Iowa State Cyclones football
The Iowa State Cyclones are the football team at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. The team is coached by Matt Campbell; the Cyclones compete in the Big 12 Conference, are a Division I Football Bowl Subdivision member of the NCAA. The Cyclones play their home games at Jack Trice Stadium, with a capacity of 61,500. Football first made its way onto the Iowa State campus in 1878 as a recreational sport, but it wasn't until 1892 that an organized group of athletes first represented Iowa State in football. In 1894, college president William M. Beardshear spearheaded the foundation of an athletic association to sanction Iowa State football teams; the 1894 team finished with a 6–1 mark, including a 16–8 victory over what is now the University of Iowa. One of the pioneers of football, Pop Warner, spent time at Iowa State early in his career. In 1895 despite being the coach at Georgia he was offered $25 per week to come to Iowa State, whose season started in mid-August while Georgia's started a month as well as to provide weekly advice during the rest of the season.
Soon after Warner left for Georgia, Iowa State had its first game of the season. Iowa State came into Evanston as the underdog Iowa State defeated Northwestern 36–0. A Chicago sportswriter called the team "cornfed giants from Iowa" while the Chicago Tribune's headline read, "Struck by a Cyclone". Since Iowa State teams have been known as the Cyclones. Overall, the team had three wins and three losses and, like Georgia, Iowa State retained Warner for the next season. In 1896 the team had two losses. Despite leaving Cornell in 1898, Warner remained as the head coach of Iowa State for another year. During his last three years at Iowa State the team had a winning season but Warner was unable to match his 1896 triumph. After playing at Iowa and serving as an assistant coach for two years, Clyde Williams came to Ames as an assistant coach for ISU. Williams served as the Cyclones' head football coach for six seasons from 1907 to 1912. During that time, he had a coaching record of 32–15–2; this ranks him fourth at Iowa State in winning percentage.
In addition, he led Iowa State to two Missouri Valley Conference football titles in 1911 and 1912, which are the only two conference football championships in school history. In addition to his football contributions Williams was the school's first men's basketball coach from 1908 to 1911, where he compiled a 20–29 record, he served as Iowa State's baseball coach, was their athletic director from 1914 to 1919. In 1914 Iowa State completed construction of their new football field and it was named Clyde Williams Field in honor of the former coach. Williams was inducted into the State of Iowa Hall of Fame in 1956, he is one of the few people inducted into both the University of Iowa Athletics Hall of Fame and the Iowa State athletics Hall of Fame. The success Iowa State found in the inception of their football program was not replicated for most of the mid-20th century. In 1922 after having two different head coaches in as many years, ISU hired up-and-comer Sam Willaman away from East Technical HS in Cleveland, OH.
When Willaman came to Iowa state, he brought with him six of his former East Tech players, including Jack Trice. Trice was the first African-American player at Iowa State, one of the first African-Americans to play football in the Midwest. Trice suffered a severe malicious injury during a game at Minnesota in 1923, died from complications. In 1997, Iowa State's Cyclone Stadium was renamed Jack Trice Stadium in his honor. In his first season, Willaman's team finished with a 2–6 record, but posted a winning record in each of the three years that followed, his career coaching record at Iowa state was 14–15–3. This ranks. In February 1931, George F. Veenker accepted an offer to become the head football coach for Iowa State. Under Veenker, Iowa State experienced a brief period of success; when Veenker joined Iowa State, the team was coming off a winless season in 1930 and had lost 16 consecutive games dating back to October 1929. In his first year, the 1931 team defeated Missouri 20–0, Oklahoma 13–12, Kansas State 7–6, compiling a 5–3 record and finishing in second place in the Big Six Conference.
In November 1931, the Ames Daily Tribune-Times called Veenker "a veritable miracle man of football" for taking a school where "Cyclone football morale couldn't have been lower" and turning the program around in his first season. The highlight of Veenker's career as Iowa State's football coach was a 31–6 victory over the Iowa Hawkeyes in 1934; the game was the last meeting between the two schools until 1977. Veenker resigned in 1936, leaving an overall record of 21–22–8. Shortly after Veenker's death in 1959, the university-owned golf course was renamed Veenker Memorial Golf Course in his honor. During the 1938 season, James J. Yeager was in his second year as head coach. Despite going 3–6 in 1937, the Cyclones would go on to a then-best record of 7–1–1; the team was led by Ed Bock. At the conclusion of the season Bock became the first consensus first-team All-American in Iowa State history. Bock was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1970. In 1942, Iowa State hired former Green Bay Packers All-Pro guard and three-time NFL champion Mike Michalske to be the new head coach.
Michalske achieved moderate success in his five seasons at Iowa State, finishing with an 18–18 record. Emmett Stuber took over as the Cyclones head coach in 1947 and coached the team until 1953, compiling a record of 24–38–3. Vince DiFrancesca was the 21st head coach at Iowa State, leading the team to a record of 6–21–1 from 195
Sporting News is a digital sports media owned by Perform Group, a global sports content and media company. Sporting News The Sporting News, was established in 1886 as a weekly U. S. magazine. It became the dominant American publication covering baseball, acquiring the nickname "The Bible of Baseball." It is now a digital-only publication providing essential coverage of all major sports, with editions in the U. S. Canada and Japan. March 17, 1886: The Sporting News, founded in St. Louis by Alfred H. Spink, a director of the St. Louis Browns baseball team, publishes its first edition; the weekly newspaper sells for 5 cents. Baseball, horse racing and professional wrestling received the most coverage in the first issue. Meanwhile, the sporting weeklies Clipper and Sporting Life were based in New Philadelphia. By World War I, TSN would be the only national baseball newspaper. 1901: The American League, another rival to baseball's National League, begins play. TSN was its founder, Ban Johnson. Both parties advocated cleaning up the sport, in particular ridding it of liquor sales and assaults on umpires.
1903: TSN editor Arthur Flanner helps draft the National Agreement, a document that brought a truce between the AL and NL and helped bring about the modern World Series. 1904: New York photographer Charles Conlon begins taking portraits of major league players as they passed through the city's three ballparks: the Polo Grounds, Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field. His images, many of which were featured in TSN have become treasured symbols of baseball's past. 1936: TSN names its first major league Sporting News Player of the Year Award, Carl Hubbell of the New York Giants. It is the oldest and most prestigious award given to the single player in MLB who had the most outstanding season. To this day, it remains voted on by MLB players. 1942: After decades of being intertwined with baseball, in-season football coverage is added. 1946: TSN expands its football coverage with an eight-page tabloid publication titled The Quarterback. The tab is renamed the All-Sports News as coverage of other sports is added, including professional and college basketball and hockey.
1962: J. G. Taylor Spink dies, his son C. C. Johnson Spink takes over the publication. 1967: TSN publishes its first full-color photo, a cover image of Orioles star Frank Robinson. 1977: The Spink family sells TSN to Times Mirror in 1977.1981: C. C. Johnson Spink sells TSN to Tribune Co; that year, the Baseball Hall of Fame inaugurates the annual J. G. Taylor Spink Award, given to a media member. 1991: The Sporting News transitions to a glossy, full-color all-sports magazine. 1996: The Sporting News comes online, serving as a sports content provider for AOL. The following year, it launches sportingnews.com. 2000: Tribune Co. sells TSN to Vulcan Inc. headed by tech billionaire Paul Allen. The following year, the company acquired the One on One Sports radio network, renaming it Sporting News Radio. 2002: The Sporting News drops the The and becomes just Sporting News. Subsequent magazine covers reflect the change. 2006: Vulcan sells SN to Advance Media, which places the publication under the supervision of American City Business Journals.
