click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Mariner 9

Mariner 9 was a robotic space probe that contributed to the exploration of Mars and was part of the NASA Mariner program. Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971 from LC-36B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet – only narrowly beating the Soviet probes Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived at Mars only weeks later. After the occurrence of dust storms on the planet for several months following its arrival, the orbiter managed to send back clear pictures of the surface. Mariner 9 returned 7329 images over the course of its mission, which concluded in October 1972. Mariner 9 was designed to continue the atmospheric studies begun by Mariner 6 and 7, to map over 70% of the Martian surface from the lowest altitude and at the highest resolutions of any Mars mission up to that point. An infrared radiometer was included to detect heat sources in search of evidence of volcanic activity.

It was to surface. Mars' two moons were to be analyzed. Mariner 9 more than met its objectives. Under original plans, a dual mission was to be flown like Mariners 6–7, however the launch failure of Mariner 8 ruined this scheme and forced NASA planners to fall back on a simpler one-probe mission. NASA still held out hope that another Mariner probe and Atlas-Centaur could be readied before the 1971 Mars launch window closed. A few logistical problems emerged, including the lack of an available Centaur payload shroud of the correct configuration for the Mariner probes, however there was a shroud in NASA's inventory which could be modified. Convair had an available Centaur stage on hand and could have an Atlas readied in time, but the idea was abandoned for lack of funding. Mariner 9 was mated to Atlas-Centaur AC-23 on May 9 with investigation into Mariner 8's failure ongoing; the malfunction was traced to a problem in the Centaur's pitch control servoamplifier and because it was not clear if the spacecraft itself had been responsible, RFI testing was conducted on Mariner 9 to ensure the probe was not releasing interference that could cause problems with the Centaur's electronics.

All testing came back negative and on May 22, a tested and verified rate gyro package arrived from Convair and was installed in the Centaur. Liftoff took place on May 30 at 5:23 PM EST. All launch vehicle systems performed and the Mariner separated from the Centaur at 13 minutes and 18 seconds after launch. Ultraviolet Spectrometer Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer Celestial Mechanics S-Band Occultation Infrared Radiometer Visual Imaging System – in a lower orbit, half that of Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 flyby missions, with a vastly improved imaging system, Mariner 9 achieved a resolution of 320 feet per pixel, whereas previous Martian probes had achieved only 2,600 feet per pixel. Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, it carried an instrument payload similar to Mariners 6 and 7, but because of the need for a larger propulsion system to control the spacecraft in Martian orbit, it weighed more than Mariners 6 and 7 combined. When Mariner 9 arrived at Mars on November 14, 1971, planetary scientists were surprised to find the atmosphere was thick with "a planet-wide robe of dust, the largest storm observed."

The surface was obscured. Mariner 9's computer was thus reprogrammed from Earth to delay imaging of the surface for a couple of months until the dust settled; the main surface imaging did not get underway until mid-January 1972. However, surface-obscured images did contribute to the collection of Mars science, including understanding of the existence of several huge high-altitude volcanoes of the Tharsis Bulge that became visible as the dust storm abated; this unexpected situation made a strong case for the desirability of studying a planet from orbit rather than flying past. It highlighted the importance of flexible mission software; the Soviet Union's Mars 2 and Mars 3 probes, which arrived during the same dust storm, were unable to adapt to the unexpected conditions, which limited the amount of data that they were able to collect. After 349 days in orbit, Mariner 9 had transmitted 7,329 images, covering 85% of Mars' surface, whereas previous flyby missions had returned less than one thousand images covering only a small portion of the planetary surface.

The images revealed river beds, massive extinct volcanoes, evidence of wind and water erosion and deposition, weather fronts and more. Mars' small moons and Deimos, were photographed; the findings from the Mariner 9 mission underpinned the Viking program. The enormous Valles Marineris canyon system is named after Mariner 9 in honor of its achievements. After depleting its supply of attitude control gas, the spacecraft was turned off on October 27, 1972; the ultraviolet spectrometer aboard Mariner 9 was constructed by the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Colorado. The ultraviolet spectrometer team was led by Professor Charles Barth. The

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha, known as Muhammad Ali of Egypt and the Sudan, was the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1805 to 1848. At the height of his rule, he controlled Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt and parts of Arabia and the Levant. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. Muhammad Ali was born in Ottoman Macedonia to a family of Albanian origins, he was a military commander in an Ottoman force sent to recover Egypt from a French occupation under Napoleon. Following Napoleon's withdrawal, Muhammad Ali rose to power through a series of political maneuvers, in 1805 he was named Wāli of Egypt and gained the rank of Pasha; as Wāli, Muhammad Ali attempted to modernize Egypt by instituting dramatic reforms in the military and cultural spheres. He initiated a violent purge of the Mamluks, consolidating his rule and permanently ending the Mamluk hold over Egypt. Militarily, Muhammad Ali recaptured the Arabian territories for the sultan, conquered Sudan on his own accord.

His attempt at suppressing the Greek rebellion failed decisively, following an intervention by the European powers at Navarino. In 1831, Muhammad Ali waged war against the sultan, capturing Syria, crossing into Anatolia and directly threatening Constantinople. Faced with another European intervention, he accepted a brokered peace in 1840 and withdrew from the Levant; the dynasty he established would rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, in Macedonia, Rumeli Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, today a city in Greece, he was born to an Albanian family whose origins were from Korçë. He was the second son of a tobacco and shipping merchant named Ibrahim Agha, who served as an Ottoman commander of a small unit in Kavala, his mother was the daughter of the "Ayan of Kavala" Çorbaci Husain Agha. When his father died at a young age, Muhammad was raised by his uncle with his cousins; as a reward for Muhammad Ali's hard work, his uncle gave him the rank of "Bolukbashi" for the collection of taxes in the town of Kavala.

Muhammad Ali married his cousin Amina Hanim, a wealthy widow. She was sister of Zeynep. After Muhammad's promising success in collecting taxes, he gained Second Commander rank under his cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent of Albanian mercenaries, sent to re-occupy Egypt following General Napoleon Bonaparte's withdrawal. In 1801, his unit was sent, as part of a much larger Ottoman force, to re-occupy Egypt following a brief French occupation that threatened the way of life in Egypt; the expedition landed at Aboukir in the spring of 1801. One of his trusted army commanders was Miralay Mustafa Bey, who had married Muhammad's sister Zubayda and was the ancestor of the Yakan family; the French withdrawal left a power vacuum in Egypt. Mamluk power had been weakened, but not destroyed, Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks for power. During this period of turmoil Muhammad Ali used his loyal Albanian troops to work with both sides, gaining power and prestige for himself; as the conflict drew on, the local populace grew weary of the power struggle.

In 1801, he allied with Egypt's Grand Imam of al-Azhar. During the infighting between the Ottomans and Mamluks between 1801 and 1805, Muhammad Ali acted to gain the support of the general public. In 1805, a group of prominent Egyptians led by the ulema demanded the replacement of Wāli Ahmad Khurshid Pasha by Muhammad Ali, the Ottomans yielded. In 1809, Ali exiled Makram to Damietta. According to Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti, Makram had discovered Muhammad Ali's intentions to seize power for himself. Sultan Selim III could not oppose Muhammad Ali's ascension. By appearing as the champion of the people Muhammad Ali was able to forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated his power; the Mamluks still posed the greatest threat to Muhammad Ali. They controlled Egypt for more than 600 years, over that time they extended their rule systematically south along the Nile River to Upper Egypt. Muhammad Ali's approach was to eliminate the Mamluk leadership move against the rank and file. Muhammad Ali invited the Mamluk leaders to a celebration at the Cairo Citadel in honour of his son, Tusun Pasha, to lead a military expedition into Arabia.

The event was held on 1 March 1811. When the Mamluks had gathered at the Citadel, were surrounded by Muhammad Ali's troops, he had his troops kill them. After the leaders were killed, Muhammad Ali dispatched his army throughout Egypt to rout the remainder of the Mamluk forces. Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire, he summed up his vision for Egypt as follows: I am well aware that the Empire is heading by the day toward destruction... On its ruins I will build a vast kingdom... up to the Euphrates and the Tigris. Sultan Selim III had recognized the need to reform and modernize the Ottoman Empire the military, along European lines to ensure that his state could compete. Selim III, faced stiff local opposition from an entrenched clergy and military apparatus from the Janissaries, the Ottoman infantry formed from the devshirme system. Selim III was deposed and killed in 1808. Muhammad Ali, recognized the need to modernize, but unlike Selim, he had dispatched his chief rivals, giving him a free hand to attempt reforms similar to those first

