Marshmallow is a type of confectionery, made from sugar and gelatin whipped to a squishy consistency. It is used as a filling in baking, or molded into shapes and coated with corn starch; this is the modern version of a medicinal confection made from Althaea officinalis, the marshmallow plant. The word "marshmallow" comes from the mallow plant species, a herb native to parts of Europe, North Africa, Asia which grows in marshes and other damp areas; the plant's stem and leaves are fleshy and its white flower has five petals. It is not known when marshmallows were invented, but their history goes back as early as 2000 BC. Ancient Egyptians were said to be the first to make them, eating them was a privilege reserved for gods and for royalty, who used the root of the plant to soothe coughs and sore throats, to heal wounds; the first marshmallows were prepared by boiling pieces of root pulp with honey until thick. Once thickened, the mixture was strained and used as intended. Whether used for candy or medicine, the manufacture of marshmallows was limited to a small scale.
In the early to mid-1800s, the marshmallow had made its way to France where confectioners augmented the plant's traditional medicinal value with indulgent ingredients utilized by the Egyptians. Owners of small candy stores would whip the sap from the mallow root into a fluffy candy mold; this candy was called Pâte de Guimauve. It was a spongy-soft dessert made from whipping dried marshmallow roots with sugar and egg whites, it was sold in bar form as a lozenge. Drying and preparing of the marshmallow took one to two days before the final product could be produced. In the late 1800s, candy makers started looking for a new process, discovered the starch mogul system, in which trays of modified corn starch had a mold pushed down in them to create cavities within the starch; the cavities were filled with the whipped marshmallow sap mixture, allowed to cool or harden. At the same time, candy makers began to replace the mallow root with gelatin which created a stable form of marshmallow. By the early 1900s, thanks to the starch mogul system, marshmallows were introduced to the United States and available for mass consumption.
They were sold in tins as penny candy, were soon used in a variety of food recipes like banana fluff, lime mallow sponge, tutti frutti. In 1956, Alex Doumak patented the extrusion process which involved running marshmallow ingredients through tubes; the tubes created a long rope of marshmallow mixture, were set out to cool. The ingredients are cut into equal pieces, packaged. Modern marshmallow manufacturing is automated, has been since the early 1950s when the extrusion process was first developed. Numerous improvements and advancements allow for production of thousands of pounds of marshmallow a day. Today, the marshmallow consists of four ingredients: sugar, air, a whipping agent; the type of sugar and whipping agent varies depending on desired characteristics. Each ingredient plays a specific role in the final product. Confectioners in early 19th century France pioneered the innovation of whipping up the marshmallow sap and sweetening it to make a confection similar to modern marshmallow; the confection was made locally by the owners of small sweet shops.
They would extract the sap from the mallow plant's root, whip it themselves. The candy was popular, but its manufacture was labour-intensive. In the late 19th century, French manufacturers thought of using egg whites or gelatin, combined with modified corn starch, to create the chewy base; this avoided the labour-intensive extraction process, but it did require industrial methods to combine the gelatin and corn starch in the right way. Another milestone in the production of marshmallows was the development of the extrusion process by the Greek American confectioner Alex Doumak in the late 1940s. In this process, which Doumak patented in 1956, marshmallow mixture is pumped through extrusion heads with numerous ports aligned next to each other which form continuous "ropes" of marshmallow; this invention allowed marshmallows to be manufactured in a automated way, gives us the familiar cylindrical shape of today's marshmallow. To make marshmallows in large quantities, industrial confectioners mix water and corn syrup in massive kettles which are heated to a precise temperature and cooked for a precise time.
This mixture is pumped to another kettle to cool. Re-hydrated gelatin is added and blended in, once the mixture has cooled enough to not denature the gelatin. To give the marshmallow its fluffiness, it is pumped through a blender. At this point, it still needs to be cooled further, so it will hold its shape when extruded, it is pumped through a heat exchanger prior to being pumped through the extrusion heads and onto a wide conveyor belt; the conveyor belt is coated in corn starch and more corn starch is dusted onto the top of the marshmallow extrusion as it passes down the conveyor. A large knife the width of the conveyor is located at the end of this conveyor table that chops the extrusion into the size marshmallow desired; the pieces will be tumbled in corn starch in a large drum, allowing the marshmallow to form its familiar skin and to allow pieces that did not get cut all the way to break apart. Marshmallows, like most candies, are sweetened with sucrose, they are prepared by the aeration of mixtures of sucrose and proteins to a final density of about 0.5 g/ml.
