September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
Air Force One
Air Force One is the official air traffic control call sign for a United States Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. In common parlance the term describes those U. S. Air Force aircraft designed and used to transport the president; the presidential aircraft is a prominent symbol of its power. The idea of designating specific military aircraft to transport the President arose in 1943, when officials of the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor to the U. S. Air Force, became concerned over the reliance on commercial airlines to transport the president. A C-87 Liberator Express was reconfigured for use as the first dedicated VIP and presidential transport aircraft and named Guess Where II, but the Secret Service rejected it because of its safety record. A C-54 Skymaster was converted for presidential use; the "Air Force One" call sign was created after a 1953 incident during which a Lockheed Constellation named Columbine II, carrying President Dwight D. Eisenhower, entered the same airspace as a commercial airline flight using the same flight number.
A number of aircraft types have been used as Air Force One since the creation of the presidential fleet, starting with two Lockheed Constellations in the late 1950s: Columbine II and Columbine III. It operated two Boeing 707s, introduced in the 1960s and 1970s; the U. S. Air Force plans to procure the Boeing 747-8 for the next version of Air Force One. On 11 October 1910, Theodore Roosevelt became the first U. S. president to fly in an aircraft, an early Wright Flyer from Kinloch Field near St. Louis, Missouri, he was no longer in office at the time. The record-making occasion was a brief overflight of the crowd at a county fair but was nonetheless the beginning of presidential air travel. Prior to World War II, overseas and cross-country presidential travel was rare; the lack of wireless telecommunication and available modes of transportation made long-distance travel impractical, as it took too much time and isolated the president from events in Washington, D. C. Railroads were a more reliable option if the president needed to travel to distant states.
By the late 1930s, with the arrival of aircraft such as the Douglas DC-3, increasing numbers of the U. S. public saw passenger air travel as a reasonable mode of transportation. All-metal aircraft, more reliable engines, new radio aids to navigation had made commercial airline travel safer and more convenient. Life insurance companies began to offer airline pilots insurance policies, albeit at extravagant rates, many commercial travelers and government officials began using the airlines in preference to rail travel for longer trips. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to fly in an aircraft while in office; the first aircraft obtained for presidential travel was a Douglas Dolphin amphibian delivered in 1933, designated RD-2 by the US Navy and based at the Naval base at Anacostia D. C; the Dolphin was modified with luxury upholstery for four passengers and a small separate sleeping compartment. The aircraft remained in service as a presidential transport from 1933 until 1939. There are no reports, however, on whether the president flew in the aircraft.
During World War II, Roosevelt traveled on the Dixie Clipper, a Pan Am-crewed Boeing 314 flying boat to the 1943 Casablanca Conference in Morocco, a flight that covered 5,500 miles in three legs. The threat from the German submarines throughout the Battle of the Atlantic made air travel the preferred method of VIP transatlantic transportation. Concerned about relying upon commercial airlines to transport the president, USAAF leaders ordered the conversion of a military aircraft to accommodate the special needs of the Commander-in-Chief; the first dedicated aircraft proposed for presidential use was a C-87A VIP transport aircraft. This aircraft, number 41-24159, was modified in 1943 for use as a presidential VIP transport, the Guess Where II, intended to carry President Franklin D. Roosevelt on international trips. Had it been accepted, it would have been the first aircraft to be used in presidential service. However, after a review of the C-87's controversial safety record in service, the Secret Service flatly refused to approve the Guess Where II for presidential carriage.
As the C-87 was a derivative of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber, it presented strong offensive impressions to enemy fighter aircraft as well as foreign destinations visited, an issue not present with airplanes that were used purely for transport. The Guess Where II was used to transport senior members of the Roosevelt administration on various trips. In March 1944, it transported Eleanor Roosevelt on a goodwill tour of several Latin American countries; the C-87 was scrapped in 1945. The Secret Service subsequently reconfigured a Douglas C-54 Skymaster for presidential transport duty; the VC-54C aircraft, nicknamed the Sacred Cow, included a sleeping area, radio telephone, retractable elevator to lift Roosevelt in his wheelchair. As modified, the VC-54C was used by President Roosevelt only once before his death, on his trip to the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Sacred Cow is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. After Roosevelt's death in April 1945, Vice President Harry S. Truman became president.
The legislation that created the U. S. Air Force, the Nati
An aircraft livery is a set of comprehensive insignia comprising color and typographical identifiers which operators apply to their aircraft. As aircraft liveries evolved in the years after the Second World War, they became a leading subset of the emerging disciplines of corporate identity and branding and among the most prominent examples of fashion, they have provided an arena for the work of distinguished designers and eminent lay people like Raymond Loewy, Alexander Girard, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. The term is an adaptation of the word livery: the uniform-style clothing worn by servants of wealthy families and government representatives until the early/mid-20th century. With the advent of stagecoaches, railway trains, steamships, the term livery spread to their decoration. Since the 1950s, elements of airline liveries permeated ground vehicles, proprietary airport furniture, airline promotional materials and aircrew uniforms in an integrated manner, spreading to airline websites in the 1990s.
Since the 1950s and 60s, aircraft liveries have been uniform livery across an entire fleet. One-off custom-designs might be applied from time to time to individual fleet members to highlight set occasions. Painting in multiple layers has changed for the application of a basecoat-clearcoat system, improving gloss and color retention and being quicker drying. Decals and/or stickers are used for geometrically challenging elements such as logos. To paint an A380, 24 painters were needed during two weeks to apply 2,300 L of paint in five coats for British Airways, to cover 3,500 m2 with 650 kg. Emirates stripped and repainted one in 15 days with 34 people including seven days for painting, covering 3,076 m2 with 1,100 kg in seven coats. Airline liveries involve set individual elements; the airline's title is set in a specific style. This is defined by typographical designers as a logotype; the specification covers: typeface. Size varies according to fleet member. Since type is designed to be customarily read from a flat surface, airline livery type is modified to fit curved aircraft surfaces.
The specifications result in a logotype: a cliche of type whose characteristics remain unchanged. The airline's monogram or emblem is defined in terms of geometry by graphic designers; the resulting specification is called a logo. Logos are modified to fit curved surfaces and appear identical from diverse viewing angles; the colour or colours are specified in terms of colour matching and standardisation systems like Pantone or Federal Standard. The resulting specification is called a colourway. Individual aircraft types most have individually designed liveries which appear to be identical, but are not quite the same as those applied to other aircraft types operated by the same airline. Uniform liveries became adopted by the 1950s and'60s. Before individual airlines, notably Aeroflot and some US carriers like Delta Air Lines, used custom liveries designed for each individual aircraft type they operated. Aeroflot abandoned the practice as late as 1974; until after the Second World War, the "default solution" for aircraft livery design was to leave the aircraft exterior unpainted and decorated only with the airline's title, plus an emblem or monogram.
When the world's first all-metal airliners, such as the Boeing 247, Douglas DC-2, Douglas DC-3, entered service in the 1930s, the sleekness of their shiny exteriors provided an imaginative canvas for livery design. At the time, paint was expensive heavy, had poor adherence to metal, was prone to early bleaching and chemical damage; as corrosion and paint research advanced and airliner lives lengthened, airframers began applying advanced primers and treatments to airliners during manufacture. Many airframers insisted on overall corrosion protection remaining in place throughout an airliner's service life, or at least throughout its diverse guarantee periods; this made bare metal liveries problematic. To ensure longevity, bare metal liveries involved intensive polishing and waxing during manufacture and in service; the bare metal era survived into the 21st century and the advent of plastic composite airliners like the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A350 XWB. The most notable erstwhile proponent of the bare metal look, American Airlines, adopted a painted livery in 2013.
Other passenger airlines, including Aeroflot, Air Canada, CP Air, Cathay Pacific, Condor Flugdienst, JAT Yugoslav Airlines, Northwest Airlines, SAS Scandinavian Airlines System, TAROM, US Airways, Western Airlines employed unadorned bare metal in whole or part of their liveries for set periods or as an experiment. Cargo carriers like Cargolux, Flying Tiger Line, JAL Japan Airlines Cargo, Korean Air Cargo, Seaboard World Airlines claimed that their bare metal liveries save weight. Counterclaims stated that
Northrop Grumman Corporation is an American global aerospace and defense technology company formed by Northrop's 1994 purchase of Grumman. The company reported revenues in excess of $30 billion in 2018 and was the fourth-largest arms trader in the world in 2017 with about 84% of all revenue coming from defense related activities. Northrop Grumman is made up of four main business sectors: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems, Technology Services and Innovation Systems; the corporate headquarters is located in Virginia. Northrop Grumman ranks number 118 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of America's largest corporations, it ranks in the top ten military-friendly employers and top 50 companies for diversity. Northrop Grumman and its industry partners have won the Collier Trophy eight times, most for developing the Northrop Grumman X-47B, the first unmanned, autonomous air system operating from an aircraft carrier. In 2004, Scaled Composites, a subsidiary of Northrop Grumman, won the Collier Trophy for the SpaceShipOne, successful developed for the first financed and flown space vehicle.
Northrop Grumman has been the sponsor of the Military Bowl since 2010. Northrop Grumman is made up of four main business sectors: Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems, Technology Services, Innovation Systems. Aerospace Systems, headquartered in Redondo Beach, produces aircraft, high-energy laser systems and microelectronics for the U. S. and other nations. This includes surveillance and reconnaissance, protected communications, battle management, strike operations, electronic warfare, missile defense to Earth observation, space science and space exploration; the B-2 Spirit strategic bomber, the E-8C Joint STARS surveillance aircraft, the RQ-4 Global Hawk, the T-38 Talon supersonic trainer are used by the US Air Force. The US Army uses Northrop Grumman's RQ-5 Hunter unmanned air vehicle, in operational use since 1995; the U. S. Navy uses Northrop Grumman-built aerial vehicles such as the BQM-74 Chukar, RQ-4 Global Hawk based MQ-4C Triton, MQ-8 Fire Scout, Grumman C-2 Greyhound, Grumman E-2 Hawkeye, the EA-6B Prowler.
Northrop Grumman provides major components and assemblies for different aircraft such as F/A-18 Hornet, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, EA-18G Growler. and the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. Aerospace systems serves as the contractor for numerous space payloads and is the prime contractor for the James Webb Space Telescope Northrop Grumman Mission Systems, headquartered in Linthicum, Maryland creates military radar and related products, including C4I radar systems for air defense, Airspace Management radar systems such as AMASS, battlefield surveillance systems like the Airborne Reconnaissance Low. Tactical aircraft sensors include the AN/APG-68 radar, the AN/APG-80 AESA radar, the AN/APG-83 AESA radar upgrade for the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the AN/APG-77 AESA radar for the F-22 Raptor, the AN/APG-81 AESA radar for the F-35 Lightning II, the AN/AAQ-37 electro-optical Distributed Aperture System for the F-35, the APQ-164 Passive Electronically Scanned Array radar for the B-1 Lancer. Mission Systems produces and maintains the AWACS aerial surveillance systems for the U.
S. the United Kingdom, NATO, others. Northrop Grumman is the prime contractor for the development and integration of the Air Force's $2-billion Multi-Platform Radar Technology Insertion Program. Northrop Grumman supports the U. S. ballistic missile program, integrates various command and intelligence systems and provides technical and management services to governmental and military customers, all with an emphasis on cyber security. Many other smaller products are made by Northrop Grumman, such as night vision goggles and secure communications equipment; the Technology Services sector headquartered in McNair, works on "the entire life cycle of civil and defense platforms and capabilities through a range of services". Vinnell, a Northrop Grumman subsidiary, provides training and communications for the military. In 2003, it landed a $48 million contract to train the Iraqi Army. In 2005 the company won a $2 billion contract with Virginia to overhaul most of the state's IT operations; that year, The United Kingdom paid $1.2 billion in a contract with the company to provide maintenance of the country's defensive radar.
Northrop Grumman performs various functions in the War on Drugs. The company sends planes to spray herbicides on suspected cocaine fields in Colombia and opium poppy fields in Afghanistan. On June 7, 2018, the acquisition of Orbital ATK was completed and the former company was absorbed in Northrop Grumman as a new business sector called Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems. Innovation system is headquartered in Virginia. Remotec, a subsidiary, is a manufacturer of remote control vehicles for explosive ordnance disposal and hazardous material handling. A UK-based subsidiary, Park Air Systems, provides VHF and UHF ground-to-air communications systems for the civil and defense markets. Northrop Grumman has worked with Antenna Associates, Inc. a manufacturer of Identification friend or foe /Secondary Surveillance Radar antennas located in Massachusetts. In August 2007, Northrop Grumman acquired Scaled Composites in which it had owned a 40% stake. In 2008, Northrop Grumman began working with DHS Systems LLC, manufacturer of the Deployable Rapid Assembly Shelter in New York, as part of the U.
S. Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System program. Northrop Grumman can trace its lineage back to the beginning of the 20th century and has created a myriad of products such as ballistic missiles, all-weather radars, Apollo Lunar Mo
The galley is the compartment of a ship, train, or aircraft where food is cooked and prepared. It can refer to a land-based kitchen on a naval base, or, from a kitchen design point of view, to a straight design of the kitchen layout. A galley is the kitchen aboard a vessel laid out in an efficient typical style with longitudinal units and overhead cabinets; this makes the best use of the limited space aboard ships. It caters for the rolling and heaving nature of ships, making them more resistant to the effects of the movement of the ship. For this reason galley stoves are gimballed, so that the liquid in pans does not spill out, they are commonly equipped with bars, preventing the cook from falling against the hot stove. A small kitchen on deck was called a caboose or camboose, originating from the Dutch: kombuis, still in use today. In English it is a defunct term used only for a cooking area, abovedecks; the Douglas Aircraft DC-3 was the first airplane with a planned galley for food service. Galleys on commercial airlines include not only facilities to serve and store food and beverages, but contain flight attendant jumpseats, emergency equipment storage, as well as anything else flight attendants may need during the flight.
Aircraft in operation today use the familiar airline service trolley system. Airbus has developed a new galley concept called SPICE, presented 2010, which they publicise as a potential new worldwide standard with significant advantages over the current 40-year-old trolley technology; the first airplane kitchen was invented by Werner Sell of Germany in 1930. In 1955 Sell began fitting train coaches with kitchens, from 1960 on with the newly developed convection oven; the term galley kitchen is used to refer to the design of household kitchen wherein the units are fitted into a continuous array with no kitchen table, allowing maximum use of a restricted space, work with the minimum of required movement between units. Such kitchens increase storage space by working vertically, with hanging pots, dish racks, ceiling-hung cabinets common; the term refers to a kitchen with the units in two facing lines, but is used to refer to U-shaped kitchens as well. The first mass-produced galley kitchen design was known as the Frankfurt kitchen, designed by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, working under the direction of Ernst May in 1926 for a Frankfurt housing estate.
10,000 units were installed in Frankfurt, it was the most successful and influential kitchen of the period. Chief cook Chief steward Steward's assistant
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Nancy Davis Reagan was an American film actress and the wife of Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. She was the First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989, she was born in New York City. After her parents separated, she lived in Maryland with an uncle for several years; when her mother remarried in 1929, she moved to Chicago and took the name Davis from her stepfather. As Nancy Davis, she was a Hollywood actress in the 1940s and 1950s, starring in films such as The Next Voice You Hear... Night into Morning, Donovan's Brain. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, president of the Screen Actors Guild, they had two children together. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975, she began to work with the Foster Grandparents Program. Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981, following her husband's victory in the 1980 presidential election. Early in his first term, she was criticized due to her decision to replace the White House china, paid for by private donations.
Following years of lax formality, she decided to restore a Kennedyesque glamour to the White House, her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes when she founded the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, considered her major initiative as First Lady. More discussion of her role ensued following a 1988 revelation that she had consulted an astrologer to assist in planning the president's schedule after the attempted assassination of her husband in 1981, she had a strong influence on her husband and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. After Ronald Reagan's term as president ended, the couple returned to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California. Nancy devoted most of her time to caring for her husband, diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, until his death at the age of 93 on June 5, 2004. Reagan remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics in support of embryonic stem cell research, until her death from congestive heart failure at age 94 on March 6, 2016.
Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 1921, at Sloane Hospital for Women in Midtown Manhattan. She was the only child of Kenneth Seymour Robbins, a farmer turned car salesman, born into a once-prosperous family, his actress wife, Edith Prescott Luckett, her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova. From birth, she was called Nancy, she lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, a borough of New York City, in a two-story house on Roosevelt Avenue between 149th and 150th Streets. Her parents separated soon after her birth and were divorced in 1928. After their separation, her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs and Robbins was raised in Bethesda, for six years by her aunt, Virginia Luckett, uncle, Audley Gailbraith, where she attended The Sidwell Friends School,K-2 grades. Nancy described longing for her mother during those years: "My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, Aunt Virgie would take me by train to stay with her."In 1929, her mother married Loyal Edward Davis, a prominent conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago.
Nancy and her stepfather got along well. He formally adopted her in 1938, she would always refer to him as her father. At the time of the adoption, her name was changed to Nancy Davis, she attended the Girls' Latin School of Chicago, she graduated in 1939, attended Smith College in Massachusetts, where she majored in English and drama, graduated in 1943. In 1940, a young Davis had appeared as a National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis volunteer in a memorable short subject film shown in movie theaters to raise donations for the crusade against polio; the Crippler featured a sinister figure spreading over playgrounds and farms, laughing over its victims, until dispelled by the volunteer. It was effective in raising contributions. Following her graduation from college, Davis held jobs in Chicago as a sales clerk in Marshall Field's department store and as a nurse's aide. With the help of her mother's colleagues in theatre, including ZaSu Pitts, Walter Huston, Spencer Tracy, she pursued a professional career as an actress.
She first gained a part in Pitts' 1945 road tour of Ramshackle Inn. She landed the role of Si-Tchun, a lady-in-waiting, in the 1946 Broadway musical about the Orient, Lute Song, starring Mary Martin and a pre-fame Yul Brynner; the show's producer told her, "You look like you could be Chinese."After passing a screen test, she moved to California and signed a seven-year contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. in 1949. Her combination of attractive appearance—centered on her large eyes—and somewhat distant and understated manner made her hard at first for MGM to cast and publicize. Davis appeared in eleven feature films typecast as a "loyal housewife", "responsible young mother", or "the steady woman". Jane Powell, Debbie Reynolds, Leslie Caron, Janet Leigh were among the actresses with whom she competed for roles at MGM. Davis' film career began with small supporting roles in two films that were released in 1949, The Doctor and the Girl with Glenn Ford and East Side, West Side starring Barbara Stanwyck.
She played a child psychiatrist in the film noir Shadow on the Wall with Ann Sothern and Zachary Scott.