Maritime archaeology is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that studies human interaction with the sea and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore-side facilities, port-related structures, human remains and submerged landscapes. A specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies ship construction and use; as with archaeology as a whole, maritime archaeology can be practised within the historical, industrial, or prehistoric periods. An associated discipline, again one that lies within archaeology itself, is underwater archaeology, which studies the past through any submerged remains be they of maritime interest or not. An example from the prehistoric era would be the remains of submerged settlements or deposits now lying under water despite having been dry land when sea levels were lower; the study of submerged aircraft lost in lakes, rivers or in the sea is an example from the historical, industrial or modern era. Many specialist sub-disciplines within the broader maritime and underwater archaeological categories have emerged in recent years.
Maritime archaeological sites result from shipwrecks or sometimes seismic activity, thus represent a moment in time rather than a slow deposition of material accumulated over a period of years, as is the case with port-related structures where objects are lost or thrown off structures over extended periods of time. This fact has led to shipwrecks being described in the media and in popular accounts as'time capsules'. Archaeological material in the sea or in other underwater environments is subject to different factors than artifacts on land. However, as with terrestrial archaeology, what survives to be investigated by modern archaeologists can be a tiny fraction of the material deposited. A feature of maritime archaeology is that despite all the material, lost, there are occasional rare examples of substantial survival, from which a great deal can be learned, due to the difficulties experienced in accessing the sites. There are those in the archaeology community who see maritime archaeology as a separate discipline with its own concerns and requiring the specialized skills of the underwater archaeologist.
Others value an integrated approach, stressing that nautical activity has economic and social links to communities on land and that archaeology is archaeology no matter where the study is conducted. All, required is the mastering of skills specific to the environment in which the work occurs. Before the industrial era, travel by water was easier than over land; as a result, marine channels, navigable rivers and sea crossings formed the trade routes of historic and ancient civilisations. For example, the Mediterranean Sea was known to the Romans as the inner sea because the Roman empire spread around its coasts; the historic record as well as the remains of harbours and cargoes, testify to the volume of trade that crossed it. Nations with a strong maritime culture such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark and Spain were able to establish colonies on other continents. Wars were fought at sea over the control of important resources; the material cultural remains that are discovered by maritime archaeologists along former trade routes can be combined with historical documents and material cultural remains found on land to understand the economic and political environment of the past.
Of late maritime archaeologists have been examining the submerged cultural remains of China, India and other Asian nations. There are significant differences in the survival of archaeological material depending on whether a site is wet or dry, on the nature of the chemical environment, on the presence of biological organisms and on the dynamic forces present, thus rocky coastlines in shallow water, are inimical to the survival of artifacts, which can be dispersed, smashed or ground by the effect of currents and surf leaving an artifact pattern but little if any wreck structure. Saltwater is inimical to iron artefacts including metal shipwrecks, sea organisms will consume organic material such as wooden shipwrecks. On the other hand, out of all the thousands of potential archaeological sites destroyed or grossly eroded by such natural processes sites survive with exceptional preservation of a related collection of artifacts. An example of such a collection is Mary Rose. Survival in this instance is due to the remains being buried in sediment Of the many examples where the sea bed provides an hostile environment for submerged evidence of history, one of the most notable, RMS Titanic, though a young wreck and in deep water so calcium-starved that concretion does not occur, appears strong and intact, though indications are that it has incurred irreversible degradation of her steel and iron hull.
As such degradation continues, data will be forever lost, objects' context will be destroyed and the bulk of the wreck will over centuries deteriorate on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Comparative evidence shows that all iron and steel ships those in a oxygenated environment, continue to degrade and will continue to do so until only their engines and other machinery project much above the sea-floor. Where it remains after the passage of time, the iron or steel hull is fragile with no remaining metal within the layer of concretion and corrosion products. USS Monitor, having been found in the 1970s, was subjected to a program of attempted in situ preservat
The Brethren of the Free Spirit were adherents of a loose set of beliefs deemed heretical by the Catholic Church but held by some Christians in the Low Countries, France and northern Italy between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries. The movement was first identified in the late thirteenth century, it was not a single movement or school of thought, it caused great unease among Church leaders at the time. Adherents were called Free Spirits; the set of errors condemned in the bull Ad nostrum at the Council of Vienne has been used by historians to typify the core beliefs, though there was great variation during the period over how the heresy was defined, there is great debate over how far the individuals and groups accused of holding the beliefs held the views attributed to them. The meaning of the term has in more recent times been extended to apply to the beliefs of other Christian individuals and groups, active both before and after the core period of the late Middle Ages; the set of beliefs ascribed to the Free Spirits is first to be found in a text called the Compilatio de novo spiritu put together by Albert the Great in the 1270s, concerning a group of persons investigated in the Swabian Ries area of Germany.