The molecular structure of marshmallows is a sugar solution blended with stabilizing structure agents such as gelatin, xanthan gum, or egg whites. The aforementioned structural components prevents the air fr
Bert the Conqueror is an American reality television series which premiered on the Travel Channel on June 16, 2010. In the show, American stand-up comedian Bert Kreischer travels across the United States to amusement parks and other entertainment venues to experience and promote various roller coasters, water rides, unusual sports. On September 24, 2010, Bert the Conqueror was renewed for a second season; the renewal was revealed on the Bert the Conqueror Facebook page the next day. The second season began April 3, 2011. On the April 29, 2015 episode of his podcast, Kreischer mentioned that "Bert the Conqueror" would begin filming new episodes in the coming months. On May 9, 2016, it was announced the show would return for a third season, which premiered on June 7, 2016; the first season consisted of 10 episodes, with Kreischer visiting a different U. S. state in each episode. In the premiere of the second season, he visited an amusement park in Connecticut went on to Stowe, Vermont to ride a concrete luge course.
The conclusion was the Wife Carrying Championship in Camden, Maine, in which he carried his wife across the obstacle course. The second season had Kreischer visiting locations outside of the United States in Alberta and Cancun, Mexico. Interview with Bert Kreischer about Bert the Conqueror from CoasterRadio.com
Nicholas Ball PC, KC was Irish barrister and Liberal politician. He was the eldest son of John Ball, a silk mercer of Dublin, where he lived for many years at No 75, St Stephen's Green. Ball was called to the bar in 1814 and became a King's Counsel in 1830. Six years he was nominated a and was admitted additionally a bencher of King's Inns. In the same year he entered the British House of Commons for Clonmel. Ball served as Attorney-General for Ireland during Lord Melbourne's second government from 11 July 1838 to 23 February 1839, having been sworn off the Privy Council of Ireland on taking office; when he subsequently was appointed a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, he was only the second Roman Catholic since the reign of King James II of England to have held this post. On 30 October 1817, he married Jane Sherlock, daughter of Thomas Sherlock and his wife Jane Mansfield, of Butlerstown, Waterford, their daughter, Jane Isabella, married Henry Edward Doyle, director of the National Gallery of Ireland, uncle of author Arthur Conan Doyle.
Ball's son, was a Liberal politician and a noted naturalist. Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Vol. I 1832-1885, edited by M. Stenton Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland, 1801-1922, edited by B. M. Walker Nicholas Ball Obituary, Gentleman's Magazine, March 1865 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Nicholas Ball
Nassarius fraterculus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Nassariidae, the Nassa mud snails or dog whelks. The shell grows to a length of 10 mm; this marine species occurs off China and Japan. Cernohorsky W. O.. Systematics of the family Nassariidae. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 14: 1-356. Turgeon, D.. F.. E.. V.. G.. G.. M.. J.. F. E.. G.. D.. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 26. American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD. ISBN 1-888569-01-8. IX, 526 + cd-rom pp. page: 97 "Nassarius fraterculus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019
Suzanne Lacy is an American artist and writer, professor at the USC Roski School of Art and Design. She has worked in a variety of media, including installation, performance, public art and art books, in which she focuses on "social themes and urban issues." She served in the education cabinet of Jerry Brown mayor of Oakland, as arts commissioner for the city. She designed multiple educational programs beginning with her role as performance faculty at The Feminist Studio Workshop at The Woman's Building in Los Angeles. Lacy has been involved with feminism since the late 1960s, she attended California State University located in Fresno in 1969, taking up graduate studies in psychology. At this university and fellow graduate student Faith Wilding established the first feminist consciousness-raising group on campus; this lead up to her attendance in Judy Chicago's Feminist Art Program during the Fall of 1970. The 1970s became a period where Suzanne Lacy continued to explore identities, women's bodies, social conditions.
