National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
United States Marine Corps Recruit Training
United States Marine Corps Recruit Training is a 13-week program of initial training that each recruit must complete in order to serve in the United States Marine Corps. All enlisted individuals entering the Marine Corps, regardless of eventual active or reserve duty status, will undergo recruit training at one of the two Marine Corps Recruit Depots: Parris Island, South Carolina or San Diego, California; the training and standards are identical between the two bases, though the order of some training events differs from east coast to west coast. Male recruits from the 8th, 9th and 12th recruiting districts are sent to MCRD San Diego. All recruits from the 1st, 4th and 6th recruiting districts and all female recruits are sent to Parris Island; those desiring to become officers attend training at Officer Candidates School at Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia. Marines hold that their recruit training is the most physically and mentally difficult amongst the Uniformed Services, citing that it is longer than the other branches, requires a more demanding Physical Fitness Test that includes a run of 3 miles in less than 28 minutes, 70 or more crunches in 2 minutes, at least 7 pull-ups for males and flexed arm hang for more than 30 seconds for females.
For a maximum score, male recruits must complete the run in 18 minutes, perform 115 crunches in 2 minutes and do 20 pull ups. All recruits must fit the strictest height and weight standards to receive the coveted EGA. Furthermore, the Marines are the only Uniformed Service to require 500 yard rifle qualification, while the Army utilizes a 300 yard qualification though with a much smaller target. In Helmet for My Pillow, his World War II memoir, journalist Robert Leckie wrote of Marine Corps Recruit Training: It is a process of surrender. At every turn, at every hour, it seemed, a habit or a preference had to be given up, an adjustment had to be made. In the mess hall we learned that nothing mattered so little as a man's own likes or dislikes... Worst in this process of surrender was the ruthless refusal to permit a man the slightest privacy. Leckie added: "If you are undone in Parris Island, taken apart in those first few weeks, it is at the rifle range that they start to put you together again".
An average day begins at 4:00. Reveille is sounded and all recruits present themselves for accountability. After personal hygiene and morning clean-up, recruits will perform physical training. After the morning meal, the recruits begin the day's scheduled training, which may include classes, drill or martial arts. On Sundays, recruits are offered the morning to attend personal time. After the noon meal, the day's training continues until the evening meal around 17:00 to 18:00. After this time, recruits will have hygiene time to shower, clean their weapons and clean their barracks. Recruits get 1 hour of square away time after this, personal time for recruits to engage in personal activities such as preparing uniforms or equipment, writing letters, working out or doing laundry. Recruits are not free from their Drill Instructors or allowed to leave the squad bay during this time. In preparation to sleep, recruits may hydrate, pray together for five minutes, ensure footlockers and rifles are locked and recite the Rifleman's Creed or Marines' Hymn before lights-out.
Lights-out can range depending on the next day's activities. Throughout all of recruit training, a guard, or ”firewatch”, is posted for the entire night. Four recruits at a time will stand one hour shifts during which they keep order in the squadbay, clean, or carry out whatever task the drill instructors assigned them that night. Extra firewatch is assigned as punishment for minor infractions. Recruits are organized by regiment, company, platoon and fireteam. A Recruit Training Regiment is composed of three recruit training battalions. All three of the male battalions are made up of four companies, while the female battalion comprises three; each company is broken down into two series, designated as Lead and Follow, which may have between one and four platoons, depending on the number of recruits in the company at the time the training cycle begins. Each company is much like a class at a civilian education institution; each series is broken down into a number of platoons from two to four in each.
These platoons will be the basic unit for recruit training, assigned a four digit number as identification. Drill instructors are assigned to each platoon and will stay from the beginning to the end of training; the Senior Drill Instructor of each platoon will select recruits to billets of responsibility, to mimic command and staff positions of a Marine unit. The selections change on the whims of the drill instructors and can include: the platoon guide, the senior-most recruit responsible for carrying the platoon's guidon four squad leaders, each in charge of one-fourth of the platoon.
