The Martyrs of Japan were Christian missionaries and followers who were persecuted and executed during the Tokugawa shogunate period in the 17th century. More than 400 martyrs of Japan have been recognized with beatification by the Catholic Church, 42 have been canonized as saints. Christian missionaries arrived with Francis Xavier and the Jesuits in the 1540s and flourished, with over 100,000 converts, including many daimyōs in Kyushu; the shogunate and imperial government at first supported the Catholic mission and the missionaries, thinking that they would reduce the power of the Buddhist monks, help trade with Spain and Portugal. However, the Shogunate was wary of colonialism, seeing that the Spanish had taken power in the Philippines, after converting the population, it soon met resistance from the highest office holders of Japan. Emperor Ōgimachi issued edicts to ban Catholicism in 1568, but to little effect. Beginning in 1587 with imperial regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi's ban on Jesuit missionaries, Christianity was repressed as a threat to national unity.
While the Japanese view was that Christians were persecuted and executed for being more loyal to Jesus than the Shogunate, the Catholic Church viewed them as martyrs: As the persecution was aimed at Christians as a group, as they could escape only by abjuring their faith, the Catholic Church regarded the acts as being in odium fidei, a principal factor in martyrdom. After the Tokugawa shogunate banned Christianity in 1614, it ceased to exist publicly. Many Catholics went underground, while others lost their lives. Only after the Meiji Restoration, was Christianity re-established in Japan; the Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan refers to a group of Christians who were executed by crucifixion on February 5, 1597 at Nagasaki. Through the promulgation of decree on martyrdom, these first Martyrs of Japan were beatified on 14 September 1627 by Pope Urban VIII; these saints were canonized saints on 8 June 1862 by Pope Pius IX. Persecution continued sporadically and over a period of 15 years, between 1617 and 1632, 205 missionaries and native Christians were executed for their faith.
Christian teaching disintegrated until the arrival of Western missionaries in the nineteenth century. Through the promulgation of decree on martyrdom, these 205 Martyrs of Japan were venerated on 26 February 1866 and beatified on 7 May 1867, by Pope Pius IX. Two Spanish Augustinians arrived in Japan in the half of 1632 from Manila to evangelize the Japanese. Upon arrival, the Japanese authorities were notified by Chinese traders, they fled to mountains. As these two priests descended to the city, they were recognized and arrested during November 1632. On 11 December 1632, they were martyred for their faith. Through the promulgation of decree on martyrdom, these two Augustinian Martyrs of Japan were venerated on 28 November 1988 and beatified on 23 April 1989, by Pope John Paul II; the martyrdom continued on with a group of missionaries and natives that belonged to the Philippine Province of the Dominican Order, called the Holy Rosary Province. Through the promulgation of decree on martyrdom, these 16 Martyrs of Japan were venerated on 11 October 1980 and beatified on 18 February 1981, by Pope John Paul II.
They were canonized saints on 18 October 1987, by Pope John Paul II. These martyrs are additional religious priests and laity murdered for their faith between the years 1603 and 1639. Through the promulgation of decree on martyrdom, these 188 Martyrs of Japan were venerated on 1 June 2007 and beatified on 24 November 2008, by Pope Benedict XVI. Twenty-Six Martyrs Museum and Monument Christianity in Japan Roman Catholicism in Japan Nanban trade Silence The 26 Martyrs Museum in Nagasaki City, Japan Catholic Bishops Conference of Japan: Timeline of the Catholic Church in Japan Daughters of St. Paul Convent, Japan: Prohibition of Christian religion by Hideyoshi and the 26 martyrs Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Japanese Martyrs". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company; the Japanese Martyrs Nagasaki Wiki: Detailed Access Information from Nagasaki Station to 26 Martyrs Monument 2008 Beatification of Japanese Martyrs Kirish'tan: Heaven's Samurai, a historical novel that includes the story of the Twenty-six Martyrs Britto, Francis.
