former Myers homestead; the town post office contains Air Mail, painted in 1937 by Elsie Seeds. Federally commissioned murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department. In the 20th century, Oceanside was a beach town devoted to activities on a 6-mile stretch of beaches. Residential areas like downtown, South Oceanside, developments east of Interstate 5 are preserved and remodeled when these houses are considered to have historical value. Since the establishment of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in 1942, Oceanside has been home to U. S. armed forces personnel, the wartime industry of WWII and the 1950s had an ammunition manufacturing facility in the city. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 91.0 % 5.1 % black and 1.7 % Asian. After 1970, the main focus of Oceanside was suburban development and a choice for newcomers to move into relatively affordable housing.
Oceanside continues to be known for the appreciation as a vacation home market. Oceanside is at 33°12′42″N 117°19′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 42.2 square miles, of which 41.2 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. Traveling north on Interstate 5, Oceanside is the last city before Orange County; as the crow flies, it is the same distance from Aliso Viejo as it is to downtown San Diego. Oceanside experiences a semi-arid climate, tempered by maritime winds and the cool currents off the shoreline; the average high temperatures range from 64 °F to 77 °F, while the average low temperatures range from 45 °F to 64 °F. The 2010 United States Census reported that Oceanside had a population of 167,086; the population density was 3,961.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Oceanside was 109,020 White, 7,873 African American, 1,385 Native American, 11,081 Asian, 2,144 Pacific Islander, 25,886 from other races, 9,697 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 59,947 persons. The Census reported that 166,150 people lived in households, 802 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 134 were institutionalized. There were 59,238 households, out of which 20,486 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 30,201 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,947 had a female householder with no husband present, 3,111 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 3,504 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 472 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 14,117 households were made up of individuals and 6,161 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80. There were 40,259 families; the population was spread out with 39,817 people under the age of 18, 19,028 people aged 18 to 24, 45,797 people aged 25 to 44, 40,943 people aged 45 to 64, 21,501 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. There were 64,435 housing units at an average density of 1,527.8 per square mile, of which 34,986 were owner-occupied, 24,252 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%. 97,645 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 68,505 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 161,029 people, 56,488 households, 39,259 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,967.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 59,581 housing units at an average density of 1,467.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.4% White, 6.3% African American, 5.5% Asian, 1.2% Pacific Islander, 0.4% Native American or Alaskan Native, 0.1% from another race alone, 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 30.2%. In 2000, there were 56,488 households out of which 35.0%
9th Marine Regiment (United States)
The 9th Marine Regiment was an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps. Formed during World War II, it served until 1994, when it was deactivated during the post Cold War drawdown. Battalions of the Ninth Marine Regiment, but not the regiment itself, were reactivated from 2007 to 2014 as part of the Marine Corps' growth during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan; the battalions have subsequently been deactivated again. The regiment was composed of three infantry battalions and the regimental headquarters company: Headquarters Company, 9th Marines 1st Battalion, 9th Marines 2nd Battalion, 9th Marines 3rd Battalion, 9th Marines The 9th Marines were activated at Quantico, Virginia, on November 20, 1917. A month they deployed to Guantanamo Bay and were attached to the 3rd Marine Brigade; that same month, they redeployed with the brigade to Galveston, Texas, in case of any German operation in the Caribbean or in Mexico. After World War I, the regiment was deactivated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on April 25, 1919.
On December 1, 1925, the regiment was reactivated as a reserve organization whose mission was to train and maintain at a high degree of preparedness a group of “civilian” Marines. The 3rd Battalion 9th Marines was reactivated at Camp Elliot, San Diego on February 12, 1942. In the following months, the rest of the battalions were reactivated on January 1, 1942, when the regiment re-formed, they were attached to the 3rd Marine Division at Camp Pendleton on September 16, 1943. The 9th Marines fought as part of the 3rd Marine Division on the islands of Bougainville and Iwo Jima during WW2; the regiment was inactivated at Camp Pendleton on December 31, 1945. The regiment was reformed on 17 March 1952 at Camp Pendleton and assigned to the 3d Marine Division, it was deployed during August 1953 to Camp Gifu, Japan and in June 1955 to Okinawa. The regiment alternated between Okinawa in the 1950s. On March 8, 1965, 9th Marines came ashore at Red Beach as the first conventional ground combat unit in South Vietnam, their mission was to defend the Da Nang Air Base.