The themes which occur in these documents, which would emerge again in subsequent investigations, included: Autotheism – in other words, a belief that the perfected soul and God are indistinguishably one. This was expressed through the language of indistinction or annihilation; this belief would be heretical because it would undermine the necessary distinction between fallen created being and creator. Denial of the necessity of Christ, the church and its sacraments for salvation – such that austerity and reliance on the Holy Spirit was believed to be sufficient for salvation, they believed that they could communicate directly with God and did not need the Catholic Church for intercession. Use of the language of erotic union with Christ. Antinomian statements. Critics of the Free Spirit interpreted their beliefs to mean that they considered themselves to be incapable of sin and above the moral conduct of the Church. Verses such as Galatians 5:18 were seen as foundational to such beliefs. Anticlerical sentiment.
During the late thirteenth century, such concerns became applied to the various unregulated religious groups such as beguines and beghards, who had increased in number in the preceding decades. Concerns over such sentiments began to occur elsewhere during the 1300s, in Italy. Motivated by such concerns, in 1308 Pope Clement V summoned a general council, which met at Vienne from October 1311 to May 1312. In particular, it had to engage with the report from the Paris inquisition into the beguine Marguerite Porete’s The Mirror of Simple Souls, it was the Council of Vienne which first associated these various beliefs with the idea of the'Free Spirit'. During subsequent centuries, there was great fear of the Heresy of the Free Spirit, many individuals and groups were accused of it. In particular and beghard groups came under suspicion. John of Dirpheim, Bishop of Strasbourg from 1306 to 1328, was a fervent opponent of heresy. Another person accused, by Bishop John's colleague Henry of Virneburg, Bishop of Cologne, was Meister Eckhart, a German Dominican, who lived during the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries.
In 1326, Eckhart was charged by the Pope for teaching heresy. He rigorously defended against that charge until he disappeared from public life. Eckhart may have been familiar with the work of Marguerite Porete through his proximity to theologians involved in her trial, such as Berengar of Landora and William of Poitiers. More broadly, as a result of his prominence and through the statements of his used in the bull In agro Dominico he came to be recognised by the mystical tradition as the "father" of the Free Spirit; this is seen in the writings of Jan van Ruusbroec and his followers. During the late fourteenth century, western Germany became a important area for pursuing the heresy. An example of one person executed is the wandering preacher Nicholas of Basel, executed sometime between 1393 and 1397. Another known case was the execution of Löffler, who admitted adherence in Bern. False beliefs about the annihilation of the will were virulently attacked by the late fourteenth century Theologia Deutsch.
In the early fifteenth century, Jean Gerson accused Jan van Ruusbroec of misdescribing the nature of union with God in a way that placed him in the company of the'Free Spirit' heretics. By the early fifteenth century, the Catholic Church in Germany viewed heresy as a serious threat, it became a leading topic for discussion at the Council of Basel in 1431. Johannes Nider, a Dominican reformer who attended the council, became concerned that beliefs of the Free Spirit heresy, other heresies, were mixed with elements of witchcraft. In his 1434 work, Nider combined the Free Spirit heresy with witchcraft in his condemnation of false teachings. Formicarius became a model for Malleus maleficarum, a work by Heinrich Kramer in 1486. By the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, the Church's efforts to eradicate heresy and witchcraft resulted in heresy trials and the parallel civil authorities conducting witch burnings. Fea
Order and Punishment is the third album released by technical death metal band! T. O. O. H.!. The band broke up shortly after putting the final touches on this album, after Earache Records decided to drop the band and album from print, only two months after the release. However, the duo has since released Democratic Solution as their fourth album. "Al-amín" – 4:48 "Analyza záhnědy" – 3:08 "Konec kontinentálního kontejneru" – 3:27 "Hanička – příběh nebožačky" – 3:19 "Abu-Hassan" – 3:23 "Řád a trest" – 4:26 "Já samaritán" – 2:40 "Padají, pískají" – 3:39 "To je jízda božínku" – 2:44 "Kálí" – 5:11
The Waxholm was a steam ship, built, as the Brevik, in 1909. She was intended for use on local services between Stockholm and the newly built residential area in Brevik on the island of Lidingö. Proven uneconomic on that short service, she was acquired by the Waxholmsbolaget in 1913, renamed Express II and remodelled for use on that company's archipelago services. In 1964 she was renamed Waxholm. Never repaired, she was scrapped in 1983; the Brevik was built in 1909 by the Eriksbergs Mekaniska Verkstad in Sweden. She was delivered on 13 July 1909 to the Fastighets AB Lidingö-Brevik, a property company responsible for developing the new suburb of Brevik on the island of Lidingö, in order to link that suburb to central Stockholm. In 1911 the Fastighets AB Lidingö-Brevik formed the Ångfartygs AB Lidingö-Brevik shipping company, who took over the Brevik and continued to operate her on the same service. In 1913, the Brevik was sold to Waxholms Nya Ångfartygs AB, better known as the Waxholmsbolaget, renamed Express II.
She was remodeled for use on that company's archipelago services, was used on the service from Stockholm to Stenslätten via Vaxholm and Ramsö. She remained on this service until 1951. In 1964, after the 1881-built Waxholm had been scrapped, the Express II was renamed Waxholm, she continued on the Sandhamn service until 12 March 1978, when a fire broke out whilst the ship was moored for the night in Stavsnäs Vinterhamn. The ship was badly damaged and towed back to Beckholmen and Värtahamnen, before being scrapped in 1983
The tiny-house movement is an architectural and social movement that advocates living in small homes. 2018 International Residential Code, Appendix Q Tiny Houses defines a tiny house. However, a residential structure under 400 sq. ft is considered a tiny home. The tiny-house movement promotes financial prudence, economically safe, shared community experiences, a shift in consumerism-driven mindsets. In the United States of America, the average size of new single family homes grew from 1,780 square feet in 1978, 2,479 square feet in 2007, 2,662 square feet in 2013. Increased material wealth and individuals with high incomes are common reasons why homes sizes increased; the small house movement is a return to houses of less than 1,000 square feet. The distinction is made between small, tiny houses, with some as small as 80 square feet. Sarah Susanka started the "counter movement" for smaller houses which she details in her book The Not So Big House. Earlier pioneers include author of Shelter and Lester Walker, author of Tiny Houses.
Henry David Thoreau and the publication of his book Walden is quoted as early inspiration. Tiny houses on wheels was popularized by Jay Shafer who designed and lived in a 96 sq ft house and went on to offer the first plans for tiny houses on wheels founding Tumbleweed Tiny House Company, Four Lights Tiny House Company. In 2002, Shafer co-founded, along with Greg Johnson, Shay Salomon and Nigel Valdez the Small House Society. Salomon and Valdez subsequently published their guide to the modern Small House Movement, Little House on a Small Planet and Johnson published his memoir, Put Your Life on a Diet. With the great recession hitting in 2008, the small house movement attracted more attention as it offered affordable, ecologically friendly housing. Overall, it represented a small part of real estate transactions. Thus, only 1 % of home buyers acquire houses of less. Small houses are used as accessory dwelling units, to serve as additional on-property housing for aging relatives or returning children, as a home office, or as a guest house.
Tiny houses cost about $20,000 to $50,000 as of 2012. Tiny houses have received tremendous media coverage including a serial television show, Tiny House Nation, in 2014 and Tiny House Hunters; the possibility of building one's own home has fueled the movement for tiny houses on wheels. Tiny houses on wheels are compared to RVs; these are called Park Model RVs. However, tiny houses are built to last as long as traditional homes, use traditional building techniques and materials, are aesthetically similar to larger homes. While the movement is most active in America, interest in tiny homes has been revived in other developed countries, as well. For example: Source For Global News Tiny Home Industry Association In Japan, where space is at a premium, Takaharu Tezuka built the House to Catch the Sky in Tokyo, a 925-square-foot home for four. In Barcelona, Eva Prats and Ricardo Flores presented the 300-square-foot House in a Suitcase. In Britain, Abito created intelligent living spaces apartments of 353 square feet in Manchester.
The estimated cost for the Nesthouse is 55,000 euros. Northern Ireland has seen a small but growing community of tiny house owners, although the planning rules do not accommodate tiny houses, meaning that "the planning process would need to be looked at on a case-by-case basis". In Germany, the community of Vauban created 5000 households in an old military base in Freiburg; the planned density of the building on that area is of 50 dwelling units per acre. In Germany, British architect Richard Horden and the Technical University of Munich developed the Micro Compact Home, a high end small cube, designed for 1–2 persons, with functional spaces for cooking, dining/working, sleeping. In New Zealand, more companies are building tiny houses bespoke and customized. Bryce Langston, a film-maker with a passion for small space design and downsized, eco-friendly living has created short, documentary-style videos on small space living for YouTube via his channel and website'Living Big in a Tiny House'. In Australia some interest commenced through designers such as Fred Schultz and builders such as Designer Eco Tiny Homes and TechnoPODS.
T. I. T. A. N. Hills along Victoria's scenic Great Ocean Road, is the world's first master-planned, off-grid, tiny home subdivision. France- September 2019, the “Ty Village” has open its door at 6 km from the nearby University of Saint Brieuc in the department of Bretagne; this is the first time. Only five Tiny Houses are installed so far, but it’s only a first step for this project since the municipalities gave its approval for the Ty Village to host up to 21 Tiny Houses; this project made the best of the Tiny House’s flexibility. During the summer break, college students go back to their parents’ home to spend their vacation, leaving their accommodations empty; the Tiny Houses will be moved to the nearby beaches, on camping fields, where they will welcome tour
The suicide of Phoebe Prince, on January 14, 2010, led to the criminal prosecution of six teenagers for charges including civil rights violations, as well as to the enactment of stricter anti-bullying legislation by the Massachusetts state legislature. Prince had moved from Ireland to South Hadley, in the U. S. state of Massachusetts. Her suicide, after suffering months of bullying from school classmates, brought international attention to the problem of bullying in American schools. In March 2010, a state anti-bullying task force was set up as a result of her death; the Massachusetts legislation was signed into law on May 3, 2010. The accused stood trial in 2011. Sentences of probation and community service were handed down after guilty pleas on May 5, 2011. Phoebe Nora Mary Prince was born on November 24, 1994, in Bedford, Bedfordshire and moved to the seaside community of Fanore in County Clare, when she was two. Prince attended a private school in County Limerick, she immigrated to the U. S. in the autumn of 2009 with her mother and four siblings.
Her mother lived in Boston for a few years. Her father, a British national, remained in Ireland. Having moved to the U. S. from Ireland, Prince was taunted and bullied for several weeks by at least two groups of students at South Hadley High School, following disputes with two girls in late December 2009. Her aunt warned school officials in August 2009, prior to Prince's enrollment at the school, to watch after Prince, as she was "susceptible" to problems including peer pressure and bullying. Investigations found that Prince was in fact one of four girls bullying a student in Ireland in a dispute over a relationship with a boy. After the victim of that bullying was moved to another school by her parents, Phoebe wrote a letter of apology, praised by the victim's mother, who blamed the bullying on peer pressure and the lack of action by the school authorities. On January 14, 2010, three of the accused engaged in persistent taunting and harassment of Prince at school, in the library and school auditorium.
One of the accused followed Prince home from school in a friend's car, threw an empty can at her, yelled an insult. It was after this final incident that Prince took her own life by hanging herself in the stairwell leading to the second floor of the family apartment, her body was discovered by her 12-year-old sister. After her death, many crude comments about her were posted on her Facebook memorial page, most of which were removed, her parents chose to have Prince buried in Ireland. A meeting held at the school to discuss the problem of bullying within the school brought parents who stated that bullying of their children had been ignored by the school administration. Massachusetts state lawmakers sped up efforts to pass anti-bullying legislation as a result of this incident, the measure was signed into law on May 3, 2010. Inspired by the Massachusetts bill, similar legislation was introduced in New York State. In efforts to promote national anti-bullying legislation, a "Phoebe's Law" has been proposed.
In July 2010, the South Hadley school committee adopted a more comprehensive anti-bullying policy. The six accused were subjected to bullying and death threats following Prince's death, her father expressed concern regarding the treatment of the accused who had yet to face trial. On March 29, 2010, Northwestern District Attorney Elizabeth Scheibel announced at a press conference that two male and four female teenagers from South Hadley High School were indicted as adults on felony charges by a Hampshire County grand jury. Charges ranged from statutory rape for two male teenagers, to violation of civil rights, criminal harassment, disturbance of a school assembly, stalking. One of the males charged with statutory rape was not involved in the bullying. Additional delinquency complaints were filed against three of the four females as they were minors at the time of the incident. One minor was charged with assault with a deadly weapon for throwing an empty can at Phoebe Prince. A separate delinquency complaint was filed against another of the three female minors for assault and battery against another girl at South Hadley High School.
At least four of these six students were still attending South Hadley High School when the charges were announced. In her statement, D. A. Scheibel directly contradicted previous claims by school Superintendent Gus Sayer that school officials had been unaware of the bullying at the school: Contrary to published reports, Phoebe's harassment was common knowledge to most of the South Hadley High School student body; the investigation has revealed that certain faculty and administrators of the high school were alerted to the harassment of Phoebe Prince before her death. Prior to Phoebe's death, her mother spoke with at least two school staff members about the harassment Phoebe had reported to her; some bystanders, including at least four students and two faculty members, intervened while the harassment was occurring or reported it to administrators. A lack of understanding of harassment associated with teen dating relationships seems to have been prevalent at South Hadley High School. That, in turn, brought an inconsistent interpretation in enforcement in the school's code of conduct when incidents were observed and reported.
In reviewing this investigation, we've considered whether or not the actions or omissions to act by faculty and administrators of the South Hadley public schools individually, or collectively, amounted to criminal behavior. In our opinion, it did not; the actions or i