All About Francis Xavier
Michael Anton Biermer was a German internist, a native of Bamberg. In 1851 he earned his doctorate from the University of Würzburg, where he was a student of Rudolf Virchow, he was a professor at Bern and Breslau. Two of his better known students were surgeon Theodor Kocher in Zurich, dermatologist Albert Neisser in Breslau. In 1860 Biermer was the first to describe a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 5-year old Maria Speyer. In 1872 he described a disorder he called "progressive pernicious anemia", he wrote about the disease in an article titled Über eine eigentümliche Form von progressiver, perniciöser Anaemie. He called it "pernicious anemia" because of the disease's insidious course, because it was deemed to be untreatable at the time. In 1849, Thomas Addison described the same disease, however Biermer's description was much more comprehensive. Pernicious anemia has been called "Addison-Biermer disease", his name is associated with a medical percussion phenomenon known as "Biermer's change of note".
Michael Anton Biermer @ Who Named It
Charles Kendal Bushe, was an Irish lawyer and judge. Known as "silver-tongued Bushe" because of his eloquence, he was Solicitor-General for Ireland from 1805 to 1822 and Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench for Ireland from 1822 to 1841. Bushe was born at Kilmurry House, near Thomastown, County Kilkenny, the only son of the Reverend Thomas Bushe and his wife Katherine Doyle. Kilmurry House had been built by the Bushe family in the 1690s, he went to the celebrated Quaker academy, Shackleton's School in Ballitore, County Kildare graduated from the University of Dublin and was called to the Bar in 1790. Bushe was a member of the Irish Parliament for Callan from 1796 to 1799, for Donegal Borough from 1799 to 1800, he was vehemently opposed to the Act of Union 1800, referring to Britain's subjection of Ireland as "six hundred years of uniform oppression and injustice", a phrase which became a proverb. Cynics noted that this did not prevent him accepting high office from the British Crown after the Act of Union.
He was appointed Solicitor-General for Ireland in 1805 and held the office for 17 years until in 1822 he was appointed Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench for Ireland. He retired in 1841; as an advocate "silver-tongued Bushe" was legendary for his eloquence, as a politician he was admired by his English contemporaries like Sir Robert Peel and Lord Brougham. As a judge, according to Elrington Ball, he did not live up to expectations; as a statesman he was accused of double-dealing: having opposed the Act of Union, he had few scruples about accepting office under the new regime. In Dublin, he was a member of Daly's Club. Bushe in 1793 married Anne Crampton, daughter of John Crampton of Dublin, they had six children: John, Arthur, Anna Maria and Henrietta, his daughter Charlotte married John Plunket, 3rd Baron Plunket and was the mother of William Plunket, 4th Baron Plunket, Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin, David Plunket, 1st Baron Rathmore. His son John Bushe married Louisa Hare, daughter of William Hare, 1st Earl of Listowel, his 1st wife, only daughter of Henry Wrixon.
His son Charles, a Church of Ireland clergyman who became rector of Castlehaven was by his second wife Emmeline Coghill the father of another eminent barrister, Seymour Bushe. His daughter Anna Maria was the second wife of Sir Josiah Coghill, 3rd Baronet: her stepdaughter Emmeline married Anna Maria's brother Charles as his second wife. Dunbar Plunket Barton, a leading Irish High Court judge of the early 1900s, was descended from Bushe. Seymour Bushe was a leading barrister whose career in Ireland was destroyed by his role as co-respondent in a much publicised criminal conversation case, Brooke v Brooke in 1886, thereafter confined his legal practice to England, he was the judge's grandson, his parents being Reverend Charles Bushe and his second wife Emmeline Coghill, daughter of Sir Josiah Coghill, 3rd Baronet of the Coghill Baronets and his first wife Sophia Dodson
The 2nd Escort Group was a British anti-submarine formation of the Royal Navy which saw action during the Second World War, principally in the Battle of the Atlantic. 2 EG was formed in April 1943, one of five such support groups formed at the crisis point of the campaign. It was to act as reinforcement to convoys under attack, with the capacity to hunt and destroy U-boats, rather than be restricted to escort duties. Comprising six sloops of the Black Swan-class, the group was led by Captain F. J. "Johnnie" Walker, Britain's most successful anti-submarine warfare commander, in Starling. The combination of an active hunting group and a charismatic and innovative anti-submarine specialist such as Walker proved to be a potent force. Called 2nd Escort Group, was formed in April 1943, one of five such groups, its purpose was to provide reinforcement to convoys at sea, being equipped to spend extended periods at sea moving from one convoy to another as needed. Its function was to assist a convoys escort in its defence, though it had the facility to spend time, which escorts did not have, to continue attacks on U-boats to successful conclusion rather than having to break off to maintain the guard on the convoy.
