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Martin Bisi

Martin Bisi is an American producer and songwriter. He is known for recording important records by Sonic Youth, John Zorn, Bill Laswell, Unsane, The Dresden Dolls, Cop Shoot Cop, White Zombie, Angels of Light, J. G. Thirlwell, Herbie Hancock's Grammy-winning song "Rockit". Martin Bisi grew up in Manhattan, his mother was a concert pianist who specialized in Liszt and Chopin and toured extensively, his father played tango-style piano as a hobby. As a child in the 1960s his parents sent him to a French school, gave him music lessons, took him to performances by the New York Philharmonic and the opera, all of which he rebelled against. In 1979, he started B. C. Studio with Bill Laswell and Brian Eno in the Gowanus section of Brooklyn, where he recorded much of the No Wave, avant garde, hip-hop of the early 1980s including Lydia Lunch, Live Skull, Fred Frith and Afrika Bambaata. In 1982 he recorded the instruments for the first song Whitney Houston recorded as a lead singer, "Memories" off of Material's One Down LP.

Soon after recording Herbie Hancock's "Rockit", Bisi split from Bill Laswell but continued working from BC Studio till present time, with a specialty in loud, dense sound, such as Foetus and Serena Maneesh. Starting with a solo record in 1988 - Creole Mass - Bisi recorded his own material. Other solo works were All Will Be Won, See Ya in Tiajuana, Dear Papi I'm in Jail, Milkyway of Love, more Sirens of the Apocalypse, Son of a Gun with Bill Laswell, Brian Viglione of The Dresden Dolls and Bob D'Amico of Sebadoh, Ex Nihilo. 2009 saw Bisi's first extensive touring, both in the Europe. In 2014 he toured in support of a feature-length documentary about BC Studio, Sound & Chaos: "The Story Of BC Studio", directed by Sara Leavitt and Ryan Douglass. In January 2016, Bisi celebrated the 35 year anniversary of his BC Studio with a weekend of performances by close to 50 musicians who'd worked there over the decades; these were recorded and worked into an album called BC35, released on April 20, 2018 on Bronson Recordings.

Bisi continues to tour in support of BC35 with his band, called Martin Bisi band, which involves a revolving cast of musicians Martin Bisi's official website BC35 official website official website of Sound & Chaos: The Story Of BC Studio documentary Martin Bisi on YouTube Martin Bisi on Facebook Martin Bisi on Twitter

Pembaur v. City of Cincinnati

Pembaur v. City of Cincinnati, 475 U. S. 469, is a United States Supreme Court case that clarified a previous case, Monell v. Department of Social Services, established that municipalities can be held liable for a single decision, improperly made. A physician and owner of a medical clinic in Cincinnati, Ohio was indicted for fraud regarding welfare payments from state agencies; as part of the trial, subpoenas were issued for two clinic employees. The employees failed to appear in court, warrants were issued for their arrest. Two county deputies went to the clinic to serve the warrants, but the doctor and another employee barred the entrance. Cincinnati officers attempted to persuade the doctor to open the door; the deputies were told by the county prosecutor to "go in and get" the employees in question. Subsequently, the door was chopped down and the deputies entered but were unable to locate the employees; the doctor was charged and convicted with obstructing police in their authorized duties.

The doctor filed for damages. The district court dismissed based on Monell—that the officers were not acting pursuant to the official policy described in Monell—and the court of appeals affirmed; the Supreme Court remanded. Here is the syllabus summary: "1; the "official policy" requirement of Monell was intended to distinguish acts of the municipality from acts of the municipality's employees, thereby make clear that municipal liability is limited to actions for which the municipality is responsible. Monell held that recovery from a municipality is limited to acts that are, properly speaking, "of the municipality," i.e. acts that the municipality has sanctioned or ordered. With this understanding, it is plain that municipal liability may be imposed for a single decision by municipal policymakers under appropriate circumstances. If the decision to adopt a particular course of action is directed by those who establish governmental policy, the municipality is responsible whether that action is to be taken only once or to be taken repeatedly.

Pp. 475 U. S. 477-481. "2. It was error to dismiss petitioner's claim against the county. Ohio law authorizes the County Sheriff to obtain instructions from the County Prosecutor; the Sheriff followed the practice of delegating certain decisions to the Prosecutor where appropriate. In this case, the Deputy Sheriffs received instructions from the Sheriff's Office to follow the orders of the County Prosecutor, who made a considered decision based on his understanding of the law and commanded the Deputy Sheriffs to enter petitioner's clinic; that decision directly caused a violation of petitioner's Fourth Amendment rights. In ordering the Deputy Sheriffs to enter petitioner's clinic to serve the capiases on the employees, the County Prosecutor was acting as the final decisionmaker for the county, the county may therefore be held liable under § 1983. Pp. 475 U. S. 484-485." Justice Powell, writing for the dissent, stated that the Court's holding "is wrong for at least two reasons. First, the Prosecutor's response and the Deputies' subsequent actions did not violate any constitutional right that existed at the time of the forcible entry.

Second, no official county policy could have been created by an off-hand telephone response from a busy County Prosecutor." Monell v. Department of Social Services of the City of New York List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 475 Text of Pembaur v. City of Cincinnati, 475 U. S. 469 is available from: CourtListener Justia Library of Congress Oyez


AwakEVE is the 4th full album released by Japanese band Uverworld as well as the follow-up to their third album, Proglution. It was released February 18, 2009. A limited pressing of the album was released on the same day which includes a DVD containing music videos of Roots, Gekidō, Koishikute and Hakanaku mo Towa no Kanashi as well as a video featuring the process of filming the music videos for Roots, Gekidō; the album entered the Oricon charts 15 times. It was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of Japan; the title is a combination of the words eve. Takuya∞ – vocals, programming Katsuya – guitar Akira – guitar, programming Nobuto – bass guitar Shintarō – drums Awakeve review at


An alcázar is a type of Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during Muslim rule, although some were founded by Christians and others were built on earlier Roman or Visigothic fortifications. Most of the alcázars were built between the 15th centuries. Many cities in Spain have an alcázar; the term is sometimes used as a synonym for castle. The Spanish word alcázar derives from the Arabic word القصر al-qaṣr "the fort, castle, or palace". Similar words exist in Galician and Catalan. Spain has Moorish citadels known as alcazabas. However, not all castles in Spain are called alcázar: the majority are called castillo in Spanish or castell in Catalan. Nor was every alcázar or alcazaba in Iberia built by the Moors: many castles with these names were built after the Moors had withdrawn from the Iberian Peninsula. Alcázar of Segovia was first cited in the 12th century, though its foundations date back to Roman times, it was built by the Christian monarchs in the place of a Moorish fort. During the Middle Ages when in the Kingdom of Castile, the alcázar of Segovia was the favorite residence of the Castilian monarchs, each king added new parts to the building, transforming the original fortress into a courtier residence and prolonging the construction of the castle until the 16th century, when king Philip II added the conical spires and the slate roofs.

A fire in 1862 destroyed part of the roofs, but they were restored in the same style in which they were built 300 years before. In this castle there was the proclamation of Isabella I as queen of Castile in 1474 starting the War of the Castilian Succession. Alcázar of Toledo was used as a military academy in modern times; the Siege of the Alcázar in the Spanish Civil War references this castle, held by the Nationalist colonel José Moscardó Ituarte against Republican forces. Republican forces captured Moscardó's 24-year-old son Luis, on 23 July 1936 informed Moscardó that if he did not turn over the alcázar within ten minutes his son would die; when Moscardó did not surrender, Luis was murdered, not but one month on 23 August. Alcázar of Seville, on the site of the palace of the Almohad Caliphate called al-Muwarak, was built in the 1360s by Christian Castilian craftsmen in Mudéjar style, remodeled, it was first used by Peter of Castile with his mistress María de Padilla. The structures and gardens are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos called "the Alcázar of Córdoba", in Córdoba, Andalusia was a Moorish palace after the 13th century Reconquista of Córdoba. The Moors had expanded a Visigoth fortress into a large compound with a large library; this alcázar was the summer home of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, the site of their meeting with Christopher Columbus before his famous voyage to the Americas. Alcázar of Jerez de la Frontera. Castle of Burgos, today just remains of, once an alcázar and a royal residence; the Alcázar of the Caliphs of Córdoba was the seat of the government of Al-Andalus, the residence of the emirs and caliphs of Córdoba since the arrival of the Muslims in the 8th Century until the Christian conquest of the city, in 1236. It had a total area of 39,000 square metres. Part of its structure survives; the Royal Alcazar of Madrid was a palace built by Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was the main royal residence in Madrid until the Buen Retiro Palace superseded it in the 17th century.

It was destroyed by fire in 1734, the present Royal Palace of Madrid was built on the site. This has never been called alcázar; the Castle Alcázar of Segorbe, province of Castellón, autonomous community of Valencia, was an enormous complex that for over a thousand years was the residence of lords and kings. Outside Spain, in Palermo, the district called Cassaro corresponds to the Punic settlement of Zis, on high ground, refortified by Arabs and known as al-qaṣr, was further expanded as the site of the Norman palace. In Portugal there is a city called Alcácer do Sal, an administrative regional seat for the Moors of al-Andalus; the former colonial palace in Santo Domingo built for Christopher Columbus's son Diego in 1509, is known as the Alcázar de Colón and is built in the Andalusian style. Alcazaba Kremlin Moorish Castle, Gibraltar

Amleto Giovanni Cicognani

Amleto Giovanni Cicognani was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Vatican Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969, Dean of the College of Cardinals from 1972 until his death. Cicognani was elevated to the cardinalate in 1958, his brother, Gaetano Cicognani, was a cardinal. To date they are the last pair of brothers to serve together in the College of Cardinals. Amleto Cicognani was born in Brisighella, near Faenza, as the younger of the two children of Guglielmo and Anna Cicognani, his widowed mother ran his brother, Gaetano. After studying at the seminary in Faenza, he was ordained a priest on 23 September 1905 by Bishop Gioacchino Cantagalli. Cicognani continued his studies at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, in 1910 he was appointed an official of the Sacred Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments. First raised to the rank of Monsignor in 1917, he taught at his alma mater of the Athenaeum S. Apollinare from 1921 to 1932, entered the Roman Curia, as substitute adjunct of the Consistorial, on 16 December 1922.

After holding a variety of pastoral and curial positions, Cicognani was appointed Apostolic Delegate to the United States and Titular Archbishop of Laodicea in Phrygia on 17 March 1933. He received his episcopal consecration on the following 23 April from Cardinal Raffaele Rossi, with Archbishops Giuseppe Pizzardo and Carlo Salotti serving as co-consecrators, in the Roman church of Santa Susanna. Cicognani would remain Apostolic Delegate to the United States, serving as liaison between the American hierarchy and the Vatican, for the next 25 years. During World War II, Cicognani expressed reservations about Zionism. In a letter dated 22 June 1943 to American representative Myron C. Taylor, he said: "It is true that at one time Palestine was inhabited by the Hebrew Race, but there is no axiom in history to substantiate the necessity of a people returning to a country they left nineteen centuries before …… If a'Hebrew Home' is desired, it would not be too difficult to find a more fitting territory than Palestine.

With an increase in the Jewish population there, new international problems would arise." He was created Cardinal-Priest of S. Clemente by Pope John XXIII in the consistory of 15 December 1958. Cardinal Cicognani was raised to Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati on 23 May 1962; because his brother, was a cardinal, having been elevated in 1953, an exception had to be made to the Church law that prohibiting brothers from holding the title of cardinal simultaneously. On 14 November 1959, Cicognani became Secretary of the Congregation for Oriental Churches, he was named to the posts of Cardinal Secretary of State, President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See on 12 August 1961. With the appointments of 1962, Cicognani became the foreign minister, prime minister, interior minister of the Vatican, he attended the Second Vatican Council, at which he served as Chairman of the Secretariat for Extraordinary Questions. Cicognani was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the 1963 papal conclave, which selected Pope Paul VI.

On 30 April 1969, Cicognani resigned all of his posts. However, on 24 March 1972, he was elected and confirmed as Dean of the College of Cardinals and thus received the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, in addition to his title of Cardinal Bishop of Frascati. Cicognani died in Rome, following a brief illness, at age 90, he is buried in the Basilica di San Clemente. The Italian prelate was considered to be rather conservative in his views, he sought to stem ecumenism in the Catholic Church in America, was once described as not being open to Aggiornamento. Catholic-Hierarchy Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Buck and ball

Buck and ball was a common load for muzzle-loading muskets, was used in the American Revolutionary War and into the early days of the American Civil War. The load consisted of a.50 to.75 caliber round lead musket ball, combined with three to six buckshot pellets. Buck and ball was issued in paper cartridges that combined the projectiles with the black powder propellant charge to facilitate rapid loading of the weapon. Like any other paper cartridge, the rear of the cartridge would be torn open to expose the powder, which would be loaded, the remaining paper and buckshot would be rammed down on top; the intent of the buck and ball load was to combine the devastating impact of a.50 to.75 caliber ball with the spreading pattern of a shotgun. The combination served to improve the hit probability of the smoothbore musket. In combat at closer ranges, the buckshot would retain significant energy; when used against packed troops, the spread of the buckshot would be advantageous. Claud E. Fuller, in his book The Rifled Musket, shows tests of a rifled musket firing Minié ball, a smoothbore musket firing round ball and buck rounds at various ranges against a 10 by 10 inches target.

The firers consisted of several men in line shooting in volley. At ranges of 200 yards and under, the buck and ball from the smoothbore musket, while less accurate than the rifled musket, produces a greater number of hits due to the greater number of projectiles. At 100 yards, 50 shots by smoothbore buck and ball against the 10 x 10 target result in 79 buckshot hits and 37 ball strikes, as opposed to 48 Minié ball hits in 50 shots. At 200 yards, 37 of 50 Minié bullets struck the target, vs. 18 of 50 smoothbore balls and 31 of 50 buckshot, for a total of 49 hits in 50 shots. Beyond this range, the buckshot will have lost too much energy to be effective due to its lower ballistic coefficient; the most famous proponent of the buck and ball loading was George Washington, who encouraged his troops to load their muskets with buck and ball loads during the American Revolution. The buck and ball load was standard issue throughout the Seminole Wars of 1815–45. With the advent of general issue rifled muskets in the American Civil War, longer engagement ranges during the stages of the war, the buck and ball loading began to fade from use.

Buck and ball did see action in the remaining inventory of smoothbore muskets at Gettysburg and actions. The Union Irish Brigade retained their smoothbore muskets until late so they could fire buck and ball during the close range battles most famously, to good effect, against Pickett's Charge. In addition, the 12th New Jersey Infantry preferred to use buck and ball, which they did to deadly effect at Gettysburg, so continued carrying smoothbore muskets. For the modern combat shotgun the buck and ball load has been replaced in current military inventories by standard buckshot loadings. Modern ammunition manufacturers have re-discovered Buck and Ball type shotgun loads, have been manufacturing defensive shotgun ammunition which duplicates the properties of the historical loads; as an example Winchester's PDX1 12 gauge load features three 00-buck copper plated pellets over a one-ounce slug. Similar ammunition is produced by Centurion, called "Multi Defense Buckshot." Minié ball Muzzleloader The Rifle-Musket vs.

The Smoothbore Musket, a Comparison of the Effectiveness of the Two Types of Weapons Primarily at Short Ranges Ordnance manual for the use of the officers of the United States army, page 270