Mary Henrietta Kingsley was an English ethnographer, scientific writer, explorer whose travels throughout West Africa and resulting work helped shape European perceptions of African cultures and British imperialism. Kingsley was born in London on 13 October 1862, the daughter and oldest child of doctor and writer George Kingsley and Mary Bailey, she came from a family of writers, as she was the niece of novelists Charles Kingsley and Henry Kingsley. The family moved to Highgate less than a year after her birth, the same home where her brother Charles George R. Kingsley was born in 1866, by 1881 were living in Southwood House, Bexley in Kent, her father was a doctor and worked for George Herbert, 13th Earl of Pembroke and other aristocrats and was away from home on his excursions. During these voyages he collected information for his studies. Dr. Kingsley accompanied Lord Dunraven on a trip to North America in 1870–1875. During this trip, Dr. Kingsley was invited to accompany George Armstrong Custer's U.
S. Army expedition against the Sioux Indians; the reported massacre of Custer's force terrified the Kingsley family, but they were relieved to learn that bad weather had kept Dr. Kingsley from joining Custer, it is possible that her father's views on injustices faced by the Native Americans helped shape Mary's opinions on British cultural imperialism in West Africa. In terms of Kingsley's education, she had little formal schooling compared to her brother, other than German lessons at a young age, she did, have access to her father's large library and loved to hear her father's stories of foreign countries. She did not enjoy novels that were deemed more appropriate for young ladies of the time, such as those by Jane Austen or Charlotte Brontë, but preferred books on the sciences and memoirs of explorers. In 1886, her brother Charley entered Cambridge, to study law. With respect to religion, there is little indication, she is known for criticizing Christian missionaries and their work for taking away African culture without proving any real benefits in return.
The 1891 England census finds Mary's mother and her two children living at 7 Mortimer Road, where Charles is recorded as a BA Student at Law and Mary as a Student of Medicine. In her years, Kingsley's mother became ill, she was expected to care for her well-being. Unable to leave her mother's side, she was limited in her travel opportunities. Soon, her father was bedridden with rheumatic fever following an excursion. Dr. Kingsley died in February 1892, Mrs. Kingsley followed a few months in April of the same year. "Freed" from her family responsibilities and with an inheritance of £8,600 to be split evenly with her brother, Kingsley was now able to travel as she had always dreamed. Mary decided to visit Africa, some say to finish collecting material for a book that her father had started on African culture. After a preliminary visit to the Canary Islands, Kingsley decided to travel to the west coast of Africa; the only non-African women who embarked on journeys to Africa were the wives of missionaries, government officials, or explorers.
Exploration and adventure had not been seen as fitting roles for English women, though this was changing under the influence of figures such as Isabella Bird and Marianne North. African women were surprised that a woman of Mary's age was travelling without a man, as she was asked why her husband was not accompanying her. Mary landed from there traveled further to Luanda in Angola, she lived with local people, who taught her necessary surviving-skills for living in the wilderness, gave her advice. She went into dangerous areas alone, her training as a nurse at the de:Kaiserswerther Diakonie had prepared her for slight injuries and jungle maladies that she would encounter. Mary returned to England in December 1893. Upon her return, Kingsley secured support and aid from Dr. Albert Günther, a prominent zoologist at the British Museum, as well as a writing agreement with publisher George Macmillan, for she wished to publish her travel accounts, she returned to Africa yet again in December 23, 1894 with more support and supplies from England, as well as increased self-assurance in her work.