The first significant contact was in April 1965. The regimental headquarters arrived in country in July of that year; the regiment saw action in Vietnam’s I Corps in Quảng Trị and Thừa Thiên Provinces, although a number of its earlier operations were conducted in the southern I Corps provinces of Quảng Nam, Quảng Tín and Quảng Ngai. The 9th Marines served as a vital stop to the People's Army of Vietnam penetrations across the DMZ and from along the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos; some of its early operations included Operation Double Eagle and Prairie. In April and May 1967, elements of the regiment defeated two PAVN regiments in The Hill Fights north of Khe Sanh Combat Base. In Operation Buffalo, elements of the 1st Battalion, 9th Marines made contact north of Con Thien with regimental-size PAVN forces in an engagement that lasted through May, accounting for over 1300 enemy dead; the regiment conducted Operation Dewey Canyon in the A Shau Valley. The 9th Regiment killed many PAVN, preventing another build-up and assault from Route 622 from Laos into South Vietnam as the PAVN had the year before during the Tet Offensive.
Operation Dewey Canyon netted, among other weaponry, 16 artillery pieces, 73 anti-aircraft guns, hundreds of thousands of rounds of ammunition, 92 trucks, hundreds of thousands pounds of rice. This operation earned the regiment an Army Presidential Unit Citation. General Richard G. Stilwell wrote in his report to COMUSMACV General Creighton Abrams on Operation Dewey Canyon: “...this ranks with the most significant undertakings of the Vietnam conflict in the concept and results...”The 9th Marines were part of the first redeployments from Vietnam in the summer of 1969. In July 1969 the regiment deployed to Camp Schwab and was reassigned in August 1969 to the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade; the 9th MAB was reassigned during November 1969 to the 3rd Marine Division. The 9th Marines were inactivated in the budget cuts of 1994. A nucleus of staff and support personnel were maintained to reconstitute the regiment; this was done in the belief that the necessary riflemen would be recruited in time of emergency or war.
On September 2, 1994, the 2nd Battalion was inactivated and redesignated the 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines and the 3rd Battalion was inactivated and re-designated the 3d Battalion, 4th Marines. On September 9, 1994, the 1st Battalion was inactivated and redesignated as the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines; as part of the effort to expand the Marine Corps to 202,000 Marines by the end of 2011, the battalions of the 9th Marines began reactivation in 2007. The 1st Battalion, 9th Marines reactivated on April 18, 2007, the 2nd Battalion reactivated in July 2007, the 3rd Battalion reactivated in May 2008; each battalion falls under existing regimental headquarters — 1/9 with the 8th Marine Regiment, 2/9 with the 6th Marine Regiment and 3/9 with the 2nd Marine Regiment. 10 Marines from the 9th Marine Regiment have received the Medal of Honor: Thomas P. Noonan Thomas E. Creek John H. Leims Wilson D. Watson Louis H. Wilson Frank P. Witek Wesley L. Fox William D. Morgan Alfred M. Wilson John P. Bobo Kyle Carpenter Walter K. Singleton Harvey C. Barnum The 9th Marines earned the following awards: Robert H. Barrow, commanding officer became 27th Commandant of the Marine Corps List of United States Marine Corps regiments Organization of the United States Marine Corps Augmenting the 18 embassy guards prior to the Fall of Saigon
A drought or drouth is a natural disaster of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought may be declared after as few as 15 days, it can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy. Annual dry seasons in the tropics increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour. Many plant species, such as those in the family Cactaceae, have drought tolerance adaptations like reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought; some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as grasslands. Prolonged droughts have caused humanitarian crisis. Most arid ecosystems have inherently low productivity; the most prolonged drought in the world in recorded history occurred in the Atacama Desert in Chile.
Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall. Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation over a longer duration. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Droughts occur in areas where normal levels of rainfall are, in themselves, low. If these factors do not support precipitation volumes sufficiently to reach the surface over a sufficient time, the result is a drought. Drought can be triggered by a high level of reflected sunlight and above average prevalence of high pressure systems, winds carrying continental, rather than oceanic air masses, ridges of high pressure areas aloft can prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over one certain region.
Once a region is within drought, feedback mechanisms such as local arid air, hot conditions which can promote warm core ridging, minimal evapotranspiration can worsen drought conditions. Within the tropics, distinct and dry seasons emerge due to the movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone or Monsoon trough; the dry season increases drought occurrence, is characterized by its low humidity, with watering holes and rivers drying up. Because of the lack of these watering holes, many grazing animals are forced to migrate due to the lack of water in search of more fertile lands. Examples of such animals are zebras and wildebeest; because of the lack of water in the plants, bushfires are common. Since water vapor becomes more energetic with increasing temperature, more water vapor is required to increase relative humidity values to 100% at higher temperatures. Periods of warmth quicken the pace of fruit and vegetable production, increase evaporation and transpiration from plants, worsen drought conditions.
Drier and hotter weather occurs in parts of the Amazon River Basin and Central America during El Niño events. Winters during the El Niño are warmer and drier than average conditions in the Northwest, northern Midwest, northern Mideast United States, so those regions experience reduced snowfalls. Conditions are drier than normal from December to February in south-central Africa in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana. Direct effects of El Niño resulting in drier conditions occur in parts of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, increasing bush fires, worsening haze, decreasing air quality dramatically. Drier-than-normal conditions are in general observed in Queensland, inland Victoria, inland New South Wales, eastern Tasmania from June to August; as warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, it causes extensive drought in the western Pacific. Singapore experienced the driest February in 2014 since records began in 1869, with only 6.3 mm of rain falling in the month and temperatures hitting as high as 35 °C on 26 February.