The 1976 renovation of the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, California sparked Lacy's performance art piece, Inevitable Associations. The marketing surrounding the old hotel's renovations paralleled the hotel to an old woman. Photographs showing the hotels' original structure stating "There May Be Life in the Old Girl Yet" forced Lacy to question the ways in which our society views older women. Throughout her career one can See Lacy's awareness and desire to rebuttal the invisibility of aging women (see performances Whisper, the Waves, the Wind and Crystal Quilt; the performance of Inevitable Associations took place over a span of two days in the lobby of the Biltmore Hotel. The first day of the performance featured a public makeover of Lacy, it took nearly three hours for a makeup artist to publicly turn Lacy into an old woman. As the makeover was occurring, collaborators passed out flyers and literature on the hotel renovation as well as information about cosmetic surgery. Throughout the performance old women dressed in all black began to enter the lobby and take seats on the opposite side of Lacy.
This went nearly unnoticed until the number of elderly women had grown so large that their presence became undeniable to all of those in the lobby. Once Lacy's makeover was complete the mass of older women silently dressed Lacy in black clothes; the second day of the performance featured three elderly women participants who sat in red chairs in the lobby and told stories about their lives after the age of 60 and the effects of aging to passerby's and any audience that formed. Lacy's goal throughout the performance was to bring awareness to the invisibility women must struggle with as they age and no longer fit into society's standards of beauty. Inevitable Associations was a crucial point in Lacy's career as it was the first time in which Lacy took her performance to the public streets. In 1977, Lacy and collaborator Leslie Labowitz combined performance art with activism in Three Weeks in May; the event included a performance piece on the steps of Los Angeles City Hall and self-defense classes for women in an attempt to highlight and curb sexual violence against women.
The artists updated a map with reports from the Los Angeles Police Department, printing the word "rape" on spots on a map of the greater Los Angeles Area. Lacy and Labowitz teamed up with Bia Lowe, other artists, in 1977 to create, In Mourning and In Rage, a large-scale public protest performance, it had been designed to challenge media coverage that sensationalized a rash of murders of women by the so-called Hillside Strangler. The performance began when a group of exceptionally tall women, made taller by towering black headpieces, arrived at City Hall in a hearse, followed by a caravan of cars filled with women in black; the Performers debarked and formed a circle in front of the steps of City Hall, beneath a banner that read, ”In memory of our sisters, women fight back.” The artist's designed the performance and imagery to captivate the interest of television news. Participants from the Woman’s Building, the Rape Hotline Alliance, City Council joined with the feminist community and families of the victims in creating a public ritual of rage as well as grief.
Lacy and Labowitz founded ARIADNE: A Social Art Network, a collaborative group to create community-based artwork and educational opportunities. In the mid-seventies, Lacy curated the first exhibition of women's performance art at Womanspace Gallery at The Woman's Building. In 1981, she collaborated with Susan Hiller to curate the exhibition We'll Think of a Title When We Meet: Women Performance Artists from London and Los Angeles at Franklin Furnace, a well-known alternative arts venue founded in 1976 by Martha Wilson. Lacy produced many performances in various sites around the world focusing on race and gender equity. During the first two decades of the 2000s, she reworked earlier performances, including WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution, based upon the objectives. In 2012, she re-created the 1977 performance for the Getty Pacific Standard Time Performance Festival. Three Weeks in January, was an anti-rape performance based on her landmark 1977 project. Whisper, the Waves, the Wind, created with Sharon Allen in 1984, was the culmination of the Whisper Project, a yearlong series of events that highlighte
Liu Kuo-tsai was a Taiwanese politician. Elected to the Legislative Yuan in 1969, he was named deputy speaker in 1972. In 1988, he became the acting President of the Legislative Yuan; the interim designation was removed early next year and Liu stepped down from the position in 1990. Born in Miaoli, Taiwan in 1911, Liu graduated from Kyoto Imperial University before studying law at Kwansei Gakuin University, both in Japan, he was first elected to the Legislative Yuan in 1969. On 5 May 1972, Liu was sworn in as Vice President of the Legislative Yuan. Ni Wen-ya was elected speaker, he served three terms in that position before running for President of the Legislative Yuan in 1989. By 1990, Liu was a senior adviser to President Lee Teng-hui and in October, became a founding member of the National Unification Council