Walker however was determined that the group would be active in destroying U-boats and impressed this aim on his commanders from the outset. The group comprised six sloops of the Black Swan class, making it a uniform group, the sloop design was well suited to the task, with good endurance, adequate speed and specialized anti-submarine armament. In addition Walker had developed a range of A/S tactics, which 2 SG became adept at, such as the "creeping attack" and the "barrage attack"; the group comprised: Starling, Woodpecker, Wild Goose, Kite During April the group was engaged in working up and training. Under Walkers training the group became a effective and successful unit. The'Hunter-Killer of U-boats' primary goal and strategy of the 2nd Escort Group was reflected in the group practice of playing the song'A-Hunting We Will Go' upon entering and leaving harbour; this practice was emulated by other Royal Navy ships and was evidence of the change of attitude and strategy of anti-submarine units from defenders to hunter/killers of U-Boats.
The group's first patrol in May 1943 was uneventful. There were several major convoy battles during the month, but none involving 2 SG; the group operated in support of HX 235 and ONS 8, sailing ahead in an attempt to encounter and breach any U-boat patrol lines drawn across the convoy routes. The group's first success came in June, its first U-boat was detected on 1 June 1943: fortuitously on a fine day, identified by a Lt. Earl Howe Pitt, the event was dubbed another "Glorious First of June" by Walker. Over a 15-hour period the group found and destroyed U-202, in the longest hunt of the Atlantic campaign up to that point, a vindication of the support group ethos, leaving ships free of escort responsibilities to destroy U-boats. After a refit at Liverpool, after which Cygnet departed to another group, 2SG was assigned to "Operation Musketry", an attempt in concert with Coastal Command to interdict the U-boat transit routes across the Bay of Biscay. On 24 June 1943 the group was successful in destroying U-119 and U-449, though Starling was damaged in the process of ramming U-119 and was forced to retire.
Walker elected to stay with the group, exchanging commands with Wild Goose, after the group returned to port, with Kite. 2 SG was joined at this point as replacement for the damaged Starling. On 30 July 1943 Walker's group saw further success when they encountered a group of three U-boats on the surface while in the Bay of Biscay, he signalled the "general chase" to his group and fired at them, causing damage that prevented them from diving. Two of the submarines, U-462, a Type XIV, U-504, a Type IX/C40, were sunk by Walker's group, the second Type XIV, U-461, by Australian Short Sunderland aircraft, but whilst the remainder of the operation saw the destruction of 20 U-boats over a nine-week period, 2 SG's time was unproductive, no further successes were recorded. In September 1943, after a further refit, 2 SG went to the North Atlantic, in company of the escort carrier Tracker; the group was joined by Magpie. In October, in concert with B-7 Escort Group, the group worked in support of ON 207.
No successes were recorded, though the convoy battle saw three U-boats destroyed, with no ships lost. However, in November 1943, in operations around HX 264, 2 SG accounted for two more U-boats, U-226 and U-842. Whilst the United States Navy had had much success using carrier groups in a hunter killer role on the mid-Atlantic route, the Royal Navy's experience was less positive. Winter gales made flying difficult and hazardous, while the need to provide protection to the carrier hampered A/S operations. 2 SG at least had more success operating without carrier assistance. On 2 December SG was acting in support of SL 140/MKS 31 with 4 SG. 2 SG put in a determined attack on a U-boat, but was unsuccessful, though the battle for
Jeanne Munn Bracken is an American author and a retired librarian. She is known for her non-fiction work, including Children With Cancer: A Comprehensive Reference Guide for Parents. Bracken graduated from the University of New Hampshire in 1968 with a major in German Language and Literature and a minor in Speech and Drama, she earned her masters in Library Science from Simmons College in 1971. Bracken went on to work at the UNH Dimond Library, at the Boston University School of Medicine Library, at the Research Library at Arthur D. Little, Inc. at the Acton Memorial Library, at the Lincoln Public Library. Bracken retired as a librarian in 2006. Bracken's daughter, was diagnosed and treated for cancer when she was a child. During this time, Bracken researched cancer. Bracken's guide, Children With Cancer: A Comprehensive Reference Guide for Parents was called "Highly recommended" by Library Journal in 2010; the Journal of the Medical Library Association wrote that the format of the book "works well" and that the references in the book are excellent.
The Journal wrote that it is "an essential part of the collection of pediatric hospital libraries."Library Journal reviewed the 1986 edition and said Bracken gave "Good, clear overall coverage" of the topic. The Los Angeles Times wrote "Her perceptive suggestions help the reader calm the small child, afraid of yet another need, aid the angry adolescent with a puffy face and bald head, give the exhausted parent permission to take the night off." Life in the American Colonies: Daily Lifestyles of the Early Settlers. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1995. ISBN 9780613188906. Iron Horses Across America: The Transcontinental Railroad. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1995. ISBN 9781878668363. Life in the Southern Colonies: Jamestown, Williamsburg, St. Mary's City and Beyond. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1997. ISBN 9780613188920. American Waterways: Canal Days. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1997. ISBN 9781878668752; the Orphan Trains. with JoAnne Weisman Deitch.
Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 2002. ISBN 9781579600846. CS1 maint: others Someday We'll Laugh About This. Littleton, Massachusetts: Molisa Press. 2005. ISBN 9780976212508. Women in the American Revolution. Boston: History Compass. 2009. ISBN 9781932663235. Children With Cancer: A Comprehensive Reference Guide for Parents. New York: Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 9780195147391. Best Editorial, Massachusetts Press Association Best Feature article Best column Best column: National Press Association Excellence in Cancer Communications New York Times Librarian Award, 2005 Official site
In Greek mythology, Antiphus or Ántiphos is a name attributed to multiple individuals: Antiphus, son of King Myrmidon and Peisidice, brother of Actor. He may be the same with Antippus, the father of Hippea who became the mother of Polyphemus, Caeneus and Amycus by Elatus, king of the Lapiths. Antiphus, son of Heracles and Laothoe, daughter of Thespius. Antiphus, a defender of Thebes against the Seven, was killed by Amphiaraus and Apollo Antiphus, son of Thessalus, the son of Heracles, Chalciope. With his brother Pheidippus, Antiphus lead the forces of Calydnae, Carpathus and Nisyrus on the side of the Greeks against Troy, he was believed to have invaded a region of Greece that he named Thessaly after his father. Antiphus, one of the 50 sons of Priam, son of Hecuba. During the Trojan War, he was killed by Agamemnon. Antiphus of Maeonia, son of Talaemenes and brother of Mesthles. Antiphus, son of Aegyptius, was a Greek commander. Having escaped death at the hand of Eurypylus, he was devoured by Polyphemus.
Antiphus, an old friend of the house of Odysseus. The name Antiphus is not to be confused with Antiphōs, which refers to a soldier in the army of the Seven Against Thebes who killed Chromis but was himself killed by Hypseus. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer. Homeri Opera in five volumes. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1920. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, PH. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.
B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Publius Papinius Statius, The Thebaid translated by John Henry Mozley. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Publius Papinius Statius, The Thebaid. Vol I-II. John Henry Mozley. London: William Heinemann. P. Putnam's Sons. 1928. Latin text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy translated by Way. A. S. Loeb Classical Library Volume 19. London: William Heinemann, 1913. Online version at theio.com Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy. Arthur S. Way. London: William Heinemann. P. Putnam's Sons. 1913. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library