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In Greek mythology, the satyr Marsyas is a central figure in two stories involving music: in one, he picked up the double oboe, abandoned by Athena and played it. In antiquity, literary sources emphasise the hubris of Marsyas and the justice of his punishment. In one strand of modern comparative mythography, the domination of Marsyas by Apollo is regarded as an example of myth that recapitulates a supposed supplanting by the Olympian pantheon of an earlier "Pelasgian" religion of chthonic heroic ancestors and nature spirits. Marsyas was a devoté of the ancient Mother Goddess Rhea/Cybele, his episodes are situated by the mythographers in Celaenae, in Phrygia, at the main source of the Meander; when a genealogy was applied to him, Marsyas was the son of Oeagrus, or of Hyagnis. Olympus was, said to be Marsyas' son or pupil. Marsyas was an expert player on the double-piped double reed instrument known as the aulos; the dithyrambic poet Melanippides of Melos embellished the story in his dithyramb Marsyas, claiming that the goddess Athena, said to have invented the aulos, once looked in the mirror while she was playing it and saw how blowing into it puffed up her cheeks and made her look silly, so she threw the aulos away and cursed it so that whoever picked it up would meet an awful death.

Marsyas picked up the aulos and was killed by Apollo for his hubris. The fifth-century BC poet Telestes doubted that virginal Athena could have been motivated by such vanity; some account informs about the curse placed on the bearer of the flute, i.e. However, Melanippides's story became accepted as canonical and the Athenian sculptor Myron created a group of bronze sculptures based on it, installed before the western front of the Parthenon in around 440 BC. In the second century AD, the travel writer Pausanias saw this set of sculptures and described it as "a statue of Athena striking Marsyas the Silenos for taking up the flutes that the goddess wished to be cast away for good." In the contest between Apollo and Marsyas, judged by the Muses or the Nysean nymphs the terms stated that the winner could treat the defeated party any way he wanted. Marsyas played his flute, putting everyone there into a frenzy, they started dancing wildly; when it was Apollo's turn, he played his lyre so beautifully that everyone was still and had tears in their eyes.

There are several versions of the contest. This was something. According to Diodorus Siculus, Marsyas was defeated when Apollo added his voice to the sound of the lyre. Marsyas protested. However, Apollo replied that when Marsyas blew into the pipes, he was doing the same thing himself; the Nysean nymphs supported Apollo's claim. Yet another version states that Marsyas played the flute out of tune, hence accepted his defeat. Out of shame, he assigned to himself the penalty of being skinned for a winesack, he was flayed alive in a cave near Celaenae for his hubris to challenge a god. Apollo nailed Marsyas' skin to a pine tree, near Lake Aulocrene, which Strabo noted was full of the reeds from which the pipes were fashioned. Diodorus Siculus felt that Apollo must have repented this "excessive" deed, said that he had laid aside his lyre for a while, but Karl Kerenyi observes of the flaying of Marsyas' "shaggy hide: a penalty which will not seem cruel if one assumes that Marsyas' animal guise was a masquerade."

Classical Greeks were unaware of such shamanistic overtones, the Flaying of Marsyas became a theme for painting and sculpture. His brothers, nymphs and goddesses mourned his death, their tears, according to Ovid's Metamorphoses, were the source of the river Marsyas in Phrygia, which joins the Meander near Celaenae, where Herodotus reported that the flayed skin of Marsyas was still to be seen, Ptolemy Hephaestion recorded a "festival of Apollo, where the skins of all those victims one has flayed are offered to the god." Plato was of the opinion. Ovid touches upon the theme of Marsyas twice briefly telling the tale in Metamorphoses vi.383–400, where he concentrates on the tears shed into the river Marsyas, making an allusion in Fasti, vi.649–710, where Ovid's primary focus is on the aulos and the roles of flute-players rather than Marsyas, whose name is not mentioned. The hubristic Marsyas in surviving literary sources eclipses the figure of the wise Marsyas suggested in a few words by the Hellenistic historian Diodorus Siculus, who refers to Marsyas as admired for his intelligence and self-control, not qualities found by Greeks in ordinary satyrs.

In Plato's Symposium, when Alcibiades likens Socrates to Marsyas, it is this aspect of the wise satyr, intended. Jocelyn Small identifies in Marsyas an artist great enough to challenge a god, who can only be defeated through a ruse. A prominent statue of Marsyas as a wise old silenus stood near the Roman Forum; this is the Marsyas of the journal Marsyas: Studies in the History of Art, published since 1941 by students of the Institute of Art, New York University. Among the Romans, Marsyas was cast as the inventor of augury and a proponent of free speech


"Terrorform" is the third episode of science fiction sit-com Red Dwarf Series V and the twenty seventh in the series run. It was first broadcast on the British television channel BBC2 on 5 March 1992, it was written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, was directed by Juliet May. The episode's plot has the Red Dwarf crew rescuing Rimmer from a terraformed moon based on his own psyche. While enjoying some peace and quiet on Red Dwarf without Arnold Rimmer, away moon-hopping with Kryten's assistance piloting Starbug, Dave Lister and Cat are alerted by Holly that a tarantula-like creature has boarded the ship. Panicking when they find it, they find that it is made from Kryten's left hand and right eye and had been sent to find help, alerting them that Kryten is in trouble. Taking Starbug 2, the pair track down Kryten near the wreckage of his ship upon a psi-moon – an artificial planetoid that can tune into an individual's psyche and adapt its terrain to mimic his mental state. After repairing his damaged body, the pair learn that something took Rimmer after their crash, that the psi-moon is re-configuring itself to Rimmer's subconscious.

The group confirm this when searching for him, discover the planetoid has reshaped towards his dominant negative qualities, with his positive ones being weak and represented by a graveyard. When the group find Rimmer, they discover him imprisoned by hooded legions of his negative emotions and a creature made of his self-loathing, with the hologram having been given a physical presence as a side-effect of the moon's transformative abilities. Attempting to rescue him, they find themselves struggling against the creature, until it retreats when Kryten reassures Rimmer they won't leave him behind; when they find their Starbug 2 sinking into a swamp made of Rimmer's despair and Kryten realise they must boost Rimmer's self-confidence with Cat's help, persuade Rimmer they like him greatly. In response, Rimmer's self-respect and confidence emerge from the graveyard as musketeers and slay Rimmer's personal demons, allowing the group to escape. After leaving the psi-moon, Rimmer starts suspecting the others only pretended to like him, to which the other three agree they were lying.

Another episode, cut in the edit room although this time it was felt that some of the dialogue didn't work. The final scenes with the crew gathering around Rimmer to make him feel wanted was trimmed down. Other small cuts included the Master, built, but cut down to show only a hand, foot or shadow; this was considered more effective than seeing the character full on. Some scenes from this episode were incorporated into the second pilot for the prospective American Red Dwarf series. Sara Stockbridge and Francine Walker-Lee both appeared as Handmaidens. We see Rimmer's'self respect' and'self confidence' rise from the dead, looking like two members of The Three Musketeers; the word'Terrorform' is a play on the term terraforming. At the start of the episode when Kryten is knocked offline, his CPU plays him a musak version of Copacabana. On the first transmission of this episode the recording used was that by James Last and his orchestra, but subsequent showings used that by Victor Silvester Junior.

During the episode, the viewer can see Kryten's internal display, which among other things shows his system status as various shades of red: Mauve, taupe, marigold and tangerine. The episode was broadcast on the British television channel BBC2 on 5 March 1992 in the 9:00pm evening time slot. One review said that the episode "provides an excellent example of how writers Grant and Naylor combine sci-fi premise with a closer look inside one their regular characters." However, among fans it was considered as one of the weakest episodes from the series. "Terrorform" at BBC Programmes "Terrorform" on IMDb "Terrorform" at Series V episode guide at

V. Kumaraswamy

Velupillai Kumaraswamy was a Ceylon Tamil lawyer and Member of Parliament. Kumaraswamy was born on 31 July 1919, he was the son of a proctor from Chavakachcheri in northern Ceylon. After school Kumaraswamy joined Ceylon Law College. Kumaraswamy had a daughter. Whilst still studying law, Kumaraswamy stood as the All Ceylon Tamil Congress's candidate in Chavakachcheri at the 1947 parliamentary election, he entered Parliament. Kumaraswamy became a Parliamentary Secretary after the ACTC joined the United National Party dominated government in 1948. Kumaraswamy was re-elected at the 1952 parliamentary election; the ACTC left the UNP government in 1953 but Kumaraswamy chose to remain with the UNP. Kumaraswamy left the UNP in 1956 over the party's support of the Sinhala Only Act. Kumaraswamy stood for re-election in the constituency at the 1956 parliamentary election as an independent candidate but was defeated by the Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi candidate V. N. Navaratnam, he was the ACTC's candidate in the constituency at the March 1960 and 1970 parliamentary elections but on each occasion was defeated by Navaratnam.

He contested the 1977 parliamentary election as an independent candidate but was again defeated by Navaratnam. Kumaraswamy practised law in Colombo

Transcona (electoral district)

Transcona is a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba. The riding was created by redistribution in 1968, has formally existed since the 1969 provincial election. Transcona is located in the easternmost tip of the city of Winnipeg, it is bordered to the west by Radisson, in all other directions by the rural riding of Springfield. The population in 1996 was 19,648; the average family income in 1999 was $50,089, with an unemployment rate of 6.70%. There is a significant Ukrainian Canadian population in about 7 % of the total; the riding is working-class, includes the Canadian National rail yards. Fifteen percent of the riding's industry is in the manufacturing sector, with a further 14% in retail trade; the New Democratic Party party leader Russell Paulley represented the riding for eight years. Candidates from the NDP have won Transcona in all but two of the provincial elections in which it has participated since 1969

Space operation service

Space operation service is – according to Article 1.23 of the International Telecommunication Union's Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service concerned with the operation of spacecraft, in particular space tracking, space telemetry and space telecommand. These functions will be provided within the service in which the space station is operating.» The allocation of radio frequencies is provided according to Article 5 of the ITU Radio Regulations. In order to improve harmonisation in spectrum utilisation, the majority of service-allocations stipulated in this document were incorporated in national Tables of Frequency Allocations and Utilisations, with-in the responsibility of the appropriate national administration; the allocation might be primary, secondary and shared. Primary allocation: is indicated by writing in capital letters secondary allocation: is indicated by small letters exclusive or shared utilization: is within the responsibility of administrationsExample of frequency allocation Radio station Radiocommunication service International Telecommunication Union


Faaborg or Fåborg is an old port town located on Faaborg Fjord in Faaborg-Midtfyn municipality on the island of Funen in Denmark. By road, Faaborg is located 42 kilometres southwest of Odense, 27 kilometres north-northwest of Svendborg, 70 kilometres southeast of Middelfart, depending upon the route, it has a population of 7,049. With its busy port, narrow streets and attractive old houses, the town is popular with tourists in the summer months. Faaborg was the seat of Faaborg municipality; the seat of the new municipality is Ringe. Both municipalities use Faaborg's medieval coat of arms. Faaborg is first mentioned as Foburgh in a document located in the French National Archives in Paris dated 25 June 1229, it is a deed of gift that gives Faaborg and the south of Funen as a morning present to Eleanor of Portugal, from Valdemar II to his daughter-in-law. It is mentioned as a castle, so it must have existed before this date. However, this date has been used as the birth date of Faaborg and thus the town celebrated its 775th anniversary in 2004.

Although it is not known when the settlement was established, it appears Faaborg had received privileges as a market town in the 13th century. Located on a promontory surrounded by water on three sides, the site was further protected by a moat and a town wall. Around 1477, a monastery was established which over the years acquired most of the property in the town and its surroundings. After the Reformation it was used for a time as a hospital until it was demolished; the monastery chapel became the parish church. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Faaborg had to compete with a considerable amount of illegal trading from other settlements along the coast. In the mid-17th century, it suffered more from the effects of the Swedish Wars but it began to prosper as an important port in the 18th century. Corn was exported to trade increased with the Grand Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. By the 1890s, ships from Faaborg sailed as far as the Mediterranean. In the 19th century, England replaced Norway as the main trading partner and, in the second half of the century, trade extended to China and Australia.

By the end of the century, there had been a huge increase in population and a number of light industries had been established. Many of the new inhabitants came from Holstein after these had been lost to Germany, they included many Jews. With 50 employees, Dansk Vin- og Konservesfabrik was the main business but traditional crafts and trading continued while the harbour was enlarged. Steamship links with Copenhagen and Southern Jutland were established and in the 1880s railway connections were ensured with the other towns on the island. Growth was more modest in the 20th century in the face of competition from Svendborg. A few new industries emerged in food processing and metal working but tourism and services became the leading areas of growth. By 2007, Faaborg had 7,318 inhabitants; the harbour, old streets, historic mansions and town houses all make Faaborg a pleasant city for visitors. Its many restaurants serve a wide variety of foreign dishes. Plougs Gård on Vestergade, built around 1790, is one of the finest buildings in the town with its Neoclassical facade.

Jesper Ploug made his fortune in shipping during the American Wars of Independence Faaborg Church is an old monastery church dating from 1477. It formed the south wing of the now demolished Helligåndskloster belonging to the Order of the Holy Ghost from which it gets its name, its considerable size makes it a local landmark: 46 m long by 19 m wide. The chancel and three-sided east gable were completed in 1490, the nave and southern aisle followed around 1510 and a northern aisle was added shortly thereafter. After its vaulting in 1681, it resembled a basilica. Restoration work was carried out in 1858 and 1902; the church has no tower but the tower of the now demolished Saint Nicholas Church serves as its belfry. Faaborg Museum holds one of Denmark's most important art collections with works by the Funen Painters including Jens Birkholm, Peter Hansen, Johannes Larsen, Anna and Fritz Syberg, it displays some of the finest works of sculptor Kai Nielsen. Den gamle Gård on Holkegade provides insights into the town's cultural history, with exhibits depicting life in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Faaborg Harbour, with its centrally placed marina, attracts about 13,000 pleasure boats each year thanks to its attractive location for the South Funen Archipelago. It is visited by vintage schooners and yachts of all sizes; the port is used by fishing boats and commercial vessels. A new waterpark, Faaborg Harbor Bath, was completed in 2014. Nearby attractions include Hvedholm Castle and Horne Church. Faaborg Rutebilstation, a former railway station built in 1882, now serves as a bus station for FynBus. There are regular ferry links from Faaborg to the islands of Bjørnø, Lyø, Avernakø and Ærø. Faaborg is associated with the Funen Painters including: Fritz Syberg, Peter Hansen, Jens Birkholm Anna Syberg, Alhed Larsen, Strange Jørgenssøn a Danish/Norwegian businessman and bailiff Jens Peter Møller a Danish painter Carl Dahl a Danish marine painter during the Golden Age of Danish Painting Eiler Rasmussen Eilersen a Danish landscape painter Niels Moeller Lund a Danish impressionist artist, grew up in Newcastle-upon-Tyne Ulrik Hendriksen a Danish-Norwegian painter