Marmalade is a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits boiled with sugar and water. The well-known version is made from bitter orange, but it is made from lemons, grapefruits, sweet oranges and other citrus fruits, or a combination; the preferred citrus fruit for marmalade production is the Spanish Seville or bitter orange, Citrus aurantium var. aurantium, prized for its high pectin content, which sets to the thick consistency expected of marmalade. The peel imparts a bitter taste; the word "marmalade" is borrowed from the Portuguese marmelada, from marmelo'quince'. Marmalade is distinguished from jam by its fruit peel. However, it may be distinguished from jam by the choice of fruit, though it has been used for non-citrus preserves; the Romans learned from the Greeks that quinces cooked with honey would "set" when cool. The Apicius gives a recipe for preserving whole quinces and leaves attached, in a bath of honey diluted with defrutum—Roman marmalade. Preserves of quince and lemon appear—along with rose, apple and pear—in the Book of ceremonies of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos.
Medieval quince preserves, which went by the French name cotignac, produced in a clear version and a fruit pulp version, began to lose their medieval seasoning of spices in the 16th century. In the 17th century, La Varenne provided recipes for both clear cotignac. In 1524, Henry VIII received a "box of marmalade" from Mr Hull of Exeter; as it was in a box, this was marmelada, a solid quince paste from Portugal, still made and sold in southern Europe. Its Portuguese origins can be detected in the remarks in letters to Lord Lisle, from William Grett, 12 May 1534, "I have sent to your lordship a box of marmaladoo, another unto my good lady your wife" and from Richard Lee, 14 December 1536, "He most heartily thanketh her Ladyship for her marmalado", it was a favorite treat of her ladies in waiting. The English recipe book of Eliza Cholmondeley, dated from 1677 and held at the Chester Record Office in the Cheshire county archivists, has one of the earliest marmalade recipes which produced a firm, thick dark paste.
The Scots are credited with developing marmalade as a spread, with Scottish recipes in the 18th century using more water to produce a less solid preserve. The first printed recipe for orange marmalade, though without the chunks used now, was in Mary Kettilby's 1714 cookery book, A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts. Kettilby called for whole oranges, lemon juice and sugar, with the acid in the lemon juice helping to create the pectin set of marmalade, by boiling the lemon and orange juice with the pulp. Kettilby directs: "boil the whole pretty fast'till it will jelly" – the first known use of the word "jelly" in marmalade making. Kettilby instructs that the mixture is poured into glasses and left until set; as the acid would create a jelly, this meant that the mixture could be pulled from the heat before it had turned to a paste, keeping the marmalade much brighter and the appearance more translucent, as in modern-day marmalade. The Scots moved marmalade to the breakfast table, in the 19th century the English followed the Scottish example and abandoned the eating of marmalade in the evening.
Marmalade's place in British life appears in literature. James Boswell remarks that he and Samuel Johnson were offered it at breakfast in Scotland in 1773; when American writer Louisa May Alcott visited Britain in the 1815s, she described "a choice pot of marmalade and a slice of cold ham" as "essentials of English table comfort". Marmalade first appeared in the English language in 1480, borrowed from French marmelade which, in turn, came from the Galician-Portuguese word marmelada. According to José Pedro Machado’s Dicionário Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa, the oldest known document where this Portuguese word is to be found is Gil Vicente’s play Comédia de Rubena, written in 1521: Temos tanta marmelada Que a minha mãe vai me dar um poucoThe extension of marmalade in the English language to refer to a preserve made from citrus fruits occurred in the 17th century, when citrus first began to be plentiful enough in England for the usage to become common. Greek μελίμηλον melimēlon'sweet apple', from μέλη'honey' + μῆλον mēlon'apple, round fruit', became Portuguese marmelo'quince'.
In Portuguese, marmelada is a preserve made from quince cheese. There is an apocryphal story that Mary, Queen of Scots, ate it when she had a headache, that the name is derived from her maids' whisper of Marie est malade. In reality, the word's origin has nothing to do with Mary. In much of Europe and Latin America, cognates for the English term marmalade are still used as a generic term for pulpy preserves of all fruits, whereas in Britain it refers to preserves of citrus peel, such as from grapefruit, orange or lemon; the name originated in the 16th century from Middle French marmelade and Portuguese, where marmelada applied to quince jam. Under the Food and Drug Regulations, marmalade is a standardized food and defined as a food of jelly-like composition that consists of at least 65% water-soluble solids; the regulations permit the use of pH adjusting agents to prevent the marmalade from dehydration, antifoaming agents to prevent blemishes on surface coatings and enable efficient filling of containers, an acid ingredient to compensate for the natural acidity of the citrus fruit used.
If pectin is added, the marmalade must contain at least 27 % of pulp, or juice of citrus fruit. Class II preservatives may be used; the Canadian Food and Drug Regulations specify that pineapple or fig marma
Ralph Dowey was a Northumberland born miner and poet. Ralph Dowey was born in October 1844 at 42 South Row, West Holywell, a small Colliery village approx. 4 miles west of Whitley Bay, which at the time was in the county of Northumberland. He was a miner by trade, like so many Geordie songwriters Songwriting was a hobby, according to Thomas Allan in his Illustrated Edition of Tyneside Songs and Readings won at least 8 prizes for his songs in the various North Eastern songwriting competitions, his works appeared in Tweed's Almanacs and the Blyth Weekly News. In 1865 he married Hannah Elizabeth Dowson and they had at least 2 children John R, Mary A, he died in Gateshead in 1909. His many works include "The Picnic Day", first published in the Blyth Weekly News in 1891 and tells of a family dressing up for a picnic in Morpeth Geordie dialect wordsThomas AllanAllan's Illustrated Edition of Tyneside Songs and Readings West Holywell Colliery Allan’s Illustrated Edition of Tyneside songs and readings
Tan Zhongyi is a Chinese chess grandmaster and former Women's World Chess Champion. Tan won the World Youth U10 Girls Chess Championship twice, in 2000 and 2001, both held in Oropesa del Mar. In 2002, she won the World Youth U12 Girls Chess Championship in Heraklion. In August–September 2008 at the Women's World Chess Championship she was knocked out in the second round by Pia Cramling by ½-1½. In 2011, she won the women's chess tournament at the 2011 Summer Universiade in Shenzen, contributing to China's team gold medal. Tan won the Women's World University Chess Championship of 2012 in Guimarães. In 2013, she won the 3rd China Women Masters Tournament in Wuxi with a score of 6.5/9 points, 1.5 ahead of runners-up Valentina Gunina and Huang Qian. In 2014 Tan won the Asian Women's Blitz Championship in Sharjah. In May 2015 she won the Chinese Women's Chess Championship in Xinghua; the following month, Tan won the 5th China Women Masters Tournament with 7/9, a full point ahead of second-placed Lei Tingjie.
In August 2015, she won the Asian Women's Rapid Championship in Al Ain. On December 1, 2015, Tan Zhongyi won the 1st China Chess Queen Match, a knockout tournament held in Taizhou, after defeating Ju Wenjun in the final in an armageddon game, she won the women's gold medal for board 4 at the 42nd Chess Olympiad in 2016. She reached the final of the Women's World Chess Championship 2017 against GM Anna Muzychuk, they finished. Tan won the two-game tie-break by drawing the first game with Black and winning the second game with White, thus became Women's World Champion; this earned her the title of Grandmaster. She lost the Women's World Champion title to Ju Wenjun at the Women's World Chess Championship Match 2018. In 2020, she won the women's top prize at the Gibraltar Masters. Tan Zhongyi plays for China Mobile Group Chongqing Company Ltd chess club in the China Chess League, she graduated from university in 2013. Chess in China Tan Zhongyi chess games at 365Chess.com Tan, Zhongyi player profile and games at Chessgames.com Sohu Profile
The great Indian Struggle, 1920–1942 is a two-part book by the Indian nationalist leader Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose that covers the 1920–1942 history of the Indian independence movement to end British imperial rule over India. Banned in India by the British colonial government, The Indian Struggle was published in the country only in 1948 after India became independent; the book analyses a period of the Indian independence struggle from the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements of the early 1920s to the Quit India and Azad Hind movements of the early 1940s. The first part of The Indian Struggle covering the years 1920–1934 was published in London in 1935 by Lawrence and Wishart. Bose had been in exile in Europe following his arrest and detention by the colonial government for his association with the revolutionary group, the Bengal Volunteers and his suspected role in several acts of violence. In Vienna, where he wrote the book, Bose had to rely on memory as he did not have access to documentary material.
When Bose arrived in Karachi in December 1934 in defiance of the colonial government's ban on his entry into India, he was arrested and the original manuscript of the book seized. Published in London the following year, the book was well received by critics; the British were quick to ban it in India and Samuel Hoare, the Secretary of State for India, justified this action to the House of Commons on the grounds that it encouraged terrorism and direct action among the masses. The second part dealing with 1935–1942 was written by Bose during the Second World War. A planned German edition of the book never came to fruition during Bose's stay in Europe during 1941–'43 while an Italian edition came out in 1942, he was assisted in writing the book by Emilie Schenkl whom he went on to marry and who bore him a daughter. The Indian Struggle contains Bose's evaluation of Gandhi's role and contribution to the independence struggle, his own vision for an independent India and his approach to politics. Bose was critical of Gandhi in the book accusing the Mahatma of being too soft and naive in his dealings with the colonial regime and who with his status quoism had become "the best policeman the Britisher had in India".
Bose predicted a left-wing revolt in the Indian National Congress that would give rise to a new political party with a "clear ideology and plan of action" that would among other things "stand for the interests of the masses", advocate the complete independence of the Indian people, advocate a federal India with a strong central government and support land reforms, state planning and a system of panchayats. On his way back to Vienna in 1935, Bose met with Benito Mussolini in Rome where he gave the dictator a copy of his book. Bose was opposed to Nehru's anti-Fascism and argued instead for a synthesis of communism and fascism in India. While a proponent of military discipline in political life and an advocate of a government by a strong party, Bose was opposed to totalitarianism rejecting the model of the Nazi party and calling for democracy both within and among political parties. Bose's ideological leaning, which he outlines in the book, has been described as'fascistic' but it was shaped by his increasing frustration with the failure to realise Indian independence and not by a sense of megalomania.
Full Text of Subhas Chandra Bose – The Indian Struggle 1920 – 42 First Part lightweight of Subhas Chandra Bose - The Indian Struggle 1920 – 34 Second Part lightweight of Subhas Chandra Bose - The Indian Struggle 1935 – 42
Beta Scorpii is a multiple star system in the southern zodiac constellation of Scorpius. It bore the traditional proper name of Acrab, though the International Astronomical Union now regards that name as applying only to the β Scorpii Aa component. Observed through a small telescope, Beta Scorpii appears as a binary star with a separation between the two components of 13.5 arcseconds and a combined apparent magnitude of 2.50. This pair, designated β¹ Scorpii and β² Scorpii, form the top branches of a hierarchy of six orbiting components. Β¹ Scorpii, the brighter of the pair, consists of two sub-components, designated β Scorpii A and β Scorpii B, orbiting at an angular separation of 0.3 arcseconds with an orbital period of 610 years. Β Scorpii A is itself a spectroscopic binary, with the two components designated β Scorpii Aa and β Scorpii Ab. They are separated by 1.42 milliarcseconds and have an orbital period of 6.82 days.β² Scorpii has two sub-components, designated β Scorpii C and β Scorpii E, orbiting at an angular separation of 0.1328 arcseconds with an orbital period of 39 years.
Β Scorpii E in turn is a spectroscopic binary with components designated β Scorpii Ea and β Scorpii Eb and having an orbital period of 10.7 days. Component β Scorpii D is the unrelated seventh magnitude star HD 520" away; some authors have referred to component Aa as D. A companion to component B, β Scorpii G, has been proposed to account for missing mass in the system, but no further evidence of its existence has been found. Β Scorpii F refers to a theorised companion to component E. β Scorpii is the star's Bayer designation. The designations of the sub-components - β Scorpii A, Aa, Ab, B, C, E, Ea and Eb - derive from the convention used by the Washington Multiplicity Catalog for multiple star systems, adopted by the International Astronomical Union. Beta Scorpii bore the traditional names Acrab, Akrab or Elacrab, all deriving from the Arabic name al-'Aqrab'the Scorpion' for the whole constellation, as well as Graffias, Italian for "the claws", a name it shared with Xi Scorpii. In 2016, the International Astronomical Union organized a Working Group on Star Names to catalogue and standardize proper names for stars.
The WGSN decided to attribute proper names to individual stars rather than entire multiple systems. It approved the name Acrab for the component β Scorpii Aa on 21 August 2016 and it is now so included in the List of IAU-approved Star Names. In Chinese, 房宿, meaning Room, refers to an asterism consisting of both of β1 Scorpii and β2 Scorpii, π Scorpii, ρ Scorpii and δ Scorpii; the Chinese name for both of β1 Scorpii and β2 Scorpii is 房宿四, "the Fourth Star of Room". USS Graffias was once a United States navy ship named after the star; the β Scorpii system is a kinematic member of the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, a group of thousands of young stars with mean age 11 million years at distance 470 light years. Analysis of β1 Scorpii as a single star derived an evolutionary age between 9 and 12 million years, but analysis of the β Scorpii system as a whole suggest an age closer to 6 million years; the two components of β Scorpii A are the most massive members of the system, 15 M☉ and 10 M☉ respectively.
The combined spectral type is B1 V. The individual spectral types cannot be measured, but are estimated to be B0.5 and B1.5. Component Aa is evolving away from the zero age main sequence and its luminosity class is estimated to be intermediate between subgiant and main sequence. Component Ab has a main sequence luminosity class, a temperature of 26,400 K, a luminosity of 7,900 L☉. Component B is over 20 times fainter than the combined component A stars and a clear spectral type has not been measured, its mass is estimated to be 8 M☉. Component C has a stellar classification of B2 V and a mass of 8 M☉, it has an effective surface temperature of 24,000 K, a radius of 2.9 R☉ and a bolometric luminosity of 3,200 L☉. Component E is determined to have a temperature of 13,000 K, radius of 2.4 R☉, luminosity of 126 L☉. It is chemically peculiar, with high abundances of strontium, it is a mercury-manganese star, but abundances of other metals are unexpectedly low. Beta Scorpii is 1.01 degree from the ecliptic and can be occulted by the Moon and rarely, by planets.
On December 9, 1906, it was occulted by Venus. The last occultation by a planet took place on 13 May 1971, by Jupiter. Beta Scorpii appears on the flag of Brazil. Beta Scorpii by Jim Kaler NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Image of Beta Scorpii
East Asian Jewish communities have existed for many years. As the majority of the Jewish people settled in the Holy Land and America, some traveled East Asia and settled. Today, due to the increasing ease and decreasing price of communications and transportation, as well as other effects of globalization, the Jewish communities in China and other places continue to grow. Jewish settlers are documented in China as early as the 7th or 8th century CE, but may have arrived during the middle of the Han Dynasty, or as early as 231 BCE. Isolated communities developed through the Tang and Song Dynasties all the way through the Qing Dynasty, most notably in the Kaifeng Jews. By the time of the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, few if any native Chinese Jews were known to have maintained the practice of their religion and culture. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, some international Jewish groups have helped Chinese Jews rediscover their heritage. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Jewish immigrants from around the world arrived with Western commercial influences in the commercial centers of Hong Kong, for a time a British colony and Harbin.
In the first half of the 20th century, thousands of Jewish refugees escaping from the 1917 Russian Revolution and the Holocaust in Europe arrived in China. However Majority of them immigrated to Israel and other western countries after communist takeover in 1949. Jews may be considered one of the undistinguished ethnic groups in China; the current number of Jews residing in the country is 2,000. The Jewish presence in South Korea began with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. At this time a large number of Jewish soldiers, including the chaplain Chaim Potok, came to the Korean Peninsula. Today the Jewish community is small and limited to the Seoul metropolitan area. There have been few Korean converts to Judaism. In North Korea however, the presence of a Jewish community remains unknown; the first confirmed contacts between the Japanese and people of Jewish ancestry began during the Age of Discovery with the arrival of European travelers and merchants. However it wasn't until 1853, with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry following the Convention of Kanagawa ending Japan's "closed-door" foreign policy that Jewish families began to settle in Japan.
The first recorded Jewish settlers arrived at Yokohama in 1861 establishing a diverse community consisting of 50 families as well as the building of the first synagogue in Japan. During World War II, Japan was regarded as a safe refuge from the Holocaust, despite being a part of the Axis and an ally of Germany. During World War II, Jews trying to escape Poland could not pass the blockades near the Soviet Union and the Mediterranean Sea and were forced to go through the neutral country of Lithuania. Presently, there are several hundred Jewish families living in Tokyo, a small number of Jewish families in Kobe. A small number of Jewish expatriates of other countries live throughout Japan, for business, research, a gap year, or a variety of other purposes. There are rarely Jewish members of the United States armed forces serving on Okinawa and in the other American military bases throughout Japan. There are 4,000 Jews residing in Japan. Kaifeng Jews Shanghai Ghetto History of Jews in Kobe Jewish settlement in Imperial Japan Fugu Plan History of the Jews in China History of the Jews in Japan Jewish Autonomous Oblast List of Asian Jews