Quebec Dynamo ARSQ

Quebec Dynamo ARSQ is a Canadian soccer club, founded in 2008 in the province of Québec. The women’s team is a member of the United Soccer Leagues W-League, the second tier of women’s soccer in the United States and Canada; the team debuted in the Great Lakes Division of the Central Conference against teams from Hamilton, London, Ottawa and Toronto. The team's colours are white. Quebec Dynamo ARSQ play the home games at the Collège François-Xavier-Garneau stadium in Quebec City. Quebec Dynamo ARSQ is founded in 2008 by four promoters: Samir Ghrib, David Desloges, Stéphane Alain and Maxime Barabé; the presentation of team's colors shirts and the nomination of a general manager takes place on September 24, 2009. The new team is consist a non-profit organization from the Association Régionale de Soccer de Québec; the team created to ensure the development of regional soccer in the Quebec city and Chaudière-Appalaches region. The original name for the franchise was the Arsenal SC, lawyers representing the English club Arsenal F.

C. demanded that the team change its name, because they hold exclusive rights for that trademark in Canada. Starting with the 2014 W-League season, the team name was changed from Quebec City Amiral SC to Quebec Dynamo ARSQ. Quebec Dynamo ARSQ have a big rivalry with the Laval Comets. Several former players of Comets play now for the Dynamo. In matches between the two teams, it is not uncommon for supporters to travel Quebec city-Montreal or Montreal-Quebec city to go to encourage their teams. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Owner: Denis Poulin General Manager: Jean-Pascal Ladroue Operations director: Jean-Philippe Provost Head Coach: Samir Ghrib Assistant Coach: Guillaume Couillard Assistant Coach: Equipment manager: Jean-Guy Roy Team Physician: Dr. Sylvain Boutet Team Physician: Dr. Sylvain Lachance Physical therapist: Maxime Sanou Physiotherapist: Andrée-Anne Ferron Physiotherapist: Patrice Pépin Student-Physiotherapist: Laurie Thiboutot Fabien Cottin, Jonas Worth, Christophe Blin, Marie-Ève Laflamme, Eduardo Guerra, Amiral SC website Amiral SC on USL Soccer

Annie Crawley

Annie Crawley is an American underwater photographer, speaker and ocean advocate. In 2007, she founded Dive Into Your Imagination, a multimedia ocean inspiration and education series for youth. In 2010, she became a member of the Women Divers Hall of Fame. Crawley resides in Washington. Crawley received a Bachelor of Science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. In 2007, she wrote Ocean Life From A to Z, accompanied by a DVD, both of which are intended to teach children about both life in the ocean and scuba diving. Crawley's film, Dive Into Your Imagination, was well-reviewed by School Library Journal, who wrote that her "tour of the ocean and the facts about the animals is fabulous." Rawley's Scuba Diving Camp. She has a series of "Learn to SCUBA dive" videos. Crawley works as the director of Beach Camp at Sunset Bay and tries to instill the importance of ocean conservation with fun at the camp in Edmonds, her photographs for the 2014 book, Plastic Ahoy! by Patricia Newman, were called "captivating" by Library Media Connection.

The book was based on the 2009 Scripps Environmental Accumulation of Plastics Expedition or SEAPLEX to the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The scientists on the expedition found. Based on their findings, fish in the gyre have eaten an estimated 12,000 to 14,000 tons of plastic. In 2015, she received the Pacific Northwest Diver of the Year Award. Annie works with youth, teaching them about the harmfulness of marine debris and doing ocean clean-ups, she visits schools as a youth ocean educator. In 2016 Annie and her team launched 100 Schools 100 Days: Our Ocean and You campaign to bring the ocean to the greater Seattle area and inspire kids/teachers/families to understand the interconnections we have with the ocean while sharing with them the problems facing our ocean as it relates to plastics, what they can do about it; the program's mission is to change the way the next generation views their relationship with the ocean and give them tools to protect the environment. Visions of the Sea What Makes A Fish A Fish?