2007: Sporting News begins its move from St. Louis, where it had been based since its founding, to ACBJ's headquarters in Charlotte, N. C; the publication leaves St. Louis for good in 2008, when it became a bi-weekly publication. 2012: After 126 years of printing ink on paper with weekly, biweekly or monthly frequency, SN publishes its final print edition and moves to digitally only publishing.2013: ACBJ enters into a joint venture with Perform Group. Perform, which owns Goal.com, Opta Sports and other international sports data properties, buys a 65 percent stake in the company. 2015: Perform buys ACBJ's 35 percent stake and assumes 100 percent ownership of SN. 2015-17: SN expands into international markets, establishing editions in Australia and Japan. In 1962, after J. G. Taylor Spink's death, Baseball Writers' Association of America instituted the J. G. Taylor Spink Award as the highest award given to its members. Spink was the first recipient. From 1968 to 2008, the magazine selected one or more individuals as Sportsman of the Year.
On four occasions, the award was shared by two recipients. Twice, in 1993 and 2000, the award went to a pair of sportsmen within the same organization. In 1999, the honor was given to a whole team. No winner was chosen in 1987. On December 18, 2007, the magazine announced New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady as 2007 Sportsman of the Year, making Brady the first to repeat as a recipient of individual honors. Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals was honored twice, but shared his second award with Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs. In 2009, the award was replaced by two awards: "Pro Athlete of the Year" and "College Athlete of the Year"; these in turn were replaced by a singular "Athlete of the Year" award starting in 2011. 2009 – Mariano Rivera, New York Yankees 2010 – Roy Halladay, Philadelphia Phillies 2009 – Colt McCoy, Texas football 2010 – Kyle Singler, Duke men's basketball Beginning in 2011, the awards were merged back into a singular selection, Athlete of the Year. 2011 – Aaron Rodgers, Green Bay Packers 2012 – LeBron James, Miami Heat SN sponsors its own annual Team, Pitcher, Reliever, Comeback Player and Executive of the Year awards.
Many fans once held the newspaper's baseball awards at equal or higher esteem than those of the Baseball Writers' Association of America. Prior to 2005, the SN Comeback Player Award was recognized as the principal award of its type, as MLB did not give such an award until that year; the Sporting News Most Valuable Player Award (
Kansas State Wildcats football
The Kansas State Wildcats football program is the intercollegiate football program of the Kansas State University Wildcats. The program is classified in the NCAA Division I Bowl Subdivision, the team competes in the Big 12 Conference; the team has an all-time losing record, at 531–647–41 as of the conclusion of the 2018 season. However, the program has had some stretches of winning in its history and most notably under former head coach Bill Snyder from the 1990s through the 2010s. In 1998 Kansas State finished the regular season with an undefeated record and #1-ranking, from 1995 to 2001 the school appeared in the AP Poll for 108 consecutive weeks—the 15th-longest streak in college football history. Since 1968, the team has played in Bill Snyder Family Football Stadium in Kansas; the Kansas State University Marching Band known as the Pride of Wildcat Land, performs at all home games and bowl games. According to most sources, Kansas State's football team began play on Thanksgiving Day 1893. A team from Kansas State defeated St. Mary's College 18–10 on that date.
Other sources name Kansas State's first game as a 24–0 victory over a team from Abilene, Kansas, on November 3, 1894. However, the first official game recorded in the team's history is a 14–0 loss to Fort Riley on November 28, 1896. In its earliest years, the program had a different coach every year—generally, a former college football player who had just graduated from college; the coaches played with the team during the games. Some of the coaches during this era include Fay Moulton, who went on to win Olympic medals as a sprinter; the pattern changed when Mike Ahearn became the first long-term coach in 1905. Ahearn coached for six seasons, leading the team to winning records each year, concluding in the 1910 season with a 10–1 mark. Ahearn won two conference championships in the Kansas Intercollegiate Athletic Association, in 1909 and 1910. Ahearn was followed by Guy Lowman, who led Kansas State to another conference championship in 1912. Kansas State accepted an invitation into the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1913.
