Marshall McLuhan

Herbert Marshall McLuhan was a Canadian philosopher. His work is one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory. Born in Edmonton, Alberta, McLuhan studied at the University of Manitoba and the University of Cambridge, he began his teaching career as a professor of English at several universities in the US and Canada before moving to the University of Toronto in 1946, where he remained for the rest of his life. McLuhan coined the expression "the medium is the message" and the term global village, predicted the World Wide Web 30 years before it was invented, he was a fixture in media discourse in the late 1960s, though his influence began to wane in the early 1970s. In the years after his death, he continued to be a controversial figure in academic circles. With the arrival of the Internet and the World Wide Web, interest was renewed in his work and perspective. McLuhan was born on July 21, 1911, in Edmonton, Alberta, to Elsie Naomi and Herbert Ernest McLuhan, both born in Canada, his brother Maurice was born two years later.

"Marshall" was his maternal grandmother's surname. His mother was a Baptist school teacher who became an actress; that business failed when World War I broke out, McLuhan's father enlisted in the Canadian Army. After a year of service, he remained in Canada, away from the front lines. After his discharge from the army in 1915, the McLuhan family moved to Winnipeg, where Marshall grew up and went to school, attending Kelvin Technical School before enrolling in the University of Manitoba in 1928. At Manitoba, McLuhan explored his conflicted relationship with religion and turned to literature to "gratify his soul's hunger for truth and beauty," referring to this stage as agnosticism. After studying for one year as an engineering student, he changed majors and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree, winning a University Gold Medal in Arts and Sciences, he took a Master of Arts degree in English from the University of Manitoba in 1934. He had long desired to pursue graduate studies in England and was accepted to the University of Cambridge, having failed to secure a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford.

He had earned Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees at Manitoba, but Cambridge required him to enrol as an undergraduate "affiliated" student, with one year's credit towards a three-year bachelor's degree, before entering any doctoral studies. He entered Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in the autumn of 1934, where he studied under I. A. Richards and F. R. Leavis and was influenced by New Criticism. Upon reflection years afterward, he credited the faculty there with influencing the direction of his work because of their emphasis on the training of perception and such concepts as Richards' notion of feedforward; these studies formed an important precursor to his ideas on technological forms. He received the required bachelor's degree from Cambridge in 1936 and entered their graduate program, he returned from England to take a job as a teaching assistant at the University of Wisconsin–Madison that he held for the 1936–37 academic year, being unable to find a suitable job in Canada. While studying the trivium at Cambridge, he took the first steps toward his eventual conversion to Catholicism in 1937, founded on his reading of G. K. Chesterton.

In 1935, he wrote to his mother: "ad I not encountered Chesterton, I would have remained agnostic for many years at least." At the end of March 1937, McLuhan completed what was a slow but total conversion process, when he was formally received into the Catholic Church. After consulting a minister, his father accepted the decision to convert, his mother, felt that his conversion would hurt his career and was inconsolable. McLuhan was devout throughout his life, he had a lifelong interest in the number three and sometimes said that the Virgin Mary provided intellectual guidance for him. For the rest of his career, he taught in Catholic institutions of higher education. From 1937 to 1944, he taught English at Saint Louis University. There he taught courses on Shakespeare and tutored and befriended Walter J. Ong, who went on to write his doctoral dissertation on a topic that McLuhan had called to his attention, who became a well-known authority on communication and technology. McLuhan met Corinne Lewis in St. Louis, a teacher and aspiring actress from Fort Worth and they were married on August 4, 1939.

They spent 1939–40 in Cambridge, where he completed his master's degree and began to work on his doctoral dissertation on Thomas Nashe and the verbal arts. While the McLuhans were in England, war had broken out in Europe. For this reason, he obtained permission to complete and submit his dissertation from the United States, without having to return to Cambridge for an oral defence. In 1940, the McLuhans returned to Saint Louis University, where he continued teaching and they started a family, he was awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree in December 1943. He next taught at Assumption College in Windsor, from 1944 to 1946 moved to Toronto in 1946 where he joined the faculty of St. Michael's College, a Catholic college of the University of Toronto. Hugh Kenner was one of his students and Canadian economist and communications scholar Harold Innis was a university colleague who had a strong influence on his work. McLuhan wrote in 1964: "I am pleased to think of my own book The Gutenberg Galaxy as a footnote to the observations of Innis on the subject of the psychic and social consequences, first of writing of printing."In the early 1950s, McLuhan began

Operation Vlašić

Operation Vlašić was a military offensive undertaken by the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War, during which it captured Mount Vlašić in central Bosnia, under the control of the Army of Republika Srpska until then. The battle took place from March 20 to 24, 1995; the commander of the forces of the Army of BiH was General Mehmed Alagić. 100 km2 of territory was liberated in this action, among, a relay. Just before the start of the Bosnian war, the Vlasic plateau was under the control of the Yugoslav People's Army, which converted to Army of Republika Srpska. At the beginning of the war, Galica, Gostilj and Komar were captured, while the road communications TravnikDonji Vakuf and Travnik – Skender Vakuf were cut off; the first open attack occurred on May 1, 1992 on the Paljenik peak, defended by the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but defense failed. Subsequently, Bosnian forces began to form defense lines to prevent further penetration by Serb forces.

Combat operations were managed by Travnik Municipal Defense Headquarters. In September 1992, the first liberation action was carried out from Komar to Vučija glava, when the defense lines were moved by 4 kilometers. At that time, Vlasic became the place from which the Republika Srpska Army deported exiles daily from Bosnian Frontier. In November 1992, the VRS occupied Karaula; the following year, the Bosniak-Croat war lasted, but with the signing of the Washington Agreement it was discontinued, in March 1994 the transport of larger forces along VRS lines was made possible. At the end of March, Bosnian army took over Kvrkuša and Rustovi. For the purposes of the broader liberation, 7th Corps of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded, headquartered in Travnik; the first battle of the 7th Corps took place on April 24, when the VRS made an attack on the Vlasic plateau and occupied Meokrnje and Glavica. Still, in the counterattack, the 7th Corps forces regained lost ground; the liberation operations continued in May, when the objects of Bjeljik, Crni vrh and the villages of Fonjige, Pobrđani, Šahmani, Brdo and Korenići were taken, in July the location of Srneća brda was liberated.

At the end of the summer of 1994, preparations began for the liberation of Vlasic. Material resources were raised for this purpose and a large number of people were hired. In addition to supplying basic resources, several log cabins were built for 4,000 fighters, as settlements were far away and operations planned for the winter of 1995 were supposed to occur during low temperatures. 3,000 white camouflage uniforms were sewn in Travnik for the snow camouflage. A four-month ceasefire with the VRS was signed in late 1994, in favor of the liberation action, when the 7th Corps Command used that time to organize units and to provide additional training. Accordingly, a training plan called "Bura 95" was launched, which rehearsed new and specific methods of performing the action. After receiving the directive on the conduct of the liberation operation by the General Staff of the ARBiH, the 7th Corps Command began to prepare the operation. After the inspection of the units of the 7th Corps on February 7, 1995 in Travnik, the surrender of war flags, the 7th Corps was ready for the start of the liberation action.

War reports said the VRS did not respect the signed ceasefire in the area of responsibility of the 5th Corps near Bihać. The 7th Corps commander, General Mehmed Alagić emphasized that any attack on the 5th Corps was an attack on the 7th Corps. In early 1995, the Bosnian Serbs did not respect the ceasefire in the area of responsibility of the 7th Corps, also. Travnik and its wider surroundings were shelled daily. At that time, the 7th Corps trained its units with a focus on preparing units planned for the continuation of the war as liberation units, notably the 17th Knights, the 705th Glorious, the 727th Glorious Brigades; the operation plan for the liberation of Vlasic, code-named "Range 95", was completed in February. The plan of the operation was to attack the VRS on a broader front the entire area of responsibility of the 7th Corps on the Vlasic plateau, break out of the Smet – GostiljVitovlje – Koric communication; the operation was scheduled to begin on February 20, 1995, involved 10 brigades, 9 tanks and transporters, 25 howitzers and cannons, 191 mortars and 24 480 troops.

The duration of the operation was 5 days. On the other hand, the defense of Vlasic consisted of 3 VRS brigades with about 5,000 soldiers, 9 tanks, 15 howitzers and cannons and 76 mortars. Although the start of the operation was planned for February 20, 1995, due to bad weather, the operation was delayed for February 24; the start of the operation was marked by the undertaking of the Special Forces of the 712th and 737th Brigades, when two groups of about 400 fighters descended overnight on a 12-meter cliff on the Galica plateau and surprised the enemy in the morning of February 24, killing 62 VRS members. However, in the first days, the main attack failed due to poor implementation during the installation of the bridge defenses, used by the aggressor to pull PATs whose operations caused losses to the 705th ARBiH Brigade. With that, the plan to liberate Vlasic within five days failed. Seeing that the Vlasic liberation plan had failed, the 7th Corps Command made additional preparations to conduct a new operation called "Range 1".

On that occasion, VRS radios were eavesdropped, which made the implementation of the action much easier. The failure analysis of February 24 was approached and it was concluded that the main reason for the absence o

HMS Splendid (S106)

HMS Splendid was a Royal Navy nuclear-powered fleet submarine of the Swiftsure class. From her launch in 1979 she took part in many conflicts involving British forces around the globe and was decommissioned in 2004. HMS Splendid was ordered on 26 May 1976 as the last submarine of the Swiftsure class; the submarine was laid down at Vickers Shipbuilding Groups Barrow-in-Furness shipyard on 23 November 1977 and was launched on 5 October 1979 by Lady Eberle, wife of Admiral Sir James Eberle Commander-in-Chief Fleet. Splendid commissioned on 21 March 1981 under the command of Commander R. C. Lane-Nott, her first major conflict came in 1982 during the Falklands War when Argentinian forces invaded the British Falkland Islands. Splendid was one of the first submarines to reach the islands, arriving mid-April, after sailing from Faslane. Unlike HMS Conqueror, Splendid did not directly engage Argentinian forces, however she shadowed the Argentine aircraft carrier 25 de Mayo, with Splendid running within a mile outside of the Argentinian territorial line, 12 miles off its Atlantic coast.

The captain of Splendid made the bold and disputable claim, that running on the edge of the exclusion zone around the Falklands, declared by the UK government, he had the right in international law and approval from the British PM, to fire at 25 de Mayo, a couple of miles away within Argentine waters, would have fired MK 8 torpedoes at 25 de Mayo, if he had confirmed his precise position. But just at the moment, he lost sight through the periscope of the carrier and was not able to regain contact; the Naval Commander of the task force, Admiral Sandy Woodward, does not appear to be clear, that Splendid had the right to fire, but says he established, against his prior view, that Splendid had orders to engage and approval of the PM. Splendid did however provide valuable reconnaissance to the British Task Force on Argentine aircraft movements. Splendid's presence along with Conqueror restricted the freedom of action of the Argentine Navy, which spent most of the war confined to port. In November 1998, the Royal Navy attained initial operational capability for the American-built Tomahawk cruise missile with the missile's deployment aboard Splendid.

In March 1999, Splendid fired Tomahawks in battle against Serbian targets during the Kosovo War, becoming the first British submarine in the conflict to do so. She again fired these weapons against Iraqi targets in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In July 2003 Splendid returned to her home at Faslane Naval Base on the River Clyde in Scotland; the youngest of the Swiftsure vessels, she was decommissioned in HMNB Devonport, Plymouth in 2004. Commander Burke was awarded the OBE for his leadership of HMS Splendid in the Gulf. HMS Splendid was present, along with the US Navy submarines USS Memphis and USS Toledo at the Russian war games during which the Russian submarine Kursk exploded and sank, resulting in the loss of that submarine and all 118 sailors and officers on board. Despite the conclusions of independent forensic inquiries and the eventual corroborating admission by the Russian Navy that the explosion was triggered by a faulty torpedo on board the Kursk, various conspiracy theories posit that Kursk was sunk by one of the US or British submarines.

This may stem from the Russian Navy's initial attempts to shunt away criticism of its failed efforts to rescue the surviving crew members from the ocean floor and of the poor condition of its own equipment, found to be the cause of both the sinking and the failure of the Russian rescue attempts. In the days after the explosion, Russia suggested that the cause of the disaster was a collision with one of the US or British submarines present. Though the accusation proved to be unfounded, conspiracy theorists have picked up on and elaborated it in various directions over time. "Gulf War honours for servicemen". BBC News. 7 April 2004. Retrieved 10 June 2015