Dive Into California Dive Into Diversity Who Lives In The Sea? Sharks & Rays The Camera Coach: Your Guide To Creating Underwater Video In 2015, the Nature Generation selected PlasticAhoy! for the Green Earth Book Award winner. In March 2015, Annie was chosen for the PNW Diver of the Year award

Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive

The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive 2002/95/EC, short for Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union. The RoHS 1 directive took effect on 1 July 2006, is required to be enforced and became a law in each member state; this directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. It is linked with the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive 2002/96/EC which sets collection and recovery targets for electrical goods and is part of a legislative initiative to solve the problem of huge amounts of toxic electronic waste. In speech, RoHS is spelled out, or pronounced, or, refers to the EU standard, unless otherwise qualified; each European Union member state will adopt its own enforcement and implementation policies using the directive as a guide. RoHS is referred to as the "lead-free directive," but it restricts the use of the following ten substances: Lead Mercury Cadmium Hexavalent chromium Polybrominated biphenyls Polybrominated diphenyl ether Bis phthalate Butyl benzyl phthalate Dibutyl phthalate Diisobutyl phthalate DEHP, BBP, DBP and DIBP were added as part of DIRECTIVE 2015/863, published on 31 March 2015.

PBB and PBDE are flame retardants used in several plastics. Hexavalent chromium is used in chrome plating, chromate coatings and primers, in chromic acid; the maximum permitted concentrations in non-exempt products are 1000 ppm by weight. The restrictions are on each homogeneous material in the product, which means that the limits do not apply to the weight of the finished product, or to a component, but to any single substance that could be separated mechanically — for example, the sheath on a cable or the tinning on a component lead; as an example, a radio is composed of a case, washers, a circuit board, etc. The screws and case may each be made of homogenous materials, but the other components comprise multiple sub-components of many different types of material. For instance, a circuit board is composed of a bare Printed circuit board, Integrated circuits, capacitors, etc. A switch is composed of a case, a lever, a spring, pins, etc. each of which may be made of different materials. A contact might be composed of a copper strip with a surface coating.

A loudspeaker is composed of a permanent magnet, copper wire, etc. Everything that can be identified as a homogeneous material must meet the limit. So if it turns out that the case was made of plastic with 2,300 ppm PBB used as a flame retardant the entire radio would fail the requirements of the directive. In an effort to close RoHS 1 loopholes, in May 2006 the European Commission was asked to review two excluded product categories for future inclusion in the products that must fall into RoHS compliance. In addition the commission entertains requests for deadline extensions or for exclusions by substance categories, substance location or weight. New legislation was published in the official journal in July 2011. Note that batteries are not included within the scope of RoHS. However, in Europe, batteries are under the European Commission's 1991 Battery Directive, increased in scope and approved in the form of the new battery directive, version 2003/0282 COD, which will be official when submitted to and published in the EU's Official Journal.

While the first Battery Directive addressed possible trade barrier issues brought about by disparate European member states' implementation, the new directive more explicitly highlights improving and protecting the environment from the negative effects of the waste contained in batteries. It contains a programme for more ambitious recycling of industrial and consumer batteries increasing the rate of manufacturer-provided collection sites to 45% by 2016, it sets limits of 5 ppm mercury and 20 ppm cadmium to batteries except those used in medical, emergency, or portable power-tool devices. Though not setting quantitative limits on quantities of lead, lead–acid and nickel–cadmium in batteries, it cites a need to restrict these substances and provide for recycling up to 75% of batteries with these substances. There are provisions for marking the batteries with symbols in regard to metal content and recycling collection information; the directive applies to equipment. The following numeric categories apply: Large household appliances Small household appliances IT & telecommunications equipment Consumer equipment Lighting equipment – including light bulbs Electronic and electrical tools Toys and sports equipment Medical devices Monitoring and control instruments Automatic dispensers Semiconductor devicesIt does not apply to fixed industrial plant and tools.

Compliance is the responsibility of the company that puts the product on the market, as defined in the Directive. Of course, given the fact that the regulation is applied at the homogeneous material level, data on substance concentrations needs to be transferred through the

Organized crime in Italy

Organized crime in Italy and its criminal organizations have been prevalent in Italy Southern Italy, for centuries and have affected the social and economic life of many Italian regions since at least the 19th century. Five major active mafia-like organizations are known to exist in Italy. Among the oldest and most powerful of these organizations, having started to develop between 1500 and 1800, include: Cosa Nostra of Sicily; the remainder of the five most powerful are two organizations created in the 20th century: Stidda of Sicily and Sacra Corona Unita of Apulia. Four other Italian organized crime groups, the Banda della Magliana of Rome, Mala del Brenta of Veneto, Banda della Comasina and Turatello Crew of Milan, held considerable influence at the height of their power but are now weakened or defunct or inactive; the latest creation of Italian organized crime, Mafia Capitale, was disbanded by the police. The most well-known Italian organized crime group is the Sicilian Mafia; as the original "Mafia", the Sicilian Mafia is the basis for the current colloquial usage of the term "mafia" to refer to organized crime groups.

The Mafia or Sicilian Mafia expanded overseas in the United States, where Sicilian mafiosi joined together with Neapolitan criminal groups in the US and other Italian-American and Italian immigrant criminal groups to form the modern Italian-American Mafia. Though less well-known, the Neapolitan Camorra, Calabrian'Ndrangheta, offshoots of both these groups have operated or set down roots in foreign countries, including the United States, Australia, Argentina, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Based in Sicily, the Sicilian Mafia formed in the 19th century by clans which sprang out of groups of bandits. In Sicily, the word mafia tends to mean "manly" and a Mafioso considers himself a "Man of Honour." However, the organization is known as Our Affair. The Sicilian Mafia engaged in such lower-level activities as extortion, cattle theft and, upon Sicily becoming part of a democratic Italy, election slugging in addition to other kinds of low-level theft and fraud. In the 1950s, Sicily experienced a substantial construction boom.

Taking advantage of the opportunity, the Sicilian Mafia gained control of the building contracts and made millions of dollars. It participated in the growing business of large-scale heroin trafficking, both in Italy and Europe and in US-connected trafficking; the Sicilian Mafia has evolved into an international organized crime group. The Sicilian Mafia specializes in heroin trafficking, political corruption and military arms trafficking and is the most powerful and most active Italian Organized Crime Group in the United States with estimates of more than 2,500 Sicilian Mafia affiliates located there; the Sicilian Mafia is known to engage in arson, frauds and other racketeering crimes. It is estimated to have 3,500–4,000 core members with 100 clans, with around 50 in the city of Palermo alone; the Sicilian Mafia has had influence in'legitimate' power under the corrupt Christian Democratic governments from the 1950s to the early 1990s. It has had influence with lawyers and professionals, it has less of these now than on the heels of the Maxi-Trials, the campaign by magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino and other actions against corrupt politicians and judges.

The Sicilian Mafia became infamous for aggressive assaults on Italian law enforcement officials during the reign of Salvatore Riina known as Toto Riina. In Sicily the term "Excellent Cadaver" is used to distinguish the assassination of prominent government officials from the common criminals and ordinary citizens killed by the Mafia; some of their high ranking victims include police commissioners, judges, police colonels and generals, Parliament members. On May 23, 1992, the Sicilian Mafia struck Italian law enforcement. At 18h00, Italian Magistrate Giovanni Falcone, his wife, three police body guards were killed by a massive bomb. Falcone, Director of Prosecutions and for the court of Palermo and head of the special anti-Mafia investigative squad, had become the organization's most formidable enemy, his team was moving to prepare cases against most of the Mafia leadership. The bomb made a crater 10 metres in diameter in the road; this became known as the Capaci Massacre. Less than two months on 19 July 1992, the Mafia struck Falcone's replacement, Judge Paolo Borsellino in Palermo, Sicily.

Borsellino and five bodyguards were killed outside the apartment of Borsellino's mother when a car packed with explosives was detonated by remote control as the judge approached the front door of his mother's apartment. In 1993 the authorities arrested Salvatore "Totó" Riina, believed at the time to be the Capo di tutti capi and responsible directly or indirectly for scores if not hundreds of killings, after years of investigation which some believe was delayed by Mafia influence within the police and Carabinieri. After Riina's arrest control of the organization fell to Bernardo Provenzano who had come to reject Riina's strategy of war against t