She longed to study "cannibal" people and their traditional religious practices referred to as "fetish" during the Victorian Era. In April, she became acquainted with Scottish missionary Mary Slessor, another female living among native populations with little company and no husband, it was during her meeting with Slessor that Kingsley first became aware of the custom of twin killing, a custom which Slessor was determined to stop. The native people believed that one of the twins was the offspring of the devil who had secretly mated with the mother and since the innocent child was impossible to distinguish, both were killed and the mother was killed as well for attracting the devil to impregnate her. Kingsley arrived at Slessor's residence shortly after she had taken in a recent mother of twins and her surviving child. In Gabon, Mary Kingsley canoed up the Ogooué River, where she collected specimens of fish unknown to western science, three of which were named after her. After meeting the Fang people and travelling through uncharted Fang territory, she dari
Young and Foolish is the second comedy album released by Northern Irish comedian and actor James Young. The album cover features a picture taken by Stanley Matchett. In the picture Young and his business partner Jack Hudson are standing on the back of an Ulster Transport Authority bus; each man has a speech bubble coming from his mouth. Husdon's states "James Young in" with Young's replying "Young and Foolish"; the back cover features a sleeve notes written by John Knipe. Meet James Young - 13:24 Surgery Hours - 6:19 The Stranger - 4:19 Jumper Room - 2:41 The Centre Forward - 4:00 Time For Love - 4:20 A Man's Best Friend - 3:17 The Presentation - 5:36 A Boy Looks At Life - 5:02 Salute to Belfast - 3:15 Emerald Music re-released the album in 1999 in a four-disc boxset to commemorate the 25th Anniversary of Young's death; the album was boxed with three of Young's other comedy albums. The album was marketed as James Young: Ireland's Greatest Comic Legend Volume 1
The myGrid consortium produces and uses a suite of tools design to “help e-Scientists get on with science and get on with scientists”. The tools support the creation of e-laboratories and have been used in domains as diverse as systems biology, social science, astronomy and chemistry; the consortium is led by Carole Goble of the Department of Computer Science at the University of Manchester, UK. Tools developed by the myGrid consortium include: The Taverna workbench for designing and executing scientific workflows myExperiment for sharing workflows and related data BioCatalogue a public registry of Web services for Life Scientists Seek produced in collaboration with the SysModb: Systems Biology of Micro-Organisms DataBase Finding and exchanging data and processes in Systems Biology MethodBox Browse datasets and share knowledge. RightField Sharing the meaning of your data by embedding ontology annotation in spreadsheets The Kidney and Urinary Pathway Database Workflows for Ever Scientific workflow preservation The consortium has three distinct phases: The consortium was formed in 2001, bringing together collaborators at the Universities of Manchester, Newcastle and Sheffield, The European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute in Cambridge, industrial partners GlaxoSmithKline, Merck KGaA, AstraZeneca, Sun Microsystems, IBM, GeneticXchange and Cerebra.
The UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council funded the first phase of the project with £3.5 million. To date, Grid development has focused on the basic issues of storage and resource management needed to make a global scientific community's information and tools accessible in a high performance environment. However, from an e-Science viewpoint, the purpose of the Grid is to deliver a collaborative and supportive environment that allows geographically distributed scientists to achieve research goals more effectively. MyGrid will design and demonstrate higher level functionalities over an existing Grid infrastructure that support scientists in making use of complex distributed resources; the project has developed an e-Science workbench called Taverna that supports: the scientific process of experimental investigation, evidence accumulation and result assimilation. The myGrid project has developed myExperiment to allow sharing of scientific workflows from Taverna and other Scientific workflow systems.
The Taverna workbench supports individual scientists by providing personalisation facilities relating to resource selection, data management and process enactment. The design and development activity will be informed by and evaluated using problems in bioinformatics, characterised by a distributed community, with many shared tools resources. MyGrid will develop two application environments, one that supports individual scientists in the analysis of functional genomic data, another that supports the annotation of a pattern database. Both of these tasks require explicit representation and enactment of scientific processes, have challenging performance requirements. In phase 2, from 2006 to 2009, the consortium is funded for £2 million as part of the Open Middleware Infrastructure Institute; the membership of the consortium was concentrated in the University of Manchester and EMBL-EBI. In December 2008, the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council approved the team's renewal grant proposal.
The grant is for £1.15m and started in January 2009. The members of the myGrid team for Phase 3 are the University of Manchester and the University of Southampton; the project is organised around 4 themes: Knowledge Management for e-Science, Metadata management in e-Laboratories, Scientific Workflow Design and Enactment, Social Computing for e-Scientists. The Social Computing theme is oriented around the myExperiment Virtual research environment for the social curation and sharing of scientific Research Objects
Dronning Louises Bro is a bridge across The Lakes in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It joins Frederiksborggade in Indre By with Nørrebrogade in Nørrebro and separates Sortedam Lake to the northeast from Peblinge Lake to the south west; the bridge was designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup, constructed between 1885 and 1887. The bridge is named after King Christian IX's wife, it was listed in 1997. A bridge ) located close to the site of the current bridge is mentioned in 1562, it provided a link between Copenhagen's North Gate and the Nørrebro Road In 1618-20, Christian IV built a combined embankment and a wooden bridge as part of his new Frederiksborg Road. The crossing was improved in the 1720s; the embankments in each end was reinforced with large stones and the central bridge section was replaced by a drawbridge. In the second half of the 19th century the bridge was unable to cope with the booming traffic, a result of the redevelopment of the area outside Copenhagen's fortifications as well as the growing population in general.
The crossing was notorious or being windy on quiet days and the architect Emil Blichfeldt therefore proposed a bridge lined with shop with inspiration from the Medieval bridges of Florence and Venice. Blichfeld pointed out that the extension of Frederiksborggade had developed into a thriving shopping street with no vacant shops and that the solution would therefore make sense, his proposal was featured in the magazine Ude og Hjemme in 1883 where it was described as "both practical and artistically well-designed. The proposal was discussed on a meeting in the City Council on 18 April 1884 where it was supported by 13 votes against 12 but the magistrate instead chose a simpler and more traditional proposal by Vilhelm Dahlerup. Construction began in 1885 and the bridge opened on 7 September 1887; the bridge became known as the Peblinge Bridge. Queen Louise's Bridge has three arches; the cast iron railings are decorated by four identical bronze cartouches featuring Copenhagen's coat of arms surrounded by weapons and lions.
The railing integrates four flagpoles. It was listed in 1997; the bridge is mentioned in the song Hjerterdame on Gasolin's 1986 album Forklædt som voksen. Fra 1986; the bridge was located close to Kim Larsen's home on Rørholmsgade. List of bridges in Copenhagen
Burgos the Municipality of Burgos, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Pangasinan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 21,637 people. On the western part of Pangasinan, along the coast of the China Sea is a town called - Burgos, perched on a broad plateau; this town is located at the edge of the Zambales mountain ranges, West of Mabini, South of Agno, North of Dasol and East of the China Sea. About 65 kilometers away from the capital town of Lingayen. Burgos was founded as an independent town in 1830 by the early Ilocanos from Paoay, Ilocos Norte headed by Don Matias Guiang; the provincial government of Zambales has not ignored the increasing population and as it saw the necessity of a government to oversee the village. Don Matias Guiang made history, as quoted from the Philippine Archives, when on May 15, 1830 the Spanish Governor of Zambales issued a decree creating his settlement into a "pueblo" and appointed him as the first gobernadorcillo and was first named San Isidro in honor of its Patron Saint.
Since there was another locality named San Isidro along the Lingayen Gulf, the residents decided to add "Potot" derived from the description of the Amburayan River which appeared to be cut or "potot". Confusion however continued and persisted as mails for San Isidro de Potot were missent to the town of Labrador and those of the latter to the former town to solved the confusion and was renamed Burgos, after the Filipino Martyr priest, executed during the Spanish regime; the renaming of the town was done in 1913 during the administration of Don Anacleto Ruiz. The town of Burgos was ceded to the Province of Pangasinan, by virtue of Republic Act No. 1004 dated November 30, 1903 of the Philippine Commission. There holds the westernmost point in Luzon. Burgos, so-called today, this being the present official name, was known before as San Isidro during the Spanish time and was within the geographical jurisdiction of the province of Zambales. How this place got its name is not known. Judging from the fact that there were no accounts left circulating in the lips of the old people today as to how is got its name.
