Marxism–Leninism is a political philosophy and self-proclaimed science that seeks to establish a socialist state to develop further into socialism and communism, a classless social system with common ownership of the means of production and with full social and economic equality of all members of society. Marxist–Leninists espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of orthodox Marxism and Leninism, but they support the idea of a vanguard party, a communist party-led state, state-dominance over the economy and opposition to capitalism, fascism and liberal democracy; as an ideology, it was developed by Joseph Stalin in the late 1920s based on his understanding and synthesis of both orthodox Marxism and Leninism. It was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union and the other ruling parties making up the Eastern Bloc as well as the political parties of the Communist International after Bolshevisation. Today, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of Stalinist and Maoist political parties around the world and remains the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba and Vietnam.
After the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Marxism–Leninism became a distinct philosophical movement in the Soviet Union when Stalin and his supporters gained control of the party. It rejected the common notions among Marxists at the time of world revolution as a prerequisite for building socialism in Russia in favour of the concept of socialism in one country. According to its supporters, the gradual transition from capitalism to socialism was signified with the introduction of the first five-year plan and the 1936 Soviet Constitution; the internationalism of Marxism–Leninism was expressed in supporting revolutions in foreign countries. By the late 1920s, Stalin established ideological orthodoxy among the Russian Communist Party, the Soviet Union and the Communist International to establish universal Marxist–Leninist praxis. In the late 1930s, Stalin's official textbook History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union made the term Marxism–Leninism common political-science usage among communists and non-communists.
The goal of Marxism–Leninism is the revolutionary transformation of a capitalist state into a socialist state by way of two-stage revolution led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries drawn from the proletariat. To realise the two-stage transformation of the state, the vanguard party establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat and determines policy through democratic centralism; the Marxist–Leninist communist party is the vanguard for the political and social transformation of a capitalist society into a socialist society, the lower stage of socio-economic development and progress towards the upper-stage communist society, stateless and classless. It features public ownership of the means of production, accelerated industrialisation, pro-active development of society's productive forces and nationalised natural resources. In the establishment of socialism in the former Russian Empire, Bolshevism was the ideological basis for the Soviet Union; as the vanguard party who guide the establishment and development of socialism, the communist party represented their policies as correct.
Because Leninism was the revolutionary means to achieving socialism in the praxis of government, the relationship between ideology and decision-making inclined to pragmatism and most policy decisions were taken in light of the continual and permanent development of Marxist–Leninist ideology, i.e. ideological adaptation to actual conditions. Within five years of the death of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin completed his rise to power and was the leader of the Soviet Union who theorised and applied the socialist theories of Lenin and Karl Marx as political expediencies used to realise his plans for the Soviet Union and for world socialism; the book Concerning Questions of Leninism represented Marxism–Leninism as a separate communist ideology and featured a global hierarchy of communist parties and revolutionary vanguard parties in each country of the world. With that, Stalin's application of Marxism–Leninism to the situation of the Soviet Union became Stalinism, the official state ideology until his death in 1953.
In Marxist political discourse, Stalinism and connoting the theory and praxis of Stalin, has two usages, namely praise of Stalin by Marxist–Leninists who believe Stalin developed Lenin's legacy and criticism of Stalin by Marxist–Leninists and other Marxists who repudiate Stalin's political purges, social-class repressions and bureaucratic terrorism. As the Left Opposition to Stalin within the Soviet party and government, Leon Trotsky and Trotskyists argued that Marxist–Leninist ideology contradicted Marxism and Leninism in theory, therefore Stalin's ideology was not useful for the implementation of socialism in Russia. Moreover, Trotskyists within the party identified their anti-Stalinist communist ideology as Bolshevik–Leninism and supported the permanent revolution to differentiate themselves from Stalin's justification and implementation of socialism in one country. After the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s, the Communist Party of China and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union claimed to be the sole heir and successor to Stalin concerning the correct interpretation of Marxism–Leninism and ideological leader of world communism.
In that vein, Mao Zedong Thought, Mao Zedong's updating and adaptation of Marxism–Leninism to Chinese conditions in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideological orthodoxy is secondary, represents urba
Whitechapel was a local government district within the metropolitan area of London, England from 1855 to 1900. It was formed by the Metropolis Management Act 1855 and was governed by the Whitechapel District Board of Works, which consisted of 58 elected vestrymen; until 1889 the district was in the county of Middlesex, but included in the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works. In 1889 the area of the MBW was constituted the County of London, the district board became a local authority under the London County Council; the district comprised the following civil parishes: Mile End New Town Minories Holy Trinity Norton Folgate Old Artillery Ground Precinct of St Katherine St Botolph without Aldgate Spitalfields Christchurch District of Tower Whitechapel St Mary The 1855 legislation included the "District of Tower" as part of the Whitechapel District. The Great Tower Hill Act 1869 interpretation of this was Old Tower Without, including within it Great Tower Hill. Under the Metropolis Management Act 1855 any parish that exceeded 2,000 ratepayers was to be divided into wards.
The district was abolished in 1900 and became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney
James William Peter Hirschfeld is an Australian mathematician, resident in the United Kingdom, specializing in combinatorial geometry and the geometry of finite fields. He is an Emeritus Tutorial Fellow at the University of Sussex. Hirschfeld received his doctorate in 1966 from the University of Edinburgh with thesis advisor William Leonard Edge and thesis The geometry of cubic surfaces, Grace's extension of the double-six, over finite fields. To pursue further studies in finite geometry Hirschfeld went to University of Perugia and University of Rome with support from the Royal Society and Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, he edited Beniamino Segre's 100-page monograph "Introduction to Galois Geometries". In 1979 Hirschfeld published the first of a trilogy on Galois geometry, pegged at a level depending only on "the group theory and linear algebra taught in a first degree course, as well as a little projective geometry, a little algebraic geometry." When q is a prime power there is a finite field GF with q elements called a Galois field.
A vector space over GF of n + 1 dimensions produces an n-dimensional Galois geometry PG with its subspaces: one-dimensional subspaces are the points of the Galois geometry and two-dimensional subspaces are the lines. Non-singular linear transformations of the vector space provide motions of PG; the first book covered PG and PG. The second book addressed PG and the third PG. Chapters are numbered sequentially through the trilogy: 14 in the first book, 15 to 21 in the second, 22 to 27 in the third. Finite geometry has contributed to coding theory, such as the Goppa code, so the field is supported by computer science. In the preface of the 1991 text Hirschfeld summarizes the status of Galois geometry, mentioning maximum distance separable code, mathematics journals publishing finite geometry, conferences on combinatorics featuring Galois geometry. Colleague Joseph A. Thas is coauthor of General Galois Geometries on PG where n ≥ 4. Hirschfeld was cited as the ultimate editor of Design Theory. In 2018 he received the 2016 Euler Medal.
1979: Projective Geometries over Finite Fields, Oxford University Press 2nd ed. Oxford, Clarendon Press 1998 1985: Finite Projective Spaces of Three Dimensions, Oxford University Press 1991: General Galois Geometries, Oxford University Press 2016 paperback reprint 2008: Algebraic Curves over a Finite Field, Princeton University Press Prof James Hirschfeld at University of Sussex