Thomas Donald Meek was a Scottish-American actor. He first performed publicly at the age of eight and began appearing on Broadway in 1903. Meek is best known for his roles in You Can't Take It with You and Stagecoach. In 1960, he posthumously received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Meek was born in Glasgow to Annie Meek. In the 1890's, the Meek family emigrated to Canada and to the United States. By 1900, they were living in Philadelphia where Donald was employed as a dry goods salesman, according to the United States census of that year. Sometime Donald went on the stage. According to Massachusetts marriage records database, he and Isabella "Belle" Walker married in Boston in a Methodist church on 3 January 1909. By this marriage, the American born Belle Meek lost her United States citizenship taking her husband's British nationality. After years on the stage, Meek became a film actor, appearing memorably in several movies including The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Little Miss Broadway, State Fair.
Before becoming an actor, he fought in the Spanish–American War in the United States Army and contracted yellow fever which caused him to lose his hair. He was cast as timid, worried characters in many of his films, is best known for his roles as Mr. Poppins in Frank Capra's You Can't Take It With You and as whiskey salesman Samuel Peacock in John Ford's Stagecoach. From 1931 through 1932 Meek was featured as criminologist Dr. Crabtree, in a series of twelve Warner Brothers two-reel short subjects written by S. S. Van Dine. Donald Meek died of leukaemia on Monday, 18 November 1946 in Los Angeles, while playing the role of Mr. Twiddle in William A. Wellman's socially-themed comedy Magic Town with Jimmy Stewart and Jane Wyman, which premiered on 7 October 1947, just under a year after Meek's death. A prolific film actor in over 100 Hollywood movies during its Golden Age, he received a posthumous star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Buried in California, his body was moved to Fairmount Cemetery mausoleum in Denver, Colorado, USA.
Donald Meek on IMDb Donald Meek at the Internet Broadway Database Donald Meek at Find a Grave Portraits of Donald Meek from Stagecoach by Ned Scott
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited while they were alive, they wore shrouds and were described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century. Vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures. Local variants in Eastern Europe were known by different names, such as shtriga in Albania, vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. In modern times, the vampire is held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
Porphyria was linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been discredited. The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of "The Vampyre" by John Polidori. Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend though it was published after Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's 1872 novel Carmilla; the success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, television shows, video games. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. Vampires had been discussed in French and German literature. After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires".
These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity. The English term was derived from the German Vampir, in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian vampir; the Serbian form has parallels in all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian вампир, Bosnian: vampir / вампир, Croatian vampir and Slovak upír, Polish wąpierz, upiór, Ukrainian упир, Russian упырь, Belarusian упыр, from Old East Slavic упирь. The exact etymology is unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь. Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch". Czech linguist Václav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepiť sa", or its hypothetical anagram "vperiť sa" as an etymological background, thus translates "upír" as "someone who thrusts, bites". An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy", dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Ancient Greeks, Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and public executions of people believed to be vampires, it is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were reported as bloated in appearance, ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour.
Blood was seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, its teeth and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature. Although vampires were described as undead, some folk tales spoke of them as living beings; the causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse, jumped over by an animal a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was at risk. In Russian
Samuel Guy Endore, born Samuel Goldstein and known as Harry Relis, was an American novelist and screenwriter. During his career he produced a wide array of novels and pamphlets, both published and unpublished. A cult favorite of fans of horror, he is best known for his novel The Werewolf of Paris, which occupies a significant position in werewolf literature, much in the same way that Dracula does for vampire literature. Endore is known for his left-wing novel of the Haitian Revolution, Babouk: The Story of A Slave, he was nominated for a screenwriting Oscar for The Story of G. I. Joe, his novel Methinks the Lady... was the basis for Ben Hecht's screenplay for Whirlpool. Endore was born Samuel Goldstein in Brooklyn, New York, to Malka Halpern Goldstein, his father was a coal miner and investor from Pittsburgh who had difficulty making ends meet. His mother committed suicide when he was four due to the family's unstable and insufficient livelihood. Isidor changed their name in an attempt to move beyond the events of the past, he placed the children in a Methodist orphanage.
During this time, Isidor sold an invention and dreamt that his dead wife willed the children to have a European education, so he sent them to Vienna with the newfound windfall. The children lived in Vienna for five years under the care of a Catholic governess, but when Isidor disappeared and their funds ran short, they returned to Pittsburgh and lived together. While there Endore attended the Carnegie Technical Institute but would earn his B. A. and M. A. both in European languages, at Columbia University. According to his own account, he scraped together the money to attend renting out his bed to a wealthier student while he slept on the floor, he unsuccessfully pursued a Ph. D. Endore's first novel was The Man From Limbo, about an impoverished college graduate obsessed with acquiring wealth, his most famous work was The Werewolf of Paris, a violent horror story set during the Franco-Prussian War and the Paris Commune and inspired by the work of Hanns Heinz Ewers, whom Endore had translated. The Werewolf of Paris is described by Stableford as "entitled to be considered the werewolf novel".
Endore wrote what Stableford describes "a few notable horror stories", including "The Day of the Dragon", in which a scientific experiment returns dragons to the contemporary world and "Lazarus Returns", an ironic tale involving the Biblical character. After his work as a screenwriter Endore published several other Freudian-tinged mysteries and returned to his love of French history for biographies on Voltaire, the Marquis de Sade and Rousseau, his only other popular literary success came with King of Paris: A Novel, based on the life of Alexandre Dumas. It became a best-seller and was a Book-of-the-Month Club choice. After graduating, Guy married Henrietta Portugal and in the 1930s they moved to Hollywood. Despite his eventual blacklisting, Endore had a successful career in Hollywood, working on scripts or story ideas for big name pictures of the time, he made his name in the supernatural arena, with such movies as Mark of the Vampire and The Curse of the Werewolf. Although many of his films were at the time derided by critics, they have acquired a cult following in recent years.
Throughout his career Endore showed himself to be fascinated with hypnotism and the inability of characters to control their own actions, centering his stories on supernatural maladies such as lycanthropy and hypnosis. Mad Love, Peter Lorre’s American debut, involves a man who, after an accident, is fitted with the hands of a murderer which try to continue in their gruesome career, his novel Methinks The Lady..., made into a movie with Gene Tierney, centered around a woman affected by a quack hypnotist. His Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers comedy, still includes Rogers being put under hypnosis. Endore began his movie writing career in 1935, when he wrote the story for Rumba, a star vehicle for George Raft and Carole Lombard, given a scathing review in the New York Times. From there he began working in film, he worked on the screenplay for Mark of the Vampire with Bela Lugosi. He wrote the 19-page treatment that became The Raven, for which he was never credited. A number of other horror films followed, interspersed with more mainstream films including the Oscar-nominated, a John Wayne movie, a Ginger Rogers/Fred Astaire picture.
His Hollywood career ended in 1969 with a made for TV movie entitled Fear No Evil, for which he wrote the story. It was the first US Television “Movie of the Week” and a success in the ratings, spawning a sequel in years. While he attended Columbia, he was drawn to the political left by Whittaker Chambers, a fellow student at the time, by the harsh Great Depression world in which he lived, he would describe himself as opposed to capitalist class society and to imperialism, with all its racist foundations. While he lived in Hollywood, Endore was interviewed several times and wrote articles for multiple leftist publications, including Black and White, The New York Clipper and New Masses. Endore was a member of the Communist Party in Hollywood and was investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee during its search for Communist infiltration of the film industry, he was, never called before a “witch-hunting committee” and did not spend any time in jail. Because of his Communist associations, some studios blacklisted him an
Leonidas Frank "Lon" Chaney was an American stage and film actor, make-up artist and screenwriter. He is regarded as one of the most versatile and powerful actors of early cinema, renowned for his characterizations of tortured grotesque and afflicted characters, his groundbreaking artistry with makeup. Chaney was known for his starring roles in such silent horror films as The Hunchback of Notre Dame and The Phantom of the Opera, his ability to transform himself using makeup techniques he developed earned him the nickname "The Man of a Thousand Faces". Leonidas Frank Chaney was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado, to Frank H. Chaney and Emma Alice Kennedy, his father was of English and French ancestry, his mother was of Scottish and Irish descent. Chaney's maternal grandfather, Jonathan Ralston Kennedy, founded the "Colorado School for the Education of Mutes" in 1874, Chaney's parents met there, his great-grandfather was congressman John Chaney. Both of Chaney's parents were deaf, as a child of deaf adults Chaney became skilled in pantomime.
He entered a stage career in 1902, began traveling with popular Vaudeville and theater acts. In 1905, Chaney 22, met and married 16-year-old singer Cleva Creighton and in 1906, their only child, a son, Creighton Tull Chaney was born; the Chaneys continued touring, settling in California in 1910. Marital troubles developed and on April 30, 1913, Cleva went to the Majestic Theater in downtown Los Angeles, where Lon was managing the "Kolb and Dill" show, attempted suicide by swallowing mercuric chloride; the suicide attempt failed but it ruined her singing career as a result. The time spent there is not known, but between the years 1912 and 1917, Chaney worked under contract for Universal Studios doing bit or character parts, his skill with makeup gained him many parts in the competitive casting atmosphere. During this time, Chaney befriended the husband-wife director team of Joe De Grasse and Ida May Park, who gave him substantial roles in their pictures, further encouraged him to play macabre characters.
Chaney married one of his former colleagues in the Kolb and Dill company, a chorus girl named Hazel Hastings. Little is known of Hazel. Upon marrying, the new couple gained custody of Chaney's 10-year-old son Creighton, who had resided in various homes and boarding schools since Chaney's divorce from Cleva in 1913. By 1917 Chaney was a prominent actor in the studio; when Chaney asked for a raise, studio executive William Sistrom replied, "You'll never be worth more than one hundred dollars a week." After leaving the studio, Chaney struggled for the first year as a character actor. It was not until he played a substantial role in William S. Hart's picture Riddle Gawne that Chaney's talents as a character actor were recognized by the industry. Universal presented Chaney, Dorothy Phillips, William Stowell as a team in The Piper's Price. In succeeding films, the men alternated playing lover, villain, or other man to the beautiful Phillips, they would be joined by Claire DuBrey nearly making the trio a quartet of recurring actors from film to film.
So successful were the films starring this group that Universal produced fourteen films from 1917 to 1919 with Chaney and Phillips. The films were directed by Joe De Grasse or his wife Ida May Park, both friends of Chaney's at Universal; when Chaney was away branching out on films such as Riddle Gawne and The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin and Phillips would continue on as a duo until Chaney's return. Stowell and Phillips made The Heart of Humanity, bringing in Erich von Stroheim for a part as the villain that could have been played by Chaney. Paid in Advance was the group's last film together, for the chiseled featured Stowell was sent to Africa by Universal to scout locations for a movie. En route from one city to another, Stowell was in the caboose when it was hit by the locomotive from another train; the majority of these films are lost but a few, including Triumph and Paid in Advance survive in private collections or unrestored in European or Russian archives. Chaney had a breakthrough performance as "The Frog" in George Loane Tucker's The Miracle Man.
The film displayed not only Chaney's acting ability, but his talent as a master of makeup. Critical praise and a gross of over $2 million put Chaney on the map as America's foremost character actor. Chaney exhibited great adaptability with makeup in more conventional crime and adventure films, such as The Penalty, in which he played a gangster with both legs amputated. Chaney appeared in 10 films directed by Tod Browning portraying disguised and/or mutilated characters, including carnival knife-thrower Alonzo the Armless in The Unknown opposite Joan Crawford. Around the same time, Chaney co-starred with Conrad Nagel, Marceline Day, Henry B. Walthall and Polly Moran in the Tod Browning horror film London After Midnight, one of the most sought after lost films, his final film role was a sound remake of his silent classic The Unholy Three, his only "talkie" and the only film in which Chaney utilized his powerful and versatile voice. Chaney signed a sworn statement declaring. Makeup in the early days of cinema was non-existent with the exception of beards and moustach
June Gittelson was an American film actress. She appeared in over 70 films between 1928 and 1945. Due to her rotund figure, Gittleson was cast as a love interest who intimidated her husband or boyfriend. Modern viewers will recognize Gittelson in her appearances in several early Three Stooges films such as Slippery Silks, Dizzy Doctors, The Sitter Downers, her most famous role was as Minnie in the Stooge film False Alarms, in which she played the large and man-hungry lady pursuing the affections of a reluctant Curly Howard. Curly memorably contacts Moe and Larry, saying "Hello, Moe? You'd better come over. You're missing one of the biggest things in your life!" In this role, she remarked, "I grow on people!" Curly's response was, "so do warts!" Gittelson died in Northridge, California on November 28, 1993, aged 83. June Gittelson on IMDb
Lionel Alfred William Atwill was an English stage and film actor. Atwill was born on 1 March 1885 in Croydon, England, he studied architecture before his stage debut at the Garrick Theatre, London, in 1904. He became a star in Broadway theatre by 1918 and made his screen debut in 1919, his Broadway credits include The Lodger, The Silent Witness, The Outsider, The Thief, Slaves All, Beau Gallant and Cleopatra, The Outsider, The Comedian, The Grand Duke, Tiger! Tiger!, Another Man's Shoes, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, The Wild Duck, The Indestructible Wife, L'elevation, Eve's Daughter. He acted on the stage in Australia before becoming involved in U. S. horror film roles in the 1930s, including leading roles in Doctor X, The Vampire Bat, Murders in the Zoo and Mystery of the Wax Museum, most memorably as the one-armed Inspector Krogh in Son of Frankenstein, a role famously parodied by Kenneth Mars in Mel Brooks' 1974 satire Young Frankenstein. He appeared in four subsequent Universal Frankenstein films, as well as many other of the studio's beloved chillers.
His other roles include a romantic lead opposite Marlene Dietrich in Josef von Sternberg's The Devil Is a Woman, a crooked insurance investigator in The Wrong Road for RKO, Dr. James Mortimer in 20th Century Fox's film version of The Hound of the Baskervilles, Professor Moriarty in the Universal Studios film Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon, he had a rare comedy role in Ernst Lubitsch's 1942 classic To Be or Not to Be and that same year menaced Abbott and Costello in Pardon My Sarong. Atwill married four times, his first wife was Phyllis Ralph. In 1941 their son, John Arthur Atwill, was killed in action aged 26. Atwill married the actress Elsie Mackay in 1920, he married Louise Cromwell Brooks in 1930, after her divorce from Douglas MacArthur. Atwill married Paula Pruter in 1944, their marriage continued until his death, their son, Lionel Anthony Atwill, is a retired writer. In 1942, Atwill was indicted for perjury by a jury investigating the 1941 proceeding of a grand jury relative to the alleged occurrence of a sex orgy at his home.
He was given five years probation, but Hollywood producers and other executives blacklisted him for minor criminal activity. He made small film appearances afterward. Atwill died on 22 April 1946 of pneumonia at Los Angeles home. At the time of his death, he was filming the serial Lost City of the Jungle, playing the mastermind villain. Universal Pictures retained the footage filmed, adapted the story to enhance the villainous role of another character, used a double for Atwill in some scenes. Mank, Gregory William. Hollywood's Maddest Doctors. A Biography of Lionel Atwill, Colin Clive and George Zucco. Baltimore MD: Midnight Marquee Press. ISBN 188766422X. Smith, Ronald L.. Horror stars on The broadcast histories of 29 chilling Hollywood voices. Jefferson NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786445257. Pitts, Michael R.. Horror Film Stars. Jefferson NC: McFarland. ISBN 0-89950-004-8. Stuart, Ray. Immortals of the Screen. New York: Bonanza Books. ASIN B000OGH3S2. Twomey, Alfred E.. The Versatiles, A Study of Supporting Character Actors and Actresses in the American Motion Picture, 1930-1955.
South Brunswick NJ: A. S. Barnes & Company. ISBN 978-0498067921. Lionel Atwill on IMDb Lionel Atwill at the Internet Broadway Database Lionel Atwill at Find a Grave
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr