Volkswagen New Beetle
The Volkswagen New Beetle is a compact car, introduced by Volkswagen in 1997, drawing heavy inspiration from the exterior design of the original Beetle. Unlike the original Beetle, the New Beetle has its engine in the front, driving the front wheels, with luggage storage in the rear. Many special editions have been released, such as the Malibu Barbie New Beetle. In 2011 for the 2012 model year, the Beetle, replaced the New Beetle, it is referred to as the New Beetle as well. At the 1994 North American International Auto Show, Volkswagen unveiled the Concept One, a "retro"-themed concept car with a resemblance to the original Volkswagen Beetle. Designed by J Mays and Freeman Thomas at the company's California design studio, the concept car was based on the platform of the Volkswagen Polo. A red cabriolet concept was featured at the Geneva Motor Show in 1994. Production design approval was reached in mid-1995, with a design freeze resulting 22 months of development time for production. In October 1995, the Volkswagen Concept Two was shown at the Tokyo Motor Show an early preview of the production model due in early 1998.
Strong public reaction to the Concept One convinced the company that it should develop a production version, launched as the New Beetle in 1997 for the 1998 model-year, based on the Golf IV's larger PQ34 platform. The New Beetle is related to the original only in appearance. For the 1998 model year, only the TDI compression-ignition engine was turbocharged. In June 1999, Volkswagen introduced the 1.8T, the first turbocharged spark-ignition engine offered for the New Beetle. Volkswagen created a web site dedicated to the 1.8T. A convertible was added for the 2003 model-year to replace the Volkswagen Cabrio. However, the New Beetle Convertible was never offered with a compression-ignition engine in North America; the New Beetle carries many design similarities with the original VW Beetle: separate fenders, vestigial running boards, sloping headlamps and large round tail lights, as well as a high rounded roofline. It was assembled in VW's Puebla factory in Mexico. Dimension: Length: 4,129 mm Width: 1,721 mm Height: 1,498 mm Wheelbase: 2,515 mm Curb weight: 1,230 kg Luggage volume: 12 cu ft Luggage volume with rear seat folded: 27.1 cu ft Max speed: 177–210 km/h Acceleration: 6.5-13.2 sec The New Beetle achieved five stars in the 2011 Euro NCAP tests compared to four stars in the 2000 Euro NCAP tests scoring 25 points.
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety gave the New Beetle a Good overall score in their frontal crash test. 2004 models come standard with side airbags. Engine choices include the 115 hp 2.0 L inline-four for the base model, the 100 hp 1.9 L TDI turbodiesel inline-four, the 150 hp 1.8 L turbo inline-four for the Turbo and Sport models. The Turbo S model included the 1.8 L turbo but with 180 hp. It included a sport suspension, six-speed manual transmission, aluminum interior trim, revised front/rear fascias and bigger wheels and tires. A close relative of the Turbo S was the 2002–2004 Color Concept; this limited edition variant was available in limited exterior colors, with interior door panel inserts, seat inserts, floor mat piping and wheel opening inserts color-matched to the exterior paint. Wheel color inserts and style varied with model year, it came standard with the 150 hp 1.8 turbo gasoline engine, 5 speed manual gear box, speed-activated rear spoiler, power windows/sunroof/door locks, heated leather seats, fog lamps.
All 1.8L Turbo and Turbo S inline-four models were equipped with a retractable rear spoiler, not available on the 1.9 L TDI inline-4, 2.0 L inline-four and 2.5 L inline-five models. For the 2006 model, the exterior was redesigned with more angular bumpers and wheel wells, these models were fitted with the 2.5 L 5-cylinder engine with 150 hp, fitted on the Rabbit and Jetta becoming the sole engine option. The New Beetle would not be given the upgraded 2.5 L engine that 2008 and Jettas and Rabbits received. The RSi is a limited 250 unit version of the New Beetle, it included a 224 PS 3.2 litre VR6 engine, a 6-speed gearbox, Volkswagen's four-wheel drive system 4motion, Remus twin-pipe exhaust. It was rumoured Porsche tuned the suspension but this was carried out in-house at VW Individual; the suspension was altered at the rear, with geometry more geared to the race track and a rear cross brace behind the rear seats, 80 mm wider fenders, unique front and rear bumpers, a rear diffuser, large rear wing, 18x9 OZ Superturismo wheels with 235/40ZR-18 tyres.
Inside, it was trimmed in carbon fiber, billet aluminium, bright orange leather. The front seats were Recaro racing buckets. Notable disadvantages found were brief rear tire life. At the 2005 North American International Auto Show, the Volkswagen New Beetle Ragster concept car was introduced, it was supposed to be a preview of the future design of the New Beetle. The base of the Ragster was a New Beetle Convertible modified with a new roof, giving it a much lower roofline, a unique paint job with silver double stripes; the interior differs from the original New Beetle, being a 2+2, an
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
A defeat device is any motor vehicle hardware, software, or design that interferes with or disables emissions controls under real-world driving conditions if the vehicle passes formal emissions testing. The term appears in the US Clean Air Act and European Union regulations, to describe anything that prevents an emissions control system from working, applies as well to power plants or other air pollution sources, as to automobiles; the United States Environmental Protection Agency has taken numerous enforcement actions against car makers and other companies that have used or installed defeat devices, whether deliberately, or through error or negligence. Aftermarket parts or software, such as modified exhausts or chip tuning products and services, are considered defeat devices if they inhibit or bypass a vehicle's emissions controls. In 1973 the Big 3 Detroit automakers, Ford Motor Company and General Motors, along with import brand Toyota, were ordered by the EPA to stop using ambient temperature switches which disabled pollution controls at low temperatures.
The automakers agreed to cease using the ambient temperature switches in the way the EPA said was in violation of the Clean Air Act, while insisting that the switches were not'defeat devices' intended to evade rules. The auto companies said the devices improved engine efficiency and reduced pollution; the EPA order affected 2 million 1973 model year cars slated for production, but did not require a recall of cars on the road. In 1973, Volkswagen agreed to a settlement with the EPA, in which they admitted no wrongdoing and paid a $120,000 fine, for failing to disclose the existence of two temperature sensing switches that affected emissions function. In their 1974 model year application to the EPA, VW disclosed the presence of the switches and the EPA rejected them, so they were removed. In 1995, General Motors was ordered to recall 470,000 model year 1991 through 1995 Cadillacs and pay an $11 million fine for programming the car's electronic control unit to enrich the fuel mixture any time the car's air conditioning or cabin heat was operating, since the EPA tests are conducted with those systems turned off.
The richer fuel mixture was needed to address an engine stalling problem, resulting in emissions of up to 10 grams per mile of carbon monoxide, nearly three times the limit of 3.4 g/mi. While the EPA and Justice Department contended that GM intentionally violated emissions standards, GM said, "a matter of interpretation." Besides the fine, the second largest Clean Air Act penalty to date in 1995, GM had to spend up to $34 million for anti-pollution programs and recall 470,000 Cadillac 4.9 liter Eldorados, Fleetwoods, DeVilles, Sevilles. The largest civil penalty under the Clean Air Act was $11.1 million paid by Louisiana-Pacific lumber and paper company. In 1996, Honda reached an agreement with the EPA to extend the warranties and offer free services for 1.6 million 1995 Civics and 1996–1997 model year Acuras, Civics and Odysseys, because Honda had disabled an engine misfire warning light that would have otherwise directed drivers to seek repairs for the misfires. Honda was required to spend a total of $267 million on the warranties, pollution reduction projects, $12.6 million in civil penalties.
In 1996, Ford reached a consent decree to spend $7.9 million to address a defeat device on 60,000 1997 model year Econoline vans which used a "sophisticated electronic control strategy designed to enhance fuel economy", disabling NOx emissions controls while the vans were driven at highway speeds, a circumstance not occurring during lab testing to verify emissions control compliance. In 1998, the EPA announced fines totaling $83.4 million against seven heavy truck manufacturers, the largest fine to date, which evaded testing by shutting down emissions controls during highway driving while appearing to comply with lab testing. The seven, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Mack Trucks, Navistar International, Renault Trucks, Volvo Trucks agreed to spend more than $1 billion to correct the problem; the trucks used engine ECU software to engage pollution controls during the 20-minute lab tests to verify compliance with the Clean Air Act, but disable the emissions controls during normal highway cruising, emitting up to three times the maximum allowed NOx pollution.
In 2000 the German motorcycle magazine Motorrad reported about a defeat device delivered with the BMW F 650 GS. BMW responded by issuing an improved injection as of 2001 and calling back the models from the previous year. Main articles: Volkswagen emissions scandal, Diesel emissions scandal In late 2015, the EPA discovered that software used in millions of Volkswagen Group turbocharged direct injection diesel engines included features intended to produce misleading results during laboratory emissions testing. On 10 October 2015, Consumer Reports tested a 2015 Jetta TDI and a 2011 Jetta Sportwagen TDI in what they presumed was the special emissions testing, or cheat, mode; the 0 to 60 mph acceleration time of the 2011 Jetta increased from 9.9 to 10.5 seconds, the 2015 car's time went from 9.1 to 9.2 seconds. The fuel economy of the 2011 car decreased from 50 to 46 mpg‑US and the 2015 car's fuel economy decreased from 53 to 50 mpg‑US. Consumer Reports's Director of Auto Testing said that while the added fuel costs, "may not be dramatic, these cars may no longer stand out among many efficient competitors."
The method the magazine used to engage cheat mode while driving required making assumptions about the ECU's operations. Because disabling electronic stability control is a necessary step for running a car on a dynamometer, the magazine assumed that this
Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. is a French high-performance luxury automobiles manufacturer and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, with its head office and assembly plant in Molsheim, France. Volkswagen purchased the Bugatti trademark in June 1998 and incorporated Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. in 1999. Bugatti presented several concept cars between 1998 and 2000 before commencing development of its first production model, the Veyron 16.4, delivering the first Veyron to a customer in 2005. At the urging of then-chairman Ferdinand Piëch, Volkswagen purchased the rights to produce cars under the Bugatti marque in June 1998; this followed the earlier Volkswagen purchases of the Lamborghini marque, the Rolls-Royce factory in Crewe, United Kingdom, the Bentley marque. On 22 December 2000, Volkswagen incorporated Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. with former VW drivetrain chief Karl-Heinz Neumann as president. The company purchased the 1856 Château Saint Jean Ettore Bugatti's guest house in Dorlisheim, near Molsheim, began refurbishing it to serve as the company's headquarters.
The original factory was still in the hands of Snecma. At the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance in August 2000, VW announced that they would instead build a new modern atelier next to and south of the Château; the atelier was inaugurated on 3 September 2005. Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen AG After the Veyron's discontinuation in 2014, the new Bugatti model was revealed to be the Chiron in 2016. With an 8-liter W16 engine delivering 1500 horsepower, an electronically limited top speed of 260 miles per hour, a price of about €2,400,000, the Chiron attempts to vastly surpass the Veyron's performance. Volkswagen commissioned Italdesign's Giorgetto Giugiaro to design a series of concept cars to return the marque to prominence; the first example, the EB 118, was a two-door coupé and was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1998. It was followed by the four-door EB 218 touring sedan, introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in 1999; that year, the 18/3 Chiron was shown at the IAA in Frankfurt.
Volkswagen designed the EB 18/4 GT in house. Bugatti introduced the EB 18/4 at the 1999 Tokyo Motor Show. All of these early concepts featured a 555 PS 18-cylinder engine; this was the first-ever W-configuration engine on a passenger vehicle, with three blocks of 6 cylinders each. It shared many components with Volkswagen's modular engine family; the 16C Galibier was unveiled during Celebration of the Centenary of the Marque in Molsheim. The presentation was only for Bugatti customers; the car show in Molsheim showed the car in blue carbon aluminum parts. One year Bugatti showed the world the 16C Galibier Concept at "VW Group Night" at the Geneva Auto Show in a new black and aluminum color combination; the Galibier, a 1000 HP sedan, was first shown as a concept in 2010 and when they planned to put it into production in 2015, it would have cost about $1.4 million. It would use the same 16-cylinder 8.0-litre engine as the Veyron but instead of four turbos, the 16C Galibier would instead use two superchargers to deliver better torque.
Production would require new facilities in Molsheim, France, to be refitted, which pushed back potential deliveries until 2015. In 2013, it was announced that the car will never be produced as they wish to focus on a Veyron replacement. In the 1980s the Bugatti brand was brought back as Bugatti Automobili S.p. A. in Italy. The company produced the EB110 in the 1990s; the company was bought by Volkswagen at the end of the 20th century. Development of this vehicle began with the 1999 EB 18/4 "Veyron" concept car, which itself had a chassis based on that of the Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car, it was similar in appearance to the final Veyron production car. One major difference was the EB 18/4's use of a W18 engine with three banks of six cylinders; the Veyron's chief designer was Hartmut Warkuss, the exterior was designed by Jozef Kabaň of Volkswagen, rather than Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign, who had handled the three prior Bugatti concepts. The – Volkswagen Group chairman Ferdinand Piëch announced the Veyron at the 2000 Geneva Motor Show.