After a few years adjusting to the league's eligibility rules and a higher level of competition, the school experienced sustained success in the 1920s and 1930s. Elden Auker was part of a group of excellent athletes who attended Kansas State around the time of the Great Depression, which included Ralph Graham, Maurice Elder, Leland Shaffer, Cookie Tackwell, Dougal Russell, Henry Cronkite, George Maddox, Elmer Hackney; these athletes were coupled with a series of Hall of Fame coaches. The first of these coaches was Z. G. Clevenger, who arrived in 1916 when Kansas State swapped head coaches with Tennessee. Clevenger is in the College Football Hall of Fame for his playing abilities, but he was recognized as a brilliant coach and administrator. Clevenger was followed as football coach in 1920 by Charlie Bachman, who stayed until 1927 and earned his way into the College Football Hall of Fame with his coaching prowess. Bachman was responsible for permanently endowing Kansas State's sports teams with the nickname of "Wildcats."
His successor, Alvin "Bo" McMillin, the coach from 1928–33, is in the College Football Hall of Fame as a player, but he too was a successful coach who, after leaving Kansas State, was recognized as national collegiate coach of the year and served as head coach for two NFL teams. After McMillin left, Kansas State hired Lynn "Pappy" Waldorf, later enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach. With this combination of coaches and players, Kansas State enjoyed what would be its last streak of sustained success on the football field for 60 years. In 1931, the football team was on track for a potential bid to the Rose Bowl, the sole bowl game in the country at the time, until Ralph Graham was injured. In 1934, Kansas State won its first major conference football championship; that same year, the New York Times referred to Kansas State as "an established Middle Western leader." But Waldorf abruptly left for Northwestern after the season, the winning stopped. In the midst of the period, the Missouri Valley split up.
In 1928, six of the seven state schools in the Missouri Valley, including Kansas State, banded together in a conference that retained the MVIAA name. This group would evolve into the Big Eight Conference. Over the next sixty years, Kansas State would experience little success on the football field. According to longtime Wildcat radio announcer Dev Nelson, part of the problem was that Kansas State was one of the few major schools that didn't make a significant investment in its football program after World War II. Indeed, for many years the Wildcats spent far less on football—and athletics as a whole—than any Big Eight school. For example, in 1987–1988, the University of Oklahoma spent $12.5 million on athletics while Kansas State spent $5.5 million. Reflective of the mid-century futility was a 28-game losing streak from 1945 to 1948, the second-longest in NCAA FBS history. Kansas State had losing streaks of 18 and 17 games in the 1960s. In the middle of posting a 0–10 record in the 1947 season, the Kansas State program slipped below the.500 all-time winning percentage, where it has remained since.
However, there were a few shining moments during these decades. On October 28, 1939, Kansas State hosted the second televised college football game, losing to Nebraska 25–9. In the mid-1950s, coach B
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
New Castle, Pennsylvania
New Castle is a city in and the county seat of Lawrence County, United States, 50 miles northwest of Pittsburgh and near the Pennsylvania–Ohio border just 18 miles east of Youngstown, Ohio. The population was 23,128 as of the 2010 census, it is the commercial center of a fertile agricultural region. New Castle is the principal city of the New Castle, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 91,108 in 2010. New Castle anchors the northwestern part of the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-WV-OH Combined Statistical Area. In 1798, John Carlysle Stewart, a civil engineer, traveled to western Pennsylvania to resurvey the "donation lands,", reserved for veterans of the Revolutionary War, he discovered that the original survey had neglected to stake out 50 acres at the confluence of the Shenango River and the Neshannock Creek, at that time a part of Allegheny County. The Indian town of Kuskusky was listed on early maps in this location. Claiming the land for himself, he laid out. Stewart laid out the town of New Castle in April 1798.
It comprised that same 50 acres, in what was part of Allegheny County. In 1825, New Castle became a borough, having a population of about 300; the city became a part of Mercer County. On April 5, 1849, the Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania signed an act creating Lawrence County named in honor of U. S. Navy Captain James Lawrence. New Castle was headed by its first Mayor, Thomas B. Morgan. At that time, the population had increased to about 6,000. In 1849, a group of Old Order Amish families from Mifflin County, settled just north of New Castle in New Wilmington. Migrations from Holmes County, Ohio would make this Amish community one of the largest in Pennsylvania. 2,000 Amish live and work presently in the townships north of New Castle. Business in New Castle began to flourish in the early 19th century with the construction of the canal system, which made its way through the city. Numerous manufacturing plants became located in New Castle because of the availability of transportation facilities and ready access to raw material markets.
