Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, priest, a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507, he came to reject several practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517, his refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God's grace through the believer's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin, his theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with these, all of Luther's wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.
His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular made it more accessible to the laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, influenced the writing of an English translation, the Tyndale Bible, his hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his works, Luther expressed antagonistic, violent views towards Jews, called for the burnings of their synagogues and their deaths, his rhetoric was not directed at Jews alone, but towards Roman Catholics and nontrinitarian Christians. Luther died in 1546 with Pope Leo X's excommunication still effective. Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, County of Mansfeld in the Holy Roman Empire.
Luther was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours, his family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council. The religious scholar Martin Marty describes Luther's mother as a hard-working woman of "trading-class stock and middling means" and notes that Luther's enemies wrongly described her as a whore and bath attendant, he had several brothers and sisters, is known to have been close to one of them, Jacob. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer, he sent Martin to Latin schools in Mansfeld Magdeburg in 1497, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life, Eisenach in 1498. The three schools focused on the so-called "trivium": grammar and logic. Luther compared his education there to purgatory and hell. In 1501, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he described as a beerhouse and whorehouse.
He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as "a day of rote learning and wearying spiritual exercises." He received his master's degree in 1505. In accordance with his father's wishes, he enrolled in law but dropped out immediately, believing that law represented uncertainty. Luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy, expressing particular interest in Aristotle, William of Ockham, Gabriel Biel, he was influenced by two tutors, Bartholomaeus Arnoldi von Usingen and Jodocus Trutfetter, who taught him to be suspicious of the greatest thinkers and to test everything himself by experience. Philosophy proved to be unsatisfying, offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving God, which to Luther was more important. Reason could not lead men to God, he felt, he thereafter developed a love-hate relationship with Aristotle over the latter's emphasis on reason. For Luther, reason could be used to question institutions, but not God.
Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed, Scripture therefore became important to him. On 2 July 1505, while returning to university on horseback after a trip home, a lightning bolt struck near Luther during a thunderstorm. Telling his father he was terrified of death and divine judgment, he cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He came to view his cry for help as a vow. He left university, sold his books, entered St. Augustine's Monastery in Erfurt on 17 July 1505. One friend blamed the decision on Luther's sadness over the deaths of two friends. Luther himself seemed saddened by the move; those who attended a farewell supper walked him to the door of the Black Cloister. "This day you see me, not again," he said. His father was furious over. Luther dedicated himself to the Augustinian order, devoting himself to fasting, long hours in prayer and frequent confession. Luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair, he said, "I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, made of him the jailer and hangman of
Henry Calvin Casselli, Jr. is a contemporary American artist from New Orleans, Louisiana. He paints watercolors of figures and settings from his native New Orleans. Henry Casselli was born and raised in the ethnically diverse Ninth Ward of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana. Casselli received a scholarship to study at the McCrady School of Fine and Applied Arts in the French Quarter of New Orleans, where he enrolled in 1964 after graduating from high school, he was tutored by John McCrady, joined the faculty as an assistant instructor during his second year at the school. In 1967, as the American involvement in the war in Vietnam escalated, Casselli voluntarily enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, he was assigned the position of combat artist, upon his deployment found himself immersed in the Tet Offensive of 1968. As Casselli recalled, "ithin three days of my arrival, I was knee-deep in war. I had to be a Marine first just to survive." Despite the hardship of war, Casselli was able to depict soldiers and scenes of war in pencil sketches and paintings during his combat tour, artwork, now part of the collection of the National Museum of the Marine Corps, in Washington, DC.
After being discharged from the Marine Corps in 1970, Casselli returned to New Orleans to learn that his mentor, John McCrady, was ill. McCrady died within days of Casselli's return. Losing his mentor was a difficult experience for Casselli, but it signaled his coming of age as an artist. After his return from combat, Casselli chose watercolor as his medium to reconnect with his native city focusing his attention on the life of African Americans in New Orleans, his work soon began to draw national attention, in 1971 Casselli was awarded by the prestigious American Watercolor Society for his first submission. Over the next fifteen years, Casselli solidified his position as a master of the American watercolor, culminating in 1987 when he was awarded the Gold Medal of Honor by the American Watercolor Society, for the painting Echo. In 1988, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, became a full member in 1994. In addition to his work depicting the African Americans of New Orleans, Casselli has been commissioned for many portraits throughout his career.
In 1980 and 1981, NASA commissioned him to serve as an official artist leading up to America's first Space Shuttle launch. Again, in 1998, NASA commissioned Casselli to portray John Glenn as he prepared for his historic final mission. Many of these works are part of the official collection of the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. Casselli was commissioned for the official portrait of President Ronald Reagan, which he completed in 1988; the piece now hangs in the Hall of Presidents at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, DC. His 1981 portrait of Muhammad Ali hangs in the National Portrait Gallery. Henry Casselli's website
Women's reproductive health in the United States refers to the set of physical and social issues related to the health of women in the United States. It includes the rights of women in the United States to adequate sexual health, available contraception methods, treatment for sexually transmitted diseases; the prevalence of women's health issues in American culture is inspired by second-wave feminism in the United States. As a result of this movement, women of the United States began to question the male-dominated health care system and demanded a right to information on issues regarding their physiology and anatomy; the U. S. government has made significant strides to propose solutions, like creating the Women's Health Initiative through the Office of Research on Women's Health in 1991. The Department of Health and Human Services has developed a definition for sexual health in the United States based on the World Health Organization’s definition of sexual health.“Sexual health is a state of well-being in relation to sexuality across the life span that involves physical, mental and spiritual dimensions.
Sexual health is an intrinsic element of human health and is based on positive and respectful approach to sexuality and reproduction, free of coercion, discrimination, stigma and violence." The United States government recognizes that gender is a factor which plays a significant role in sexual health. With this being said, there is a war on women's rights in the United States, it is based on politics in the United States and for candidates to be able to get votes or funding for certain area agendas. With this being said, one of the first pushes with making laws tighter for agendas would be the law in Louisiana; this allowed women who have had abortions in the past to be able to sue the doctor who did the procedure for up to ten years past the abortion date. The law stated that they could sue for damages not only done to the women, but to the emotional damages of the fetus; this was a political move that has gotten the ball rolling for more states to put laws into place against abortions or for abortions depending on the political agenda they are pushing in each state.
Http://search.proquest.com/docview/213811750/ The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services has identified national reproductive health goals including reducing the level of unintended pregnancy. Out of all the pregnancies reported in the United States, half are unplanned. Of the 62 million women in the U. S. who are able to have children, seven out of ten of these women are sexually active but do not want to become pregnant. Contraception is a major issue of women’s reproductive health. 86% of sexually active women practice some form of contraception and 30% of these women use a hormonal form of contraception. Women in the U. S. have more freedoms in deciding their use of contraceptives among other global nations, comparatively. The Centers for Disease Control have significant pull over the decision-making process women must make when choosing different types of contraception. Women of the U. S. still rely on their healthcare providers for the majority of information they receive about contraceptive use.
In order to help healthcare providers provide appropriate family planning care, the CDC published the US Medical Elibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use,2010. The CDC lists methods of birth control under two categories: permanent. Copper T intrauterine device or levonorgestrel intrauterine system Hormonal methods Implant Injection Combined oral contraceptives Progestin-only pill Patch Hormonal vaginal contraceptive ring Emergency contraception Barrier methods Diaphragm or cervical cap Male condom Female condom Spermicides Fertility awareness-based methods Family planning Fertility Awareness Abstinence Female sterilization Transcervical sterilization Hormonal contraception is the most popular method of contraception among women in the United States. Women under the age of thirty more use hormonal oral contraception as their preferred method. Hormonal contraceptives can be 100% effective when used but in most cases it is used imperfectly. Oral hormonal contraceptives have an 8% failure rate.
The popularity of oral hormonal contraceptives among women changes over the course of a year with 32% of women deciding to discontinue use of an oral hormonal contraceptive after one year of typical use. A large stigma exists among women on the topic of using an intrauterine device as a form of contraception; the two types of IUDs that exist for current contraceptive use are Copper T 380A and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or Mirena. IUDs are underutilized by women in the United States with only 2% of women using IUD as an effective contraception; the effectiveness of a contraceptive is described in terms of typical use. An IUD is different than most forms of contraception, it is not possible to use IUDs improperly or inconsistently because they must be inserted inside of the uterus. Women in the United States have many fears about the use of IUDs, making them the less popular form of contraception. For many women in the U. S. IUDs are only an option when other traditional contraception methods have been used or when a women has had children.
The fear surrounding use of an IUD stems from a lack of proper education on all available contraception options available to women in the U. S.. Women have cited being afraid of the quality of the device itself, placing the device inside their bodies voluntarily, the time required to hold the device in place. There is a lack of knowledge about female anatomy and pregnancy prevention among women of the