Marinus van der Lubbe was a Dutch Communist tried and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building on 27 February 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire. Marinus van der Lubbe was born in Leiden in the province of South Holland, his parents were divorced and, after his mother died when he was twelve years old, he went to live with his half-sister's family. In his youth, Van der Lubbe worked as a bricklayer, he was nicknamed Dempsey after boxer Jack Dempsey. While working, Van der Lubbe came in contact with the labour movement. In 1926, he was injured at work, getting lime in his eyes, which left him in the hospital for a few months and left him blind; the injury forced him to quit his job, so he was unemployed with a pension of only 7.44 guilders a week. After a few conflicts with his sister, Van der Lubbe moved to Leiden in 1927. There he learned to speak some German and founded the Lenin House, where he organised political meetings. While working for the Tielmann factory a strike broke out.
Van der Lubbe claimed to the management to be one of the ringleaders and offered to accept any punishment as long as no one else was victimised though he was too inexperienced to have been involved. During the trial, he tried to claim sole responsibility and was purportedly hostile to the idea of getting off free. Afterwards, Van der Lubbe planned to emigrate to the Soviet Union, he was politically active among the unemployed workers' movement until 1931, when he fell into disagreement with the CPN and instead approached the Group of International Communists. In 1933, Van der Lubbe fled to Germany to take action in the local communist underground, he had a criminal record for arson. Van der Lubbe said that he set the Reichstag building on fire as a cry to rally the German workers against the fascist rule, he was brought to trial along with the head of the German Communist Party and three Bulgarian members of the Comintern. At his trial, Van der Lubbe was sentenced to death for the Reichstag fire.
The other four defendants at the trial were acquitted. He was guillotined in a Leipzig prison yard on 10 January three days before his 25th birthday, he was buried in an unmarked grave on the Südfriedhof in Leipzig. After World War II, moves were made by Marinus van der Lubbe's brother, Jan van der Lubbe, in an attempt to overturn the verdict against his brother. In 1967, his sentence was changed by a judge from death to eight years in prison. In 1980, after more lengthy complaints, a West German court overturned the verdict but this was protested by the state prosecutor; the case was re-examined by the Federal Court of Justice of Germany for three years until, in 1983, the court made a final decision on the matter, overturning the result of the earlier 1980 trial on grounds that there was no basis for it, making it therefore illegal. However, on December 6, 2007, the Attorney General of Germany Monika Harms nullified the entire verdict and posthumously pardoned Van der Lubbe based on a 1998 German law that makes it possible to overturn certain cases of Nazi injustice.
The determination of the court was based on the premise that the National Socialist regime was by definition unjust. The finding was independent of the factual question of whether or not it was Van der Lubbe who set the fire. Historians disagree as to whether Van der Lubbe acted alone, as he said, to protest the condition of the German working class; the Nazis blamed a communist conspiracy. The responsibility for the Reichstag fire remains an ongoing topic of research. According to Ian Kershaw, writing in 1998, the consensus of nearly all historians is that Van der Lubbe did, in fact, set the Reichstag fire. William Shirer writing in "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" surmises that Van der Lubbe was goaded into setting a fire at the Reichstag, but the Nazis set their own, more elaborate fire at the same time; the case is still discussed. In July 1933, Marinus van der Lubbe, Ernst Torgler, Georgi Dimitrov, Blagoi Popov, Vasil Tanev were indicted on charges of setting the Reichstag on fire. From September 21 to December 23, 1933, the Leipzig Trial took place and was presided over by judges from the old German Imperial High Court, the Reichsgericht, Germany's highest court.
The presiding judge was Judge Dr. Wilhelm Bürger of the Fourth Criminal Court of the Fourth Penal Chamber of the Supreme Court; the accused were charged with attempting to overthrow the government. At the end of the trial, only Van der Lubbe was convicted, while his fellow defendants were found not guilty; the Einstürzende Neubauten song "Feurio!" Contains a reference to Van der Lubbe: "Marinus du warst es nicht". Dutch folk-rock band Janse Bagge Bend refers to Van der Lubbe in their song "Kommer en Kwel". A The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers story has one of the characters referring to a fictitious "Marinus van der Lubbe International Firebombing Society". W. H. Auden refers to Van der Lubbe in his poem beginning "Easily, my dear, you move your head", dated November 1934. Stephen Spender wrote a poem Van der Lubbe. Belgian author Willem Elsschot wrote a poem Van der Lubbe. Biography Marinus van der Lubbe on libcom.org history. Martin Schouten: Rinus van der Lubbe 1909–1934 – een biografie. De Bezige Bij, Amsterdam 1986.
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The Woodroad Viaduct known as Bank Viaduct or Templand Viaduct, is a viaduct carrying the Glasgow South Western Line over the Lugar Water at Cumnock in East Ayrshire, United Kingdom. Since April 1971, it has been recognised as being a category A listed building; the Woodroad Viaduct, which comprises 14 semi-circular arches, was designed by the civil engineer John Miller and built by the contractor James McNaughton. Construction was complicated by the presence of several coal workings in the vicinity, as well as the Lugar Water itself, it is composed of locally sourced white sandstone. The viaduct was completed during 1850, after which services of the Glasgow and South Western Railway commenced across it, it has been claimed. Today, the viaduct is still in service and carries the Kilmarnock to Dumfries section of the main line from Glasgow to Carlisle. During the 21st century, national railway infrastructure company Network Rail formed a partnership with the Woodroad Regeneration Forum to preserve and maintain the Woodroad Viaduct for the long term.
During the late 1840s, the Glasgow and Carlisle Railway company embarked on the construction of a southern extension of the Glasgow, Paisley and Ayr Railway to connect through to the border city of Carlisle. The selected route necessitated the construction of a crossing over the Lugar Water near the town of Cumnock. Millar decided upon the use of a elegant ashlar masonry viaduct for this crossing; as built, the sandstone viaduct has a length of 229 meters and reaches a peak height of 49.2 meters at one point, though the average height of the structure is 28.8 meters. Efforts were made to keep both the deck and the approaches level, it has 14 semi-circular ashlar arches, nine of them having a span of 15.24 meters and the remainder possessing a 9.1 meter span, these smaller arches being placed at the ends of the structure. The thrust pressure line is close to the centre of each arch ring. In line with the practice of famed bridge-builder and civil engineer Thomas Telford, the viaduct features hollow piers and spandrels, which has the benefit of reducing the weight bearing on the structure's foundations.
The piers located between the larger arches have a thickness of 2.1 meters at their tops, complete with a 610mm-wide central void. The smaller arches are deliberately separated from the main ones by 5 meter-thick abutments; the abutments present at either end of the whole structure, where the viaduct connects with the adjacent embankments, are possess a thickness of 7meters. During its design process, the structure had to account for several important local factors. In terms of its footing, the ground was less than ideal due to the presence of not only the Lugar Water but of considerable mining activities; as a result of the area having been rich in both limestone and coal, it had been worked for some time by various locals using a room and pillar technique. As these workings posed a clear threat to the stability of any major structure built around them, preliminary work was undertaken to locate these cavities, after which they would be cleared of loose debris and packed using dry stone; this activity proved sufficient.
Following the completion of this ground work, construction of the viaduct's piers commenced during 1848. This phase of work was assisted by the use of machinery in the form of derrick cranes, which were used to build both the piers and the abutments up to a maximum height of 7.6 meters above ground level. Above this height, construction activity was supported using an elevated service road, complete with travelling cranes that ran upon rails located upon either side of the viaduct; the viaduct was construction of locally sourced white sandstone, transported to the site using a horse-drawn tramway. During this process, a high degree of attention was dedicated to the correct erection of the timber formwork, used to construct the masonry arches, which had a height in excess of 30 meters; the weight of a single completed arch, which possessed a span of 15.24 meters, was estimated to have exceeded 1,000 tonnes, which exerting a pressure upon the structure's foundations of 68.4 tonnes per square meter.
Overall, the viaduct contained 14,150 cubic meters of masonry. It was constructed at a reported cost of £30,000, of which the centring alone cost around £4,500; the viaduct was completed during 1850. It has been claimed that Miller came to regard the Woodroad Viaduct as having been his greatest professional accomplishment. During 2010, the local Woodroad Regeneration Forum and national railway infrastructure company Network Rail embarked upon a joint effort aimed at safeguarding the Woodroad Viaduct and ensuring its long term future. In line with this effort, future work to both restore and upgrade the structure has been planned. On 25 September 2010, Cathy Jamieson, MP and MSP, unveiled a commemorative plaque to mark the passing of 160 years since the construction of the viaduct. Glaisnock Viad
Chebi Khagan, personal name Ashina Hubo, full regal title Yizhuchebi Khagan, was a claimant of the title of khan of Eastern Turkic Khaganate after the collapse of Xueyantuo, successful for some time in reconstituting Eastern Turkic Khaganate, until he was defeated and captured by the Tang Dynasty general Gao Kan in 650. Ashina Hubo was said to be from minor branch of the Turkic imperial clan of Ashina, his ancestors was said to have served for generations as subordinate khans to the great khans of Eastern Turkic Khaganate, his seat was near Altai mountains. In 630, after Eastern Turkic Khaganate collapsed and the Illig Qaghan Ashina Duobi were captured by Tang Dynasty forces commanded by Li Jing, Xueyantuo an Eastern Turkic vassal, took over most of Eastern Turkic Khaganate's former lands; some Eastern Turkic Khaganate remnants wanted to declare Ashina Hubo the khan of Eastern Turkic Khaganate, but due to Xueyantuo's strength, Ashina Hubo did not dare to declare himself khan but instead surrendered to Xueyantuo.
However, because Ashina Hubo was considered intelligent and capable, Xueyantuo was apprehensive of Ashina Hubo and wanted to kill him. When Ashina Hubo heard this, he fled north and gathered his people, declaring himself the Yizhuchebi Khan, he made periodic pillaging attacks against Xueyantuo and grew stronger. In 646, Tang and Huige forces destroyed Xueyantuo and Ashina Hubo grew stronger, submitting Yenisei Kyrgyz and Karluks. In 647, he sent his son Ashina Shaboluo to China to greet Emperor Taizong of Tang and offering to visit Emperor Taizong himself. Emperor Taizong sent the generals An Diaozhe and Han Hua to escort Ashina Hubo, but once they arrived at Ashina Hubo's headquarters, they realized that Ashina Hubo had no intention of visiting Chang'an, despite strong advocacy by Ashina Hubo's son Ashina Jieman. Han conspired with Ashina Hubo's vassal tribe Karluk and their chief Nishu Kül Elteber to seize Ashina Hubo and take him back to Tang; when Ashina Hubo discovered this, Ashina Hubo's son Ashina Zhebi killed Han in combat, An was killed.
Ashina Jieman, who had command of a substantial portion of Ashian Hubo's people, instead sent his own son Ashina Anshuo to Tang to show submission. In anger, in 649 Emperor Taizong sent the general Gao Kan, supplemented by forces from Uighur and Pugu tribes, made a surprise attack on Ashina Hubo. Once Gao's forces entered Eastern Turkic territory, Eastern Turkic vassals began to surrender, as did Ashina Jieman. In 650, Gao approached Ashina Hubo's headquarters, Ashina Hubo tried to summon the vassal tribes for aid, but drew no response, he was captured by Gao. Gao took him back to Chang'an, where he was spared by Emperor Taizong's son and successor Emperor Gaozong and given a general title, his territory was divided under three Tang commandants and 24 prefectures, with various tribal chiefs as commandants and prefects. There were no further historical records including when he died. Ashina Shaboluo Ashina Jieman Ashina Anshuo Ashina Zhebi
Jean-Thomas Taschereau was a Canadian lawyer and judge. Born in Quebec City, Lower Canada, the son of Jean-Thomas Taschereau, a politician, a Member of the Quebec National Assembly, Marie Panet, he was called to the bar in 1836, he studied law upon his return to Quebec City where he practised for 18 years. He taught at Université Laval from 1855 to 1857. In 1865, he was appointed a judge of the Quebec Superior Court, in 1873, was appointed to the Court of Queen's Bench of Quebec. On September 30, 1875, he was appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada and retired from the court on October 6, 1878, he was the father of Louis-Alexandre Taschereau, a Liberal Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from 1920 to 1936 and Sir Henry-Thomas Taschereau, Chief-Justice of Quebec 1907-1909 "Jean-Thomas Taschereau". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. Supreme Court of Canada biography the Canadian Encyclopedia
The Municipal Corporation Chandigarh known as Chandigarh Municipal Corporation, is the civic body that governs the city of Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab and Haryana. The Municipal Corporation of Chandigarh, India was formed within the Union Territory of Chandigarh under the Punjab Municipal Corporation Act in 1976; the corporation was extended to the union territory, Chandigarh, by the Punjab Municipal Corporation Law Act, 1994, which came in effect on May 24, 1994. Under a provision of Section 47 of the act, M. P. Tyagi was appointed as first Commissioner of the Corporation w.e.f. on June 19, 1995. Tyagi continued to exercise mayoral powers until December 23, 1994, when the first meeting of the elected body of the Corporation was held. Tyagi was succeeded as Commissioner by S. K. Gathwal on August 8, 1996. Rajesh Kumar Kalia serves as Mayor of Chandigarh upon succeeding Davesh Moudgil in January 2019. According to the Municipal Corporation Chandigarh's website, the Corporation is composed of the following members: The Commissioner is the apex of the municipal administrative hierarchy who runs its administration.
He is appointed by the Central government. He is the chief executive officer, responsible for the passing and implementation of the annual Municipal Corporation budget, its policies and programmes. All personnel of the Municipal Corporation work under the Commissioner's control; the current Municipal Commissioner of the Municipal Corporation Chandigarh is K. K Yadav Rajesh Kumar Kalia serves as Mayor of Chandigarh. Official Logo
Arthur G. Hunt is an American plant and soils scientist, a professor at the University of Kentucky and an elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, he earned his B. S at University of Lowell in 1976 and his Ph. D at Brandeis University in 1982, his interests are mRNA 3' end formation and polyadenylation, plant RNA processing. His highest cited paper is "Design and construction of a versatile system for the expression of foreign genes in plants" at 355 times, according to Google Scholar. de Lorenzo, L. Sorenson, R, Bailey-Serres, J. and Hunt, A. G. Noncanonical alternative polyadenylation contributes to gene regulation in response to hypoxia; the Plant Cell 29, 1262-1277. Majee, M. Wu, S. Salaita, L. Gingerich, D. Dirk, L. M. A. Chappell J. Hunt, A. G. Vierstra, R. and Downie, A. B; the Genetic Structure in a misannotated locus positively influencing Arabidopsis Seed Germination is revealed using surrogate splicing. Plant Gene 10, 74-85. Chakrabarti, M. Dinkins, R. D. and Hunt, A. G. De novo transcriptome assembly and dynamic spatial gene expression analysis in red clover.
The Plant Genome 9, published online March 11, 2016. Doi:10.3835/plantgenome2015.06.0048. Bell, S. A. Brown, A. Chen, S. and Hunt, A. G. Experimental genome-wide determination of RNA polyadenylation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PLoS ONE 11: e0146107. Lim, G-H. Shine, M. B. de Lorenzo, L. Yu, K. Navarre, D. Hunt, A. G. Lee, J-y. Kachroo, A. and Kachroo, P.. Plasmodesmata localizing proteins regulate transport and signaling during systemic immunity. Cell Host and Microbe 19, 541-549. Hunt was named Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science for 2017 "in recognition of their contributions to science and technology, scientific leadership and extraordinary achievements across disciplines."