San Diego International Airport
San Diego International Airport known as Lindbergh Field, is an international airport 3 mi northwest of Downtown San Diego, United States. It is operated by the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority. San Diego International Airport covers 663 acres of land. In 2015, traffic at San Diego International exceeded 20 million passengers, serving more than 500 scheduled operations carrying about 50,000 passengers each day. While serving domestic traffic, San Diego has nonstop international flights to Canada, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom. San Diego is the largest metropolitan area in the United States, not an airline hub or secondary hub; the top five carriers in San Diego during 2015, by seat capacity, were Southwest Airlines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Alaska Airlines, Delta Air Lines. San Diego International is the busiest single runway airport in the United States and third-busiest single runway in the world, behind Mumbai and London Gatwick. Due to the short usable length of the runway, proximity to the skyscrapers of Downtown San Diego, steep landing approach as a result of the nearby Peninsular Ranges, SAN has been called "the busiest, most difficult single runway in the world."
SAN operates in controlled airspace served by the Southern California TRACON, some of the busiest airspace in the world. The airport is near the site of the Ryan Airlines factory, but it is not the same as Dutch Flats, the Ryan airstrip where Charles Lindbergh flight tested the Spirit of St. Louis before his historic 1927 transatlantic flight; the site of Dutch Flats is on the other side of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, in the Midway neighborhood, near the intersection of Midway and Barnett avenues. Inspired by Lindbergh's flight and excited to have made his plane, the city of San Diego passed a bond issue in 1928 for the construction of a two-runway municipal airport. Lindbergh agreed to lend his name to it; the new airport, dedicated on August 16, 1928, was San Diego Municipal Airport – Lindbergh Field. The airport was the first federally certified airfield to serve all aircraft types, including seaplanes; the original terminal was on Pacific Highway. The airport was a testing facility for several early US sailplane designs, notably those by William Hawley Bowlus who operated the Bowlus Glider School at Lindbergh Field from 1929–1930.
The airport was the site of a national and world record for women's altitude established in 1930 by Ruth Alexander. On June 1, 1930, a regular San Diego–Los Angeles airmail route started; the airport gained international airport status in 1934. In April 1937, United States Coast Guard Air Base was commissioned next to the airfield; the Coast Guard's fixed-wing aircraft used Lindbergh Field until the mid-1990s when their fixed-wing aircraft were assigned elsewhere. A major defense contractor and contributor to World War II heavy bomber production, Consolidated Aircraft known as Convair, had their headquarters on the border of Lindbergh Field, built many of their military aircraft there. Convair used the airport for test and delivery flights from 1935 to 1995; the US Army Air Corps took over the field in 1942, improving it to handle the heavy bombers being manufactured in the region. Two camps were established at the airport during World War II and were named Camp Consair and Camp Sahara; this transformation, including an 8,750 ft runway, made the airport "jet-ready" long before jet airliners came into service.
The May 1952 C&GS chart shows an 8,700-ft runway 9 and a 4,500-ft runway 13. Pacific Southwest Airlines established its headquarters in San Diego and started service at Lindbergh Field in 1949; the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 42 departures per day: 14 American, 13 United, 6 Western, 6 Bonanza, 3 PSA. American had a nonstop flight to one to El Paso. Nonstop flights to Chicago started in 1962 and to New York in 1967; the first scheduled jet flights at Lindbergh Field were in 1960, with American Airlines flying to Phoenix and United Airlines to San Francisco, using the Boeing 720. The original terminal was used until the 1960s. Terminal 2 opened on July 11, 1979; these terminals were designed by Paderewski Associates. A third terminal, dubbed the Commuter Terminal, opened July 23, 1996. Terminal 2 was expanded by 300,000 square feet in 1998, opened on January 7, 1998; the expanded Terminal 2 and the Commuter Terminal were designed by Gensler and SGPA Architecture and Planning. As downtown San Diego developed, the airport's 3,600 ft second runway was closed as its short length provided no operational benefits other than to support the smallest of aircraft.
The airport was built and operated by the City of San Diego through the sale of municipal bonds to be repaid by airport users. In 1962 it was transferred to the San Diego Unified Port District by a state law. In 2001 the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority was created, assumed jurisdiction over the airport in December 2002; the Authority changed the airport's name from Lindbergh Field to San Diego International Airport in 2003 considering the new name "a better fit for a major commercial airport." San Diego International Airport's expansion and enhancemen
Military mascot refers to a pet animal maintained by a military unit as a mascot for ceremonial purposes or as an emblem of that unit. It may be referred to as a ceremonial pet or regimental mascot, it differs from a military animal in that it is not employed for use directly in warfare as a weapon or for transport. The custom of adopting mascots originated from troops bringing a pet to war, adopting one at the place they were stationed at or being presented a pet as a gift; some regimental mascots, such as those of most British infantry regiments, represent their home counties' history. Regiments of the British Army have long been prone to adopt members of the animal world as their mascots: dogs and ponies are just a few that have graced ceremonial parades; when the custom of having regimental mascots first started is not clear. Some mascots in the British Army are indicative of the recruiting area of a regiment, such as the Derbyshire Ram, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Irish Wolfhounds and Welsh Goats.
British Army mascots are classified as regimental mascots. The former are unofficial mascots since they are not recognized by the Army, while the latter are official mascots, having been recognized by the Army. Official British Army mascots are entitled to the services of the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, as well as quartering and food at public expense, it costs the Army £40,000 a year for the upkeep of official mascots. There are mascots whose upkeep are borne by the regiment or unit itself, they are unofficial mascots. The Army is keen in preserving the distinction between pets kept by the soldiers and official mascots of the regiments; the case for official mascot recognition is presented before the Army Honours and Distinction Committee. By getting an official status, the mascot will receive a regimental number, assume a proper rank, with prospects of promotion and get its fair share of Army rations. There are three rules set down in 1953. First, the regiment must comply with the welfare guidelines issued by the Army Veterinary Corps to ensure that the mascot is properly fed and housed.
Second, the regiment's Commanding Officer must give approval before the case goes to the Army Honours and Distinctions Committee. Third, the Committee will consider whether the mascot is "appropriate", can take an active part in army life, including ceremonial occasions, have a symbolic and historic connection with the regiment. A total of seventeen ceremonial pets are kept by eleven Army regiments, but only ten are recognized as official regimental mascots by the Army, it is a privilege jealously guarded by those. So far, the animals that have made the grade of official regimental mascot are the horse, wolfhound, goat and antelope. A Welsh Mountain Pony named Emrys. On the 26th of February 2016, Her Majesty The Queen graciously accepted the recommendation of the Army Honours and Distinctions Committee that 1st The Queen’s Dragoon Guards be allowed to keep a mascot. A Welsh Mountain Pony was selected to reflect the Regiment’s Welsh heritage; the Mascot's full title is 16851959 Tpr Emrys Forlan Jones.
His number embodies the years of formation for the Queen's Bays and King's Dragoon Guards and the year they were amalgamated to form the QDG in 1959. Emrys is a name steeped in Welsh mythology. Forlan is the name of the Stud. Jones is a common surname in the QDG so is always accompanied by the last three numbers of the soldiers service number; because of this, Emrys can be known as Tpr Jones 959. Emrys is Bay coloured as was the tradition of the The Queen's Bays; the Mascot is accompanied by a handler, known as the ‘Farrier Major'. He is identified by a unique rank insignia for the Regiment. Emrys and the Farrier Major train at Robertson Barracks in Norfolk. A drum horse named TalaveraThe present mascot of the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards is named Talavera, he has his own rank and ration book. His predecessor, named Ramillies, was presented to the Regiment by their Colonel-in-Chief, Her Majesty The Queen at the Royal Windsor Horse Show in 1987 and assumed his duties in 1989. Ramillies is a large horse, standing over 18 hands high.
After participating in the Edinburgh Military Tattoo in August 2002, he was sent to retirement and died in November 2002. A drum horse named AlameinDrum horses are used by British cavalry units in ceremonials as part of their regimental bands; as their name suggests, these horses carry a rider. Because the drums are made of solid silver, a drum horse must be big and powerful to carry this great weight; the drum horse's main role is to stand still on parades. The tradition of the drum horse dates back to the mid-eighteenth century. By command of King George II, the two silver kettle drums captured at sword's point by the King's Own Regiment of Dragoons the 3rd The King's Own Hussars, from the French at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 are to be carried by a drum horse ridden by a Sergeant Kettle Drummer on ceremonial occasions - a custom still observed by the Queen's Royal Hussars which have always had drum horses, they are a special and central part of the Regiment. They play centre stage during ceremonial occasions as the Drum Horse for the cavalrymen.
The present drum horse is named Alamein after one of the Regiment's battle honours. He was given by soldiers of the Regiment the nickname, Dudley, after the West Midlands town where m
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health. According to the World Health Organization, "Hygiene refers to conditions and practices that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of diseases." Personal hygiene refers to maintaining the body's cleanliness. Many people equate hygiene with'cleanliness,' but hygiene is a broad term, it includes such personal habit choices as how to take a shower or bathe, wash hands, trim fingernails, change and wash clothes. It includes attention to keeping surfaces in the home and workplace, including bathroom facilities and pathogen-free; some regular hygiene practices may be considered good habits by a society, while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful, or threatening. First attested in English in 1676s, the word hygiene comes from the French hygiène, the latinisation of the Greek ὑγιεινή hugieinē technē, meaning " of health", from ὑγιεινός hugieinos, "good for the health, healthy", in turn from ὑγιής, "healthful, salutary, wholesome".
In ancient Greek religion, Hygeia was the personification of health and hygiene. Hygiene is a concept related to cleanliness and medicine, it is as well related to professional care practices. In medicine and everyday life settings, hygiene practices are employed as preventative measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease. Hygiene practices vary, what is considered acceptable in one culture might not be acceptable in another. In the manufacturing of food, pharmaceutical and other products, good hygiene is a critical component of quality assurance; the terms cleanliness and hygiene are used interchangeably, which can cause confusion. In general, hygiene refers to practices. Cleaning processes remove infectious microbes as well as dirt and soil, are thus the means to achieve hygiene. Other uses of the term appear in phrases including body hygiene, personal hygiene, sleep hygiene, mental hygiene, dental hygiene, occupational hygiene, used in connection with public health. Hygiene is the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health.
Medical hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices related to the administration of medicine and medical care that prevents or minimizes the spread of disease. Medical hygiene practices include: Isolation or quarantine of infectious persons or materials to prevent spread of infection. Sterilization of instruments used in surgical procedures. Use of protective clothing and barriers, such as masks, caps and gloves. Proper bandaging and dressing of injuries. Safe disposal of medical waste. Disinfection of reusables. Scrubbing up, hand-washing in an operating room, but in more general health-care settings as well, where diseases can be transmitted. Most of these practices were developed in the 19th century and were well established by the mid-20th century; some procedures were refined in response to late-20th century disease outbreaks, notably AIDS and Ebola. Home hygiene pertains to the hygiene practices that prevent or minimize the spread of disease at home and other everyday settings such as social settings, public transport, the workplace, public places, etc.
Hygiene in a variety of settings plays an important role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. It includes procedures used in a variety of domestic situations such as hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene and water hygiene, general home hygiene, care of domestic animals, home health care. At present, these components of hygiene tend to be regarded as separate issues, although based on the same underlying microbiological principles. Preventing the spread of diseases means breaking the chain of infection transmission. Put, if the chain of infection is broken, infection cannot spread. In response to the need for effective codes of hygiene in home and everyday life settings the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has developed a risk-based approach based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point referred to as "targeted hygiene." Targeted hygiene is based on identifying the routes of pathogen spread in the home and introducing hygiene practices at critical times to break the chain of infection.
The main sources of infection in the home are people and water, domestic animals. Sites that accumulate stagnant water—such as sinks, waste pipes, cleaning tools, face cloths, etc. support microbial growth and can become secondary reservoirs of infection, though species are those that threaten "at risk" groups. Pathogens are shed from these sources via mucous membranes, vomit, skin scales, etc. Thus, when circumstances combine, people are exposed, either directly or via food or water, can develop an infection; the main "highways" for the spread of pathogens in the home are the hands and food contact surfaces, cleaning cloths and utensils. Pathogens can be spread via clothing and household linens, such as towels. Utilities such as toilets and wash basins, for example, were invented for dealing safely with human waste but still have risks associated with them. Safe disposal of human waste is a fundamental need. Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are spread via