The years 2005 had the next driest Februaries, when 8.4 mm of rain fell. Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming, excessive irrigation and erosion adversely impact the ability of the land to capture and hold water. In arid climates, the main source of erosion is wind. Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind; the wind can cause small particles to be therefore moved to another region. Suspended particles within the wind may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion. Wind erosion occurs in areas with little or no vegetation in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. Loess is a homogeneous nonstratified, friable coherent calcareous, fine-grained, pale yellow or buff, windblown sediment, it occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess stands in either steep or vertical faces. Loess tends to develop into rich soils. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world.
Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, will erode readily. Therefore, windbreaks are planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess. Wind erosion
Cleveland National Forest
Cleveland National Forest encompasses 460,000 acres of chaparral, with a few riparian areas. A warm dry mediterranean climate prevails over the Forest, it is the southernmost National forest of California. It is administered by the United States Forest Service, a government agency within the United States Department of Agriculture, it is divided into the Descanso and Trabuco Ranger Districts and is located in the counties of San Diego and Orange. Cleveland National Forest was created on July 1, 1908 with the consolidation of Trabuco Canyon National Reserve and San Jacinto National Reserve by President Theodore Roosevelt and named after former president Grover Cleveland, it is headquartered in San Diego. The Cleveland National Forest was the site of both of the largest wildfires in California history, the 2003 Cedar Fire, the Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889. Both fires consumed many sections of the area, endangered many animal species as well. Trabuco Ranger District – the northernmost area Consists of most of the Santa Ana Mountains and is bisected by the Ortega Highway, which runs from San Juan Capistrano to Lake Elsinore.
Its northern border is Corona. Palomar Ranger District – near the cities of Escondido and Ramona Includes the "Highway to the Stars" from State Route 76 to the top of Palomar Mountain. Descanso Ranger District – east of AlpineIncludes Sunrise Highway, a National Scenic Byway. A National Forest Adventure Pass is required for parking in designated areas of the Cleveland National Forest as well as other National Forests in Southern California, may be obtained from local merchants, visitor centers, or online. Available on the Cleveland National Forest Official Site under Current Conditions are road, picnic area, trail closures. "Law Enforcement Activities" are a common reason given for closures in the southern portion of the forest. These closures are implemented to limit back road access in hopes of circumnavigating US Border Patrol checkpoints. Bear Valley Road coming up from Buckman Springs, Kitchen Creek Road and Thing Valley Road are among routes that are restricted. Popular activities include picnic areas, hiking through the mountains on foot, exploring on horseback, trail mountain biking, camping overnight or driving on the Sunrise Scenic Highway.
The Forest includes Corral Canyon and Wildomar Off-Highway Vehicle Areas. Besides climbers and wildlife advocates, the Forest accommodates the needs of telecommunications companies, campers, off-road-vehicle enthusiasts, horse riders and others. Campgrounds – The Cleveland National Forest has campgrounds available at the Descanso and Trabuco Ranger District. Sites serve 6-8 persons and 2 vehicles. Group camping – Group campgrounds are available. Remote camping – Visitor's permits are required. Sunset Trail - Sunset Trail is a 4.6 mile loop trail accessible from Meadows Trailhead off Sunrise Highway, mile marker 19.1. The trail, which offers several connection options, winds through pine forest leading one to open meadows and small lakes, a popular lookout to the Pacific Ocean; the surrounding habitat supports numerous flora and fauna including native black oaks, Engelmann oaks, giant Jeffrey pines, Acorn Woodpeckers and turkey vultures. Dogs are not allowed off leash. Mount Laguna Observatory There are two operational fire lookout towers in the Cleveland National Forest.
High Point Lookout, Cleveland National Forest, Palomar Mountain Los Pinos Lookout, Cleveland National Forest, near Lake Morena Boucher Hill Lookout: While this fire lookout tower is on Palomar Mountain, it sits inside the Palomar Mountain State Park and not the Cleveland National Forest. It is an operational tower and works in conjunction with the USFS but is owned by the State of California and is an historic building. There are four official wilderness areas in Cleveland National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. One of them extends into land, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Agua Tibia Wilderness Hauser Wilderness Pine Creek Wilderness San Mateo Canyon Wilderness California chaparral and woodlands California montane chaparral and woodlands California oak woodlands Cleveland National Forest Official Site In-depth article by the San Diego Historical Society Southern California Trails at Local Hikes The Nature Conservancy: Santa Ana Mountains Santa Ana Mountains Wild Heritage Project Center For Biological Diversity Santa Ana Mountains Natural History Association
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o