The early immigrants were God-fearing people. The have come to this place, lured by its vast agri-cultural possibilities, they were charmed by the nice valleys cut-ting the plain. They envisioned that this is an ideal place that would give them ease and comfort in their life; when the early settlers migrated, to this place, they brought with their religious beliefs. They worshipped fervently, revered St. Isidore the Laborer and pinned their fates and hopes of bountiful harvest upon the blessings of the Saint. After some years the settlers have increased their tribe and number and came necessity of organizing their settlement into a public with Don Matias Guiang, the most phosperous land owner of the place and the most influential personage to the settler, as the first "Gobernadorcillo" of the town. San Isidro de Potot was its incorporated name in honor of St. Isidore the Laborer, whom the settlers have adopted and revered as their Patron Saint. During the Spanish era until the early 1900s, Burgos and Mabini was merged as one municipality known as San Isidro de Potot.
Burgos may have been the last place to be found in the municipality but though it still became the municipality's capital due to its fast-growing economy that it became an independent town. The term "Potot" appended to the name San Isidro in an Ilocano adjective meaning "clipped", "cut off" or disconnected. Not far from poblacion there is a brook or stream which during dry common ages has not continuous water; this stream, therefore, is discontinued and disconnected during summer months and to those now-comers in the place, this condition of the stream served as identification of the location of the town. There were being two municipalities in Pangasinan with the name of San Isidro Labrador and Potot, But the term "Potot" identified it well more from the other. A local reveals the tale of. Long ago when there were only a few people living in San Isidro a barrio of Dasol, now called the town of Burgos, there were hunters who were hunting for wild animals; when these hunters got tired and thirsty, they looked for water to drink.
As they were walking, they saw an old man with a beard carrying a long cane. The hunters inquired from the old man; the old man drove his cane through the ground and water came flowing. Much to their surprise, the hunters remained silent for a moment by the shocking miracle they had witness; the old man carrying a long cane was believed to be the patron saint, of the town, Saint Isidore the Laborer. From that time up to the present we can still see the spring with its made wall, the source of water supply of some folks of the town. In the late 19th century in San Isidro de Potot, Zambales; the municipal Gobernadorcillo was Don Tomas Braga, the parish priest of the town before the revolution was a native of Barcelona and his name was Mariano Torrente. The town was a prosperous community of ranching, but the atmosphere was seething with dissidence. Twenty Spanish "Cazadores" had their cuartel or barracks in the big house of Don Gaspar Ruiz. Cazadores means "hunters" their aim was to hunt the Filipino outlaws or dissidents.
Across the plaza from the cuartel was the big convent which stood at the same place where now stands the small convent. This convent was made out of adobe stones, 24 meters long and 12 meters wide.
Henry Brooke Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton PC, known as Sir Henry Parnell, Bt, from 1812 to 1841, was an Irish writer and Whig politician. He was a member of the Whig administrations headed by Lord Grey and Lord Melbourne of the 1830s and published works on financial and penal questions as well as on civil engineering, he was the great-uncle of Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell. Parnell was the second son of Sir John Parnell, 2nd Baronet, Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer, Laetitia Charlotte, daughter of Sir Arthur Brooke, 1st Baronet, his younger brother William Parnell-Hayes was the grandfather of Charles Stewart Parnell. He was educated at Cambridge. In 1801 he inherited the family estates in Queen's County on the death of his father, bypassing his disabled elder brother according to a special Act of Parliament passed in 1789. In 1812 he succeeded as fourth Baronet, of Rathleague, on the death of his brother. Parnell