It was promised to be the fastest, most expensive car in history. Instead of the W18, it would use a VR6/WR8-style W16 engine. First seen in the 1999 Bentley Hunaudières concept car, the W16 would have four turbochargers and produce a quoted 1001 horsepower. Top speed was promised at 407 km/h, the price was announced at €1 million. Development continued throughout 2001 and the EB 16/4 Veyron was promoted to "advanced concept" status. In late 2001, Bugatti announced that the car called the "Bugatti Veyron 16.4", would go into production in 2003. Piëch retired that year as chairman of the Volkswagen Group and was replaced by Bernd Pischetsrieder; the new chairman promptly sent the Veyron back to the drawing board for major revisions. Neumann was replaced as Bugatti president by Thomas Bscher in December 2003, substantial modifications were made to the Veyron under the guidance of a former VW engineer, Bugatti Engineering chief Wolfgang Schreiber; the Veyron costs €1,100,000. Prices for the UK or the US are over £880,000, or around $1,400,000.
It was noted in an April issue of Live magazine that customers are free to order additional extras which can push the price up by the cost of a Rolls Royce Phantom. During
Upon defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted joint authority and sovereignty over'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the destruction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler. The four powers divided'Germany as a whole' into four occupation zones for administrative purposes, under the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union respectively; this division was ratified at the Potsdam Conference. The four zones were as agreed in February 1945 by the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Union meeting at the Yalta Conference. At Potsdam, the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union approved the detachment from'Germany as a whole' of the German eastern territories east of the Oder–Neisse line; this treaty was expected to confirm the "shifting westward" of Poland's borders, as the United Kingdom and the United States committed themselves to support in any future peace treaty the permanent incorporation of former eastern German territories into Poland and the Soviet Union.
From March 1945 to July 1945, these former eastern territories of Germany had been administered under Soviet military occupation authorities, but following the Potsdam Conference they were handed over to Soviet and Polish civilian administrations and ceased to constitute part of Allied-occupied Germany. In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, United States forces had pushed beyond the agreed boundaries for the future zones of occupation, in some places by as much as 320 km; the so-called line of contact between Soviet and American forces at the end of hostilities lying eastward of the July 1945-established inner German border, was temporary. After two months in which they had held areas, assigned to the Soviet zone, U. S. forces withdrew in the first days of July 1945. Some have concluded that this was a crucial move that persuaded the Soviet Union to allow American and French forces into their designated sectors in Berlin, which occurred at the same time, although the need for intelligence gathering may have been a factor.
All territories annexed by Germany before the war from Austria and Czechoslovakia were returned to these countries. The Memel Territory, annexed by Germany from Lithuania before the war, was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and transferred to the Lithuanian SSR. All territories annexed by Germany during the war from Belgium, Luxembourg and Yugoslavia were returned to their respective countries; the American zone in Southern Germany consisted of Bavaria with its traditional capital Munich and Hesse with a new capital in Wiesbaden, of parts of Württemberg and Baden. Those formed Württemberg-Baden and are the northern portions of the present-day German state of Baden-Württemberg; the ports of Bremen and Bremerhaven were placed under American control because of the American request to have certain toeholds in Northern Germany. At the end of October 1946, the American Zone had a population of: Bavaria 8.7 mio Hesse 3.97 mio Württemberg-Baden 3.6 mio Bremen 0.48 mioThe headquarters of the American military government was the former IG Farben Building in Frankfurt am Main.
Following the complete closure of all Nazi German media, the launch and operation of new newspaper titles began by licensing selected Germans as publishers. Licenses were granted to Germans not involved in Nazi propaganda to establish those newspaper, including Frankfurter Rundschau, Der Tagesspiegel, Süddeutsche Zeitung. Radio stations were run by the military government Radio Frankfurt, Radio München and Radio Stuttgart gave way for the Bayerischer Rundfunk, Hessischer Rundfunk and Süddeutscher Rundfunk; the RIAS in West-Berlin remained a radio station under American control. The Canadian Army was tied down in surrounding the Netherlands until the Germans there surrendered on 5 May 1945—just two days before the final surrender of the Wehrmacht in Western Europe to U. S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the conquest of Northern Germany by the British Army, the bulk of the Canadian Army returned home, leaving Northern Germany to be occupied by the British Army.
In July 1945, the British Army withdrew from Mecklenburg's capital Schwerin which they had taken over from the Americans a few weeks before, as it had been agreed to be occupied by the Soviet Army. The Control Commission for Germany - British Element ceded more slices of its area of occupation to the Soviet Union – the Amt Neuhaus of Hanover and some exclaves and fringes of Brunswick, for example the County of Blankenburg, exchanged some villages between British Holstein and Soviet Mecklenburg under the Barber-Lyashchenko Agreement. Within the British Zone of Occupation, the CCG/BE re-established the German state of Hamburg, but with borders, drawn by Nazi Germany in 1937; the British created the new German states of: Schleswig-Holstein – emerging in 1946 from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein.