Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content and effects of various media. Media studies may draw on traditions from both the social sciences and the humanities, but from its core disciplines of mass communication, communication sciences, communication studies. Researchers may develop and employ theories and methods from disciplines including cultural studies, philosophy, literary theory, political science, political economy, sociology, social theory, art history and criticism, film theory, information theory. For a history of the field, see History of media studies; the first Media Studies M. A. program in the U. S. was introduced by John Culkin at The New School in 1975, which has since graduated more than 2,000 students. Culkin was responsible for bringing Marshall McLuhan to Fordham in 1968 and subsequently founded the Center for Understanding Media, which became the New School program. Media is studied as a broad subject in most states in Australia, with the state of Victoria being world leaders in curriculum development.
Media studies in Australia was first developed as an area of study in Victorian universities in the early 1960s, in secondary schools in the mid 1960s. Today all Australian universities teach media studies. According to the Government of Australia's "Excellence in Research for Australia" report, the leading universities in the country for media studies are Monash University, QUT, RMIT, University of Melbourne, University of Queensland and UTS. In secondary schools, an early film studies course first began being taught as part of the Victorian junior secondary curriculum during the mid 1960s. And, by the early 1970s, an expanded media studies course was being taught; the course became part of the senior secondary curriculum in the 1980s. It has since become, continues to be, a strong component of the VCE. Notable figures in the development of the Victorian secondary school curriculum were the long time Rusden College media teacher Peter Greenaway, Trevor Barr and John Murray. Today, Australian states and territories that teach media studies at a secondary level are Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia.
Media studies does not appear to be taught in the state of New South Wales at a secondary level. In Victoria, the VCE media studies course is structured as: Unit 1 - Representation, Technologies of Representation, New Media. Media studies form a major part of the primary and junior secondary curriculum, includes areas such as photography, print media and television. Victoria hosts the peak media teaching body known as ATOM which publishes Metro and Screen Education magazines. In Canada, media studies and communication studies are incorporated in the same departments and cover a wide range of approaches. Over time, research developed to employ theories and methods from cultural studies, political economy, gender and race theory, rhetoric, film theory and anthropology. Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan are famous Canadian scholars for their contributions to the fields of media ecology and political economy in the 20th century, they were both important members of the Toronto School of Communication at the time.
More the School of Montreal and its founder James R. Taylor contributed to the field of organizational communication by focusing on the ontological processes of organizations. Carleton University and the University of Western Ontario, 1945 and 1946 prospectively, created Journalism specific programs or schools. A Journalism specific program was created at Ryerson in 1950; the first communication programs in Canada were started at Concordia Universities. The Radio and Television Arts program at Ryerson were started in the 1950s, while the Film, Media Studies/Media Arts, Photography programs originated from programs started in the 1950s; the Communication studies department at Concordia was created in the late 1960s. Ryerson's Radio and Television, Film and Photography programs were renowned by the mid 1970s, its programs were being copied by other colleges and universities nationally and Internationally. Today, most universities offer undergraduate degrees in Media and Communication Studies, many Canadian scholars contribute to the field, among which: Brian Massumi, Kim Sawchuk, Carrie Rentschler, François Cooren.
In his book “Understanding Media, The Extensions of Man”, media theorist Marshall McLuhan suggested that "the medium is the message", that all human artefacts and technologies are media. His book introduced the usage of terms such as “media” into our language along with other precepts, among them “global village” and “Age of Information”. A medium is anything that mediates our interaction with other humans. Given this perspective, media study is not restricted to just media of communications but all forms of te
The effect of radiation from mobile phones and other wireless electronic devices on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. As of 2015, there were 7.4 billion phone subscriptions worldwide, though the actual number of users is lower as many users own more than one phone. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. In response to public concern, the World Health Organization established the International EMF Project in 1996 to assess the scientific evidence of possible health effects of EMF in the frequency range from 0 to 300 GHz, they have stated that although extensive research has been conducted into possible health effects of exposure to many parts of the frequency spectrum, all reviews conducted so far have indicated that, as long as exposures are below the limits recommended in the ICNIRP EMF guidelines, which cover the full frequency range from 0–300 GHz, such exposures do not produce any known adverse health effect.
The WHO states that "A large number of studies have been performed over the last two decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk. To date, no adverse health effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use." Stronger or more frequent exposures to EMF can be unhealthy, in fact serve as the basis for electromagnetic weaponry. International guidelines on exposure levels to microwave frequency EMFs such as ICNIRP limit the power levels of wireless devices and it is uncommon for wireless devices to exceed the guidelines; these guidelines only take into account thermal effects, as nonthermal effects have not been conclusively demonstrated. The official stance of the British Health Protection Agency is that "here is no consistent evidence to date that WiFi and WLANs adversely affect the health of the general population", but that "... it is a sensible precautionary approach... to keep the situation under ongoing review...". In a 2018 statement, the FDA said that "the current safety limits are set to include a 50-fold safety margin from observed effects of Radio-frequency energy exposure".
In 2011, International Agency for Research on Cancer, an agency of the World Health Organization, classified wireless radiation as Group 2B – carcinogenic. That means that there "could be some risk" of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of wireless devices needs to be conducted. A mobile phone connects to the telephone network by radio waves exchanged with a local antenna and automated transceiver called a cellular base station; the service area served by each provider is divided into small geographical areas called cells, all the phones in a cell communicate with that cell's antenna. Both the phone and the tower have radio transmitters. Since in a cellular network the same radio channels are reused every few cells, cellular networks use low power transmitters to avoid radio waves from one cell spilling over and interfering with a nearby cell using the same frequencies. Mobile phones are limited to an equivalent isotropic radiated power output of 3 watts, the network continuously adjusts the phone transmitter to the lowest power consistent with good signal quality, reducing it to as low as one milliwatt when near the cell tower.
Tower channel transmitters have an EIRP power output of around 50 watts. When it is not being used, unless it is turned off, a mobile phone periodically emits radio signals on its control channel, to keep contact with its cell tower and for functions like handing off the phone to another tower if the user crosses into another cell; when the user is making a call, the phone transmits a signal on a second channel which carries the user's voice. Existing 2G, 3G, 4G networks use frequencies in the UHF or low microwave bands, 600 MHz to 3.5 GHz. Many household wireless devices such as WiFi networks, garage door openers, baby monitors use other frequencies in this same frequency range. Radio waves decrease in intensity by the inverse square of distance as they spread out from a transmitting antenna. So the phone transmitter, held close to the user's face when talking, is a much greater source of human exposure than the tower transmitter, at least hundreds of metres away from the user. A user can reduce their exposure by using a headset and keeping the phone itself further away from their body.
Next generation 5G cellular networks, which began deploying in 2019, use higher frequencies in or near the millimetre wave band, 24 to 52 GHz. Millimetre waves are absorbed by atmospheric gases so 5G networks will use smaller cells than previous cellular networks, about the size of a city block. Instead of a cell tower, each cell will use an array of multiple small antennas mounted on existing buildings and utility poles. In general, millimetre waves penetrate less into biological tissue than microwaves, are absorbed within the first centimetre of the body surface; the HPA says that due to the mobile phone's adaptive power ability, a DECT cordless phone's radiation could exceed the radiation of a mobile phone. The HPA explains that while the DECT cordless phone's radiation has an average output power of 10 mW, it is in the form of 100 bursts per second of 250 mW, a strength comparable to some mobile phones. Most wireless LAN equipment is designed to work within predefined standards. Wireless access points are often close to people, but the drop off in power over distance is fast, following the inverse-square law.
The Royal Air Force Waddington Voluntary Band is the largest of the RAF's eight voluntary bands. It has been based at RAF Waddington for a number of years although it was based at RAF Scampton; the band has a membership of 60 musicians. In the history of Voluntary Bands, membership been open to only serving members of the RAF who would play as a secondary duty. Modern Voluntary Bands have a wide range of members including serving members as well as retired service personnel, local civilians and many dependents; the band welcomes enquiries from all members of the public and RAF looking for more information on joining. In addition, the base has a separate voluntary pipe band, RAF Waddington Pipes and Drums, which won the 2009 RAF Pipe Band Championships; the main band is a Military Band, although this is style of ensemble now more referred to as a concert or wind band. Some of the larger works performed by the band include The Light Cavalry Overture and Crown Imperial; the band enjoys performing a number of selections including show music and jazz standards.
All these are included in regular concerts around the county and wider. Other ensembles the band have available to provide for engagements are a Woodwind Quintet, Clarinet Quartet and a Brass Quintet; these smaller ensembles contained within the organisation play a vital role by attending smaller functions that. The Saxophone Ensemble have had the privilege of playing in the British embassy in Washington D. C. and other functions in the US capitol. The band performs at many events annually as well as a large number of dinner nights and concerts around the country. Regular events where the band can be seen include the Freedom of Lincoln Parade, the Lincolnshire Festival of Remembrance, the RAF Conningsby Battle of Britain Parade and the RAF Waddington International Airshow Under the leadership of Bandmaster David Jackson, the band has produced a number of available recordings - Eye in the Sky and Wings Over Lincoln; these include a selection of popular music ranging from James Bond themes to traditional military marches.