The canal system was supplemented and replaced by railroads which offered greater speed and capacity for freight, as well as year round service. In the 1870s, the city became a major hub of the Lake Erie Railroad. New Castle's population swelled from 11,600 in 1890 to 28,339 in 1900, to 38,280 in 1910, as immigrants from Italy, flocked to the city to work in the mills and nearby limestone quarries. Italian laborers of the era were frequent victims of the Black Hand society, which employed blackmail and extortion to rob the workers of their pay. In 1907 the headquarters of the Black Hand for the entire region was discovered in the village of Hillsville a few miles west of New Castle. By this time New Castle was one of the fastest-growing cities in the country, with the construction of the largest tin plate mill in America, the city became the tin plate capital of the world; the tin plate industry marked a new increase in the city's prosperity. The Tariff Act of 1890, raised imports by 50% and pushed entrepreneurs George and Charles Greer to open New Castle Steel and Tin Plate Company in 1893.
Following suit, Shenango Valley Steel Company and Neshannock Sheet and Tin Plate Company merged to New Castle Works of the Carnegie Steel Company. In 1908 New Castle was linked to Pittsburgh by the Pittsburgh, Harmony and New Castle Railway, an interurban trolley line. Steel and paper mills, foundries, a bronze bushing factory, car-construction plants contributed to the economy. In addition, the Shenango China produced commercial china and created the fine Castleton china line for the White House, including dinnerware for Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Lyndon B. Johnson. Other ceramic factories produced industrial refractory materials. In the 1920s, New Castle enjoyed its greatest prosperity; the landscape of the city was transformed with the building of many beautiful structures, some of which still stand, such as The Cathedral, St. Mary's Church, the Castleton Hotel; the city established its identity. New Castle is known both as the "hot dog capital of the world" and the "fireworks capital of America".
Its chili dogs are the product of Greek immigrants who came to New Castle in the early 20th century and established restaurants along with their homes. The notoriety for fireworks is credited to two local fireworks companies of international stature, S. Vitale Pyrotechnic Industries, Inc. and Zambelli Internationale. In the 1930s, the city, along with most cities of America, suffered during the Great Depression. During this trying time, the federal government established the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps; these programs offered jobs to many displaced workers. Many of the stone walls built by the WPA and the CCC still stand as a reminder of the historic demise of the economy. In the 1940s, industry temporarily surged during wartime. In 1950, the population peaked at 48,834, but became part of the rust belt, with population dwindling to 28,334 by 1990. New Castle is the County Seat of Lawrence County which has a population of 100,000. In 1998, the City of New Castle was a host city for the History Channel Great Race.
Over 15,000 spectators gathered downtown for the festivities. The city celebrated its 200th birthday in 1998 with a downtown fireworks festival that attracted over 30,000 people; the first fireworks manufacturer in New Castle was Leopold Fazzoni, who owned and operated the Fazzoni Brothers Fireworks Company. Mr. Fazzoni came to New Cast
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
National Sports Media Association
The National Sports Media Association the National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Association, is an organization of sports media members in the United States, constitutes the American chapter of the International Sports Press Association. Winston-Salem, North Carolina now serves as the headquarters for the NSMA, responsible for the organizing and counting of all the ballots for the National and Hall of Fame winners; the organization had been based in Salisbury, North Carolina until 2017. There are now more than 100 inductees in the Hall of Fame; the organization funds the Annual Awards Program. Former television sportscaster Dave Goren serves as the NSMA's executive director. See footnoteThe National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Association was formed in 1959 by a local restaurant owner, Pete DiMizio, to honor regional sportscasters and sportswriters whom he had met at the Greensboro Open Golf Tournament in Greensboro, North Carolina; when DiMizio died, Dr. Ed McKenzie took over the leadership role and guided it through the expansion to a national association.
Its first Annual Awards Program was held in Salisbury, North Carolina, on April 12, 1960. Lindsey Nelson was selected the 1959 National Sportscaster of the Year and Red Smith was voted the 1959 Sportswriter of the Year. In 1962 Grantland Rice was selected as the first Hall of Fame inductee; as Red Smith inducted Rice into the Hall of Fame, he said, "Who knows what will become of this Hall of Fame? It might never be heard from again. No matter, it cannot be improved, for it is perfect tonight with only Granny enshrined." In April 1990, the NSSA celebrated its 31st Annual Awards Program, with Chris Berman of ESPN being selected as Sportscaster of the Year and Peter Gammons receiving the honor as Sportswriter of the Year. The Hall of Fame inductees were Dave Anderson, Pulitzer Prize winner from The New York Times, Jack Buck, the long-time radio voice of the St. Louis Cardinals and a radio and television sportscaster for CBS. Though located in Salisbury, "the NSSA office itself has bounced around town like a ping-pong ball."
The Hall of Fame opened on May 1, 2000 in the two-story, 10,000-square-foot former North Carolina Federal Savings and Loan building at 322 East Innes Street in Salisbury. When Claude Hampton became NSSA director, he was told the Hall of Fame was nothing more than a desk drawer with folders in the Chamber of Commerce building, he wanted an actual building and considered Catawba College as a location, but when he saw the branch of the failed bank in 1990, he made an offer, accepted. The goal was to open the museum by 1992. A 23-foot sculpture of two eagles was moved from the bank to Charlotte Motor Speedway, but people wanted the eagles back, so they were returned and local people donated their services to put the eagles back and get the building ready. An opening reception and dedication took place in 1991, but due to lack of funding, it took ten years for the building to open. Until hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of memorabilia were stored in boxes. With the Hall of Fame open, visitors could hear Babe Ruth's called shot, Hank Aaron's 715th home run, the Ice Bowl, the 1992 Duke-Kentucky game, young Tiger Woods on The Mike Douglas Show.
On November 1, 2005, Community Bank of Rowan purchased the Innes Street location, opening its headquarters there in 2006. This required the NSSA to move to a temporary location on North Main Street in Salisbury, but visitors would not be allowed. Veteran sports journalist Dave Goren, best known as sports director at WXII-TV in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, became NSSA executive director September 1, 2009. On December 1 of that year, the NSSA held a reception at its new office in 1,900 square feet at 325 Lee Street in Salisbury; the warehouse only included a few items such as shoes autographed by Ralph Sampson and a football signed by Berman. The NSSA has since moved on the campus of Catawba College. At the 54th annual program in June 2013, Dan Patrick of ESPN Radio received the award as Sportscaster of the Year with Peter King of Sports Illustrated honored as Sportswriter of the Year; the Hall of Fame inductees were Dick Vitale. In June 2014, hockey broadcaster Mike "Doc" Emrick was voted Sportscaster of the Year, with King repeating as Sportswriter of the Year.
Inducted in the Hall of Fame were sportswriter Rick Reilly. Emrick and writer Tom Verducci were the national award winners honored on June 8, 2015. Four new NSSA Hall of Fame members were inducted: baseball writer Hal McCoy, basketball commentator Bill Raftery and sportscaster Lesley Visser and, author and television personality Dick Schaap. In April 2017, after 57 years in Salisbury, the National Sports Media Association moved to Winston-Salem, North Carolina; the NSSA is the only national organization which brings together the two crafts of sportscasting and sportswriting. There are 1,100 dues-paying members; the Sportscasters and Sportswriters Foundation Board is made up of individuals in Salisbury, North Carolina, as well as the current national board president, who feel that sports in the United States are important. The Sportscasters and Sportswriters themselves have a Board of Directors. In addition, The Hall of Fame, Inc. has been set up as the educational arm of the NSSA, it has tax-exempt status granted by the Internal Revenue Service.
The Paul "Bear" Bryant Award is an award, given annually since 1986 to NCAA college football's national coach of the year. The Award was named in honor of longtime Alabama coach Bear Bryant after he died of a heart attack in 1983, it is voted o