Mary I known as Mary Tudor, was the queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death. She is best known for her vigorous attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII, she restored to the Church some of the property taken from it in the previous two reigns. She was not able to legislate to force those who, at that time, held property, plundered from the Catholic Church and the monasteries. During her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions, which led to her denunciation as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents. Mary was the only child of Henry VIII by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, to survive to adulthood, her younger half-brother Edward VI succeeded their father in 1547 at the age of nine. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because he supposed that she would reverse the Protestant reforms that had begun during his reign.
Upon his death, leading politicians proclaimed Lady Jane Grey as queen. Mary speedily assembled a force in East Anglia and deposed Jane, beheaded. Mary was—excluding the disputed reigns of Jane and the Empress Matilda—the first queen regnant of England. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556. After Mary's death in 1558, her re-establishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her younger half-sister and successor, Elizabeth I. Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the Palace of Placentia in England, she was the only child of his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. Her mother had suffered many miscarriages. Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn daughter and three short-lived or stillborn sons, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall. Mary was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth, her godparents included Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey.
Henry VIII's cousin once removed, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, stood sponsor for Mary's confirmation, held after the baptism. The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon. In 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Mary's governess. Sir John Hussey Lord Hussey, was her chamberlain from 1530, his wife, Lady Anne, daughter of George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent, was one of Mary's attendants. Mary was a precocious child. In July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals. A great part of her early education came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives for advice and commissioned him to write De Institutione Feminae Christianae, a treatise on the education of girls. By the age of nine, Mary could write Latin, she studied French, music and Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani, "This girl never cries".
As the miniature portrait of her shows, Mary had, like both her parents, a fair complexion, pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair. She was ruddy-cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father. Despite his affection for Mary, Henry was disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, leaving Henry without a legitimate male heir. In 1525, Henry sent Mary to the border of Wales to preside in name only, over the Council of Wales and the Marches, she was given her own court based at Ludlow Castle and many of the royal prerogatives reserved for the Prince of Wales. Vives and others called her the Princess of Wales, although she was never technically invested with the title, she appears to have spent three years in the Welsh Marches, making regular visits to her father's court, before returning permanently to the home counties around London in mid-1528. Throughout Mary's childhood, Henry negotiated potential future marriages for her.
When she was only two years old, she was promised to Francis, the infant son of King Francis I of France, but the contract was repudiated after three years. In 1522, at the age of six, she was instead contracted to marry her 22-year-old first cousin, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. However, the engagement was broken off within a few years by Charles with Henry's agreement. Cardinal Wolsey, Henry's chief adviser resumed marriage negotiations with the French, Henry suggested that Mary marry the Dauphin's father, King Francis I himself, eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orleans, but Wolsey secured an alliance with France without the marriage. According to the Venetian Mario Savorgnano, by this time Mary was developing into a pretty, well-proportioned young lady with a fine complexion. Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy. Disappointed at the lack of a male heir, eager to remarry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to Catherine annulled, but Pope Clement VII refused his request.
Henry claimed, citing biblical passages, that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she was the widow of his brother Arthur. Catherine claimed so was not a valid marriage, her first ma
Geoff Boss is an American Champ Car driver from Narragansett, Rhode Island who drove in the 2003 season with Dale Coyne Racing. In a total of 12 starts he finished in the points three times, with a best of 9th place at the Lexmark Indy 300 in Australia, he ran in the Indy Lights series from 1997 to 2001, winning the 1999 Toronto Grand Prix from the Pole position. He had podium finishes at Long Beach and Detroit, he competed in the Barber Dodge Pro Series from 1993 to 1996, winning races at Miami, Sears Point, Watkins Glen, Reno. He was runner-up in the 1995 Championship to Jaki Scheckter, he won the Skip Barber Formula Ford Series three times, twice in 1992 and again in 1993, becoming the first driver to win three Championships. He competed in the Formula Ford Festival at Brands Hatch in 1992 with Team USA Scholarship, the 12 Hours of Sebring in 1994 in a Nissan for Leitzinger Racing with his brother Andy whom he competed against in Indy Lights. Driver Database Profile
Cape Cod Crusaders were an American soccer team based in Buzzards Bay, United States. Founded in 1994, the team played in the USL Premier Development League, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, until 2008, when the franchise folded and the team left the league; the team played its home games at several different venues in eastern Massachusetts: in stadium on the campus of the Massachusetts Maritime Academy, but at Whitman-Hanson High School in Whitman, at Bowditch Stadium in Framingham, Massachusetts. Played at Barnstable High School in the town of Hyannis, Massachusetts; the Crusaders' historical home was the stadium on the grounds Dennis Yarmouth High School in the town of Yarmouth, where they won back to back championships in 2002 and 2003. The team's colors were white; the team had the Boston Renegades, who play in the women's USL W-League. The club still fields a team in the USL's Super-20 League, a league for players 17 to 20 years of age run under the United Soccer Leagues umbrella.
The Crusaders were one of the most successful minor-league soccer teams in the United States, having been national PDL champions twice, in 2002 and 2003. The team was one of the most long-lasting teams, having played in four different leagues, at two different levels, over the course of more than a decade. In the mid-2000s the Crusaders became part of the Massachusetts Premier Soccer organisation, which runs soccer schools and north senior and junior amateur leagues across Massachusetts, with the intent of developing and promoting the game. In 2007, Crusaders striker Ricardo Pierre-Louis was part of the Haiti squad which took part in the 2007 CONCACAF Gold Cup. Pierre-Louis was the only PDL player to take part in the tournament, coming on as a substitute in the 1–1 draw with Costa Rica, playing a full 90 minutes in the 2–0 defeat to Canada. Vs. Brooklyn Knights, 25 July 2008 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
USL PDL New England Division Champion 2008 USL PDL Northeast Division Champion 2007 USL PDL New England Division Champion 2006 USL PDL Northeast Division Champion 2005 USL PDL Champion 2003 USL PDL Eastern Conference Champion 2003 USL PDL Champion 2002 USL PDL Eastern Conference Champion 2002 Methembe Ndlovu Paul Baber Stadium at Dennis Yarmouth High School, South Yarmouth, Massachusetts Stadium at Barnstable High School, Massachusetts Stadium at Nauset Regional High School, North Eastham, Massachusetts 1 game Stadium at Weymouth High School, Massachusetts 1 game Stadium at Whitman-Hanson Regional High School, Massachusetts 3 games Stadium at Massachusetts Maritime Academy, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts Stadium at Bridgewater-Raynham Regional High School, Massachusetts 1 game Bowditch Stadium, Massachusetts 1 game 2008: 309 2007: 284 2006: 330 2005: 306 Cape Cod Crusaders/Massachusetts Premier Soccer