Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus. It was the first spacecraft to perform flybys of multiple planets. Mariner 10 was launched two years after Mariner 9 and was the last spacecraft in the Mariner program; the mission objectives were to measure Mercury's environment, atmosphere and body characteristics and to make similar investigations of Venus. Secondary objectives were to perform experiments in the interplanetary medium and to obtain experience with a dual-planet gravity assist mission. Mariner 10's science team was led by Bruce C. Murray at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Mariner 10 was the first spacecraft to make use of an interplanetary gravitational slingshot maneuver, using Venus to bend its flight path and bring its perihelion down to the level of Mercury's orbit; this maneuver, inspired by the orbital mechanics calculations of the Italian scientist Giuseppe Colombo, put the spacecraft into an orbit that brought it back to Mercury.
Mariner 10 used the solar radiation pressure on its solar panels and its high-gain antenna as a means of attitude control during flight, the first spacecraft to use active solar pressure control. The components on Mariner 10 can be categorized into four groups based on their common function; the solar panels, power subsystem, attitude control subsystem, computer kept the spacecraft operating properly during the flight. The navigational system, including the hydrazine rocket, would keep Mariner 10 on track to Venus and Mercury. Several scientific instruments would collect data at the two planets; the antennas would transmit this data to the Deep Space Network back on Earth, as well as receive commands from Mission Control. Mariner 10's various components and scientific instruments were attached to a central hub, the shape of an octagonal prism; the hub stored the spacecraft's internal electronics. The Mariner 10 spacecraft was manufactured by Boeing. NASA set a strict limit of $98 million for Mariner 10's total cost, which marked the first time the agency subjected a mission to an inflexible budget constraint.
No overruns would be tolerated, so mission planners considered cost efficiency when designing the spacecraft's instruments. Cost control was accomplished by executing contract work closer to the launch date than was recommended by normal mission schedules, as reducing the length of available work time increased cost efficiency. Despite the rushed schedule few deadlines were missed; the mission ended up about $1 million under budget. Attitude control is needed to keep a spacecraft's instruments and antennas aimed in the correct direction. During course maneuvers, a spacecraft may need to rotate so that its rocket faces the proper direction before being fired. Mariner 10 determined its attitude using two optical sensors, one pointed at the Sun, the other at a bright star Canopus. Nitrogen gas thrusters were used to adjust Mariner 10's orientation along three axes; the spacecraft's electronics were intricate and complex: it contained over 32,000 pieces of circuitry, of which resistors, diodes and transistors were the most common devices.
Commands for the instruments could be stored on Mariner 10's computer, but were limited to 512 words. The rest had to be broadcast by the Mission Sequence Working Group from Earth. Supplying the spacecraft components with power required modifying the electrical output of the solar panels; the power subsystem used two redundant sets of circuitry, each containing a booster regulator and an inverter, to convert the panels' DC output to AC and alter the voltage to the necessary level. The subsystem could store up to 20 ampere hours of electricity on a 39 volt nickel-cadmium battery; the flyby past Mercury posed major technical challenges for scientists to overcome. Due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun, Mariner 10 would have to endure 4.5 times more solar radiation than when it departed Earth—compared to previous Mariner missions, spacecraft parts needed extra shielding against the heat. Thermal blankets and a sunshade were installed on the main body. After evaluating different choices for the sunshade cloth material, mission planners chose beta cloth, a combination of aluminized Kapton and glass-fiber sheets treated with Teflon.
However, solar shielding was unfeasible for some of Mariner 10's other components. Mariner 10's two solar panels needed to be kept under 115 °C. Covering the panels would defeat their purpose of producing electricity; the solution was to add an adjustable tilt to the panels, so the angle at which they faced the sun could be changed. Engineers considered folding the panels toward each other, making a V-shape with the main body, but tests found this approach had the potential to overheat the rest of the spacecraft; the alternative chosen was to mount the solar panels in a line and tilt them along that axis, which had the added benefit of increasing the efficiency of the spacecraft's nitrogen jet thrusters, which could now be placed on the panel tips. The panels could be rotated a maximum of 76 degrees. Additionally, Mariner 10's hydrazine rocket nozzle had to face the Sun to function properly, but scientists rejected covering the nozzle with a thermal door as an undependable solution. Instead, a special paint was applied to exposed parts on the rocket so as to reduce heat flow from the nozzle to the delicate instruments on the spacecraft.
Performing the gravity assist at Venus posed another hurdle. If Mariner 10 was to maintain a course to Mercury, its trajectory could devia
Susan Sykes is a television personality and actress who has appeared in films such as The Dictator and Deported, as well as several television shows, who performs under the stage name Busty Heart. Sykes is the daughter of a school teacher. Sykes worked as an assistant at an investment firm and paralegal for a large law firm before her career in the entertainment business. Sykes graduated from the Dana Hall School in Massachusetts, she graduated from Pine Manor College in Brookline, Massachusetts in 1979. Busty Heart earned her nickname in high school, her first claim to fame was as a spectator at a Boston Celtics game in 1986. She had been given free tickets to a Celtics game, which happened to be seated next to NBA prospect John Salley; as CBS's cameras spotted Salley in the crowd, Sykes shook her breasts at the camera, breaking Brent Musburger's attention and prompting him to break into laughter. Sykes, self-conscious about her large breasts and had otherwise avoided public appearances because of them, soon “parlayed 15 seconds of fame into a 30-year-career” and became a regular at Celtics games.
The Celtics won the 1986 NBA Finals and appeared in the 1987 NBA Finals while Busty Heart was in the stands. She ceased appearing at sporting events in 1990, when the St. Louis Cardinals management accused her of public lewdness after attending a Cardinals game, she appeared on the season finale of America's Got Talent on October 1, 2008. She appeared on Rude Tube on Channel 4 in the United Kingdom in November 2008. Among her most famous television appearances, she was on Comedy Central's The Man Show, where she demonstrated her talent for crushing beer cans by slamming her breasts on top of them. Busty Heart has done numerous TV shows, including Fox-TV's That's Just Wrong, The WB's Steve Harvey-hosted Steve Harvey's Big Time Challenge season finale, Endemol TV's Private Parts on Channel 5 in England, truTV's World's Dumbest, Bravo TV's Outrageous and Contagious Viral Videos, Fuji TV Tokyo Japan "2006 Bakademy Awards", E!'s Talk Soup, 2007 Spike TV MANswers. E! named a Busty Heart clip the #14 best video clip of 2005.
On July 1, 2008, she demonstrated her "talents" on the third season of America's Got Talent, received unanimous "No" votes. However, during 2010's German talent show Das Supertalent, she received all "yes" votes from the judges and reached the semi-final round, where she missed the final because of the audience's voting. Busty Heart appeared in the film The Dictator, she appeared in the 2017 movie Deported as Paul's wife. She has appeared in the E! television series Botched. Since 1996, she has operated a strip club located in Turtlepoint, Pennsylvania. Official website Busty Heart on IMDb
Edith Alice Morrell, was a resident of Eastbourne and patient of Dr John Bodkin Adams. Although Adams was acquitted in 1957 of her murder, the question of Adams' role in Mrs Morrell's death excited considerable interest at the time and continues to do so; this is because of negative pre-trial publicity which remains in the public record because of the several dramatic incidents in the trial and as Adams declined to give evidence in his own defence. The trial featured in headlines around the world and was described at the time as "one of the greatest murder trials of all time" and "murder trial of the century", it was described by the trial judge as unique because "the act of murder" had "to be proved by expert evidence." The trial established the legal doctrine of double effect, where a doctor giving treatment with the aim of relieving pain may, as an unintentional result, shorten life. Edith Alice Morrell was a wealthy widow who suffered a brain thrombosis on 24 June 1948 while visiting her son in Cheshire.
She was paralysed and was admitted to a hospital in Neston, Cheshire the following day. After returning to Eastbourne, she was under the care of Dr John Bodkin Adams for two years and four months from July 1948 until her death on 13 November 1950: as she had been attended by a doctor throughout her last illness and as the death was not sudden, violent or unnatural, there was no requirement for an inquest and none was held. Adams, as her medical attendant, certified the cause of death as a "stroke" following a coma that had lasted two hours. Cullen records that, on the day of Mrs Morrell's death, Adams arranged for her cremation and that her ashes were scattered over the English Channel. However, Mrs Morrell had made various wills, it was her son, Claude, as her sole executor, obliged to carry out her wishes for her funeral arrangements, not Adams. Adams did complete the medical certificate required for the cremation form, answering "no" to the form's printed question "Have you, so far as you aware, any pecuniary interest in the death of the deceased?", which avoided the necessity of a post-mortem.
As Adams was not a beneficiary of Mrs Morrell's final will, as amended by a codicil of 13 September 1950, this answer was in fact correct, although he may have believed he was, as he told the police. The Eastbourne police had received an anonymous call discovered to be from the music hall performer Leslie Henson, working in Dublin at the time, about the unexpected death of his friend Gertrude Hullett on 23 July 1956, while being treated by Adams. Mrs Hullet had been depressed since the death of her husband four months earlier and had been prescribed sodium barbitone and sodium phenobarbitone to help her to sleep. In the months after her husband's death in March 1956, Mrs Hullett had told Adams of her wish to commit suicide, her daughter, a close friend and her two servants told the police that they believed that she had taken her own life and the friend that had found the letters in which she had contemplated suicide in April 1956, calling her death a "planned suicide". Despite this, Adams' colleague, Dr Harris, called after Mrs Hullett was found comatose, diagnosed a cerebral haemorrhage as most cause of her death on hearing that she had complained of a headache and giddiness the previous evening.
As the death was unexpected, an inquest was held into Mrs Hullett's death, which ended on 21 August. The inquest concluded that Mrs Hullett had committed suicide, but the coroner questioned Adams' treatment and in his summing up said that it was "extraordinary that the doctor, knowing the past history of the patient" did not "at once suspect barbiturate poisoning". Two features of Adams' way of practicing medicine had attracted attention among doctors and others in Eastbourne: his lavish use of the opiate drugs and morphia and his asking wealthy patients for legacies, it was rumoured that the two were not unconnected, that someone whose duty it was to keep his patients alive should not have a pecuniary interest in their deaths. The circumstances surrounding Mrs Hullett's death, in particular his apparent attempt to disguise that its cause was barbiturate poisoning and his wish to clear a substantial cheque she had given him shortly before her death as as possible together with these rumours, prompted the Eastbourne police to involve the Metropolitan Police in the investigation.
Instead of having to find a suspect for a known crime, the senior Metropolitan Police officer, Detective Superintendent Herbert Hannam, had a known suspect in Adams but wished to link him to more serious crimes than forging prescriptions, making false statements and mishandling drugs. Devlin suggests that Hannam became fixated on the idea that Adams had murdered many elderly patients for legacies, regarding his receiving a legacy as grounds for suspicion, although Adams was only a minor beneficiary. Hannam's team investigated the wills of 132 of Adams' former patients dating between 1946 and 1956 where he had benefited from a legacy, prepared a short list with around a dozen names for submission to the prosecuting authorities; the list included Mrs Morrell, Mrs Hullett and two other cases in which evidence had been taken on oath, these being among the cases where Hannam considered he had collected enough evidence for a prosecution. Devlin considered that Mrs Morrell's case, chosen by the Attorney-General for prosecution, looked the strongest of Hannam's preferred cases, despite it being six years old, although he noted that some others believed that the Hullet case was stronger.
Murder is a criminal offence under the common law of England and Wales, defined as "the unlawful killing of a reasonable person