Corniche (Abu Dhabi)
The Corniche is located in the city of Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates. The Corniche Road spreads across an 8km long stretch which includes children’s play areas, separate cycle and pedestrian pathways, cafés and the Corniche Beach, it forms a sweeping curve on the western side of the main Abu Dhabi island and is replete with cycle paths and park areas. Between 2002 and 2003, land was reclaimed from the sea and the Corniche was extended; some of the earlier landmarks were demolished in the process. Certain parts of the Corniche have significant deposition of sand, with people using the area as a public beach. Prior to the 1970s, the current area occupied by the Corniche was a beach, where dhows and ships used to anchor and transfer cargo or people. Marina Mall can be accessed using a narrow breakwater road. At Marina Mall, the UAE flag is hoisted and holds the record for being one of the tallest flagpoles in the world. Lulu Island is a tiny reclaimed island located about a kilometer from the corniche and the Emirates Palace Hotel is at the southern end.
There are a number of skyscrapers at the northern end, with newer taller skyscrapers being built on the southern end. Corniche Mina Zayed Marine Drive, Mumbai, a similar area in Mumbai ABU DHABI CORNICHE Dhabi Corniche
A corniche is a road on the side of a cliff or mountain, with the ground rising on one side and falling away on the other. The word has been absorbed into English from the French term route à corniche or "road on a ledge" derived from the Italian cornice, for "ledge". Three famed corniche roads of the Côte d'Azur in the French Riviera run between the sea and mountains from Nice eastward toward Menton, they are known as the Corniche Inferieure along the coast, the Moyenne Corniche inland, the Grande Corniche along the upper cliffs. The Corniche Inferieure passes through the principality of Monaco; the Grande Corniche featured prominently in the Alfred Hitchcock film To Catch a Thief. The Amalfi Drive, along the Amalfi Coast south of Naples, is a road carved into the cliffs along the Mediterranean Sea, can be classified as a corniche, it runs between Sorrento and Amalfi and was built by the Romans. Corniche in Egypt is any waterfront passage along any body of water, most cities in the country have Corniches, either on the Nile, such as the longest Cornich in the country, "Cornich Cairo", "Cornich Giza", or on the Mediterranean such as the famous "Cornich Alexandria" The promenade that runs from the Nile Towers hotel to the district of Maadi is colloquially called Corniche El-Nil The promenade that runs from the Giza Zoo to the balloon theater in Agouza is colloquially known as Corniche EL-Giza The promenade running from Montazah Palace walls to the Qaitbay Citadel in Alexandria is known as Corniche Though the word itself comes from a French Origin, yet Egypt's cultural influence has made other neighboring Arab countries that aren't francophone or have no French influence in them, to adopt the words.
Such as Sudan, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Qatar. Other cities such as Mansoura and Luxor have Corniche The avenue that runs along the western and northern coast of the Beirut peninsula is colloquially called Corniche Beirut; the promenade along the waterfront in Muttrah, Muscat is known as The Corniche. The promenade that runs for several kilometers along the Doha Bay of Doha is colloquially called Doha Corniche; the promenade that runs from the Emirates Palace hotel to the fish market in Abu Dhabi is colloquially called the Corniche. in Ajman, the corniche is the road that runs from ajman beach to ajman marina, with the beautiful skyline of the city and the tall skyscrapers thar stand along the road. In Sharjah, the road surrounding Khalid Lagoon is known as Buheira Corniche, though not a true corniche as it is near sea level and not following a cliff line. Several other waterfront roads and promenades in the Emirates are referred to as Corniche, including the Deira Corniche, Fujairah Corniche, the Jumeirah Corniche.
Dammam corniche, Qatif corniche, Khobar corniche, Ras Tanura corniche, Jeddah Corniche, Yanbu corniche, Al Jubail corniche The dictionary definition of corniche at Wiktionary
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Walkeshwar is an affluent area in South Mumbai, India, at the north-western end of the Marine Drive loop, is most famous for Walkeshwar Temple, Banganga Tank and Jain temples. Walkeshwar takes its name after one part of the Trinity of Hinduism; the modern form of the word derives from the Sanskrit word for an idol made of sand - Valuka Iswar, an avatar of Shiva - in a legend celebrated at the Walkeshwar Temple, situated at the highest point of the city. Legend has it that Hindu god, Ram paused at that spot on his way from Ayodhya to Lanka in pursuit of the demon king, Ravana who had kidnapped his wife, Sita. Lord Rama was advised to worship Shiv linga and he is said to have constructed the original linga of sand, after getting tired of waiting for his brother, Lakshman to bring an idol; the name is etymologically derived from the Sanskrit word for an idol made of sand -- Valuka Iswar, an Avatar of Shiva. As the story progresses when Ram was thirsty, as there was no fresh water available, he shot an arrow and brought Ganges over here.
Hence Bana Ganges. The water that feeds the tank stems from an underground spring at that spot, despite its proximity to the sea. Walkeshwar includes Malabar Hill, is in close proximity to the Hanging Gardens. Raj Bhavan, the official residence of the Governor of Maharashtra, has the maximum number of Gulmohur trees thus making a pretty site in the season is located here besides some of the most expensive neighborhoods in the whole country, prices ranging from Rs 92,000 to Rs 1,00,000 per square foot, which can be compared to residential luxury apartments in the US, it has the most expensive real estate in the whole of India. It has a lot of prime residential buildings in the area; the most of the buildings are sea facing and the location has lot of natural character. The sea is calm here as it is the bay area. There is a Jain temple, near the Malabar Hill Police Station. Babu Amichand Panalal Adishwarji Jain Temple: Babu Amichand Panalal Adishwarji Jain Temple is one of the most visited Jain temple in Mumbai.
This temple belongs Shwetambar sect of Jainism. This Jain temple is famous for there old carving work and beautiful architectures, Paintings etc; this temple is dedicated to the first tirthankara of Jainism. Moolnayak of this temple is a white colored idol of Adishwarji. Idols of other tirthankaras, Jain deities like Goddess Padmavati, Ghantakaran Mahavir are present here. Temple has an idol of Hindu God Ganesha signifying Jainism and Hinduism unity. Ceiling of the temple has carving of Navgraha and Yakshi. Thousand of Jains visit this temple daily. Chandanbala Jain Temple is present near this temple. Walkeshwar Temple known as the Baan Ganga Temple, is a temple dedicated to the Hindu god, Shiva; the temple is close to Banganga Tank. The temple and the attached fresh water Banganga Tank were built in 1127 AD; the Hanging Gardens or Pherozeshah Mehta Gardens, are terraced gardens perched at the top of Malabar Hill, on its western side, just opposite the Kamala Nehru Park. They provide sunset views over the Arabian Sea and feature numerous hedges carved into the shapes of animals.
The park was laid out in 1881 by Ulhas Ghapokar over Bombay's main reservoir. Banganga Tank is an ancient water tank, part of the Walkeshwar Temple Complex in Malabar Hill area of Mumbai in India built in the 1127 AD. Walkeshwar Temple Malabar Hill <references/> Photos of Banganga Tank Walkeshwar
Parsis or Parsees are a Zoroastrian community who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Arab conquest of Persia of 636–651 AD. According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, Parsis migrated from Greater Iran to Gujarat, where they were given refuge, between the 8th and 10th century AD to avoid persecution following the Muslim conquest of Persia. At the time of the Muslim conquest of Persia, the dominant religion of the region was Zoroastrianism. Iranians such as Babak Khorramdin rebelled against Muslim conquerors for 200 years. During this time many Iranians chose to preserve their religious identity by fleeing from Persia to India; the word پارسیان, pronounced "Parsian", i.e. "Parsi" in the Persian language means Persian. Note that Farsi is an arabization of the word Parsi, used as an endonym of Persian, Persian language is spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and some other former regions of the Persian Empire; the long presence of the Parsis in India distinguishes them from the smaller Zoroastrian Indian community of Iranis, who are much more recent arrivals descended from Zoroastrians fleeing the repression of the Qajar dynasty and the general social and political tumult of late 19th- and early 20th-century Iran.
After having spent centuries in South Gujarat Udvada and Navsari, the majority of the Parsi diaspora speak Gujarati. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica,Parsi spelled Parsee, member of a group of followers in India of the Persian prophet Zoroaster; the Parsis, whose name means "Persians", are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to India to avoid religious persecution by the Muslims. They live chiefly in Mumbai and in a few towns and villages to the south of Mumbai, but a few minorities near by in Karachi and Bangalore. There is a sizeable Parsee population in Pune as well in Hyderabad. A few Parsee families reside in Kolkata and Chennai. Although they are not speaking, a caste, since they are not Hindus, they form a well-defined community; the exact date of the Parsi migration is unknown. According to tradition, the Parsis settled at Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, but finding themselves still persecuted they set sail for India, arriving in the 8th century; the migration may in fact have taken place as late in both.
They settled first at Diu in Kathiawar but soon moved to south Gujarāt, where they remained for about 800 years as a small agricultural community. The term Pārsi, which in the Persian language is a demonym meaning "inhabitant of Pārs" and hence "ethnic Persian", is not attested in Indian Zoroastrian texts until the 17th century; until that time, such texts use the Persian-origin terms Zartoshti "Zoroastrian" or Vehdin " the good religion". The 12th-century Sixteen Shlokas, a Sanskrit text in praise of the Parsis, is the earliest attested use of the term as an identifier for Indian Zoroastrians; the first reference to the Parsis in a European language is from 1322, when a French monk, Jordanus refers to their presence in Thane and Bharuch. Subsequently, the term appears in the journals of many European travelers, first French and Portuguese English, all of whom used a Europeanized version of an local language term. For example, Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta observed in 1563 that "there are merchants... in the kingdom of Cambaia... known as Esparcis.
We Portuguese call them Jews. They are Gentios." In an early 20th-century legal ruling, Justices Davar and Beaman asserted that "Parsi" was a term used in Iran to refer to Zoroastrians. Notes that in much the same way as the word "Hindu" was used by Iranians to refer to anyone from the Indian subcontinent, "Parsi" was used by the Indians to refer to anyone from Greater Iran, irrespective of whether they were ethnic Persian people. In any case, the term "Parsi" itself is "not an indication of their Iranian or'Persian' origin, but rather as indicator – manifest as several properties – of ethnic identity". Moreover, if heredity were the only factor in a determination of ethnicity, the Parsis would count as Parthians according to the Qissa-i Sanjan; the term "Parseeism" or "Parsiism" is attributed to Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron, who in the 1750s, when the word "Zoroastrianism" had yet to be coined, made the first detailed report of the Parsis and of Zoroastrianism, therein mistakenly assuming that the Parsis were the only remaining followers of the religion.
In addition to above, the Parsi identity was well an identity before they moved to India: The earliest reference to the Parsis is found in the Assyrian inscription of Shalmaneser III. Darius the Great establishes this fact when he records his Parsi ancestry for posterity, “parsa parsahya puthra ariya ariyachitra”, meaning, “a Parsi, the son of a Parsi, an Aryan, of Aryan family. In Outlines of Parsi History, Dasturji Hormazdyar Dastur Kayoji Mirza, Bombay 1987, pp. 3-4 writes, “According to the Pahlavi text of Karnamak i Artakhshir i Papakan, the Indian astrologer refers to Artakhshir as khvatay parsikan ‘the king of the Parsis’. Herodotus and Xenophon, the two great historians who lived in the third and fourth centuries BC referred to Iranians as Parsis. In ancient Persia, Zoroaster taught that good and evil were opposite forces and the battle between them is more or less evenly matched. A person should always be vigilant to
Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai known as Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation, is the governing civic body of Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra. It is India's richest municipal corporation; the BMC's annual budget exceeds that of some of India's smaller states. It was established under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act 1888. BMC is responsible for the civic administration of the city and some suburbs. In 2014, Trushna Vishwasrao became the first female corporator to serve as its leader; the BMC is headed by an IAS officer. A quinquennial election is held to elect corporators, who are responsible for basic civic infrastructure and enforcing duty; the Mayor from the majority party, serves as head of the house. As of June 2008, all administrative business in the BMC was conducted in Marathi, a decision that sparked controversy, following which the BMC eased it's stance and began accepting forms in English; as of 2017, the BMC's legislature known as the Corporation Council, consisted of 227 members.
2017 was the first time 31 candidates contested from a single ward. Raghvendra Singh was the youngest independent candidate at age 21. BMC is one of the richest municipal corporations in Asia. Municipal Corporation Building, Mumbai Coat of arms of Mumbai Administrative divisions of Mumbai Mayor of Mumbai Municipal Commissioner of Mumbai Sheriff of Mumbai Bandra Municipal Committee Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai website
Babulnath is an ancient Shiva temple in Mumbai, India. Situated on a small hillock near Girgaum Chowpatty, it is one of oldest temples in the city, Shiva in the form of the Lord of the Babul tree is the main deity in this temple; the faithful climb up to the temple and obtain Darshan of the shivling and obtain blessings of the Lord. It is possible to take an elevator up to the temple; the temples is visited by lakhs of devotees on annual Mahashivratri festival. Babulnath Temple Shiva Linga and Idols were consecrated in the 12th century by the Hindu king Bhimdev of the region. Over a period of time the temple was lost over a period of time; the idols were re-discovered during the period of 1700 to 1780. The first temple was built in the 1780 year; when rediscovered, 5 original idols were dug out. That of the main Shiva Linga, Hanuman and one more. Out of this the first four are in the temple; the fifth one was immersed in the sea. When the first temple was built the land belonged to the Parsi community.
There were 5 Dakhma's existing in the vicinity. There was a lot of resistance for the Parsi community at that time for building of the temple; this resistance continued till the late 1800 when the issue was settled by the courts in favour of the temple. The Babulnath Temple was patronised when built for the first time by Hindu merchant of that time and the Gujarati community. A bigger temple was built in 1890 by contributions from the Gujarati merchants and the likes of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda state; the current temple structure can be dated back to 1890. The temple height was considerable when built in 1890 but a lightning strike in the 1960s and damage to the spire lowered the height of the present temple considerably. Till the 1980s Babulnath Temple was location in the city of Mumbai. There is limited reference to Babulnath Temple in the historical texts, because in the initial days the temple was frequented by yogis who used to stay there for Bhang and Ganja; however the temple famed in the 20th century.
The temple is thronged by people on Mondays and during Mahashivratri & Shravan months. Shri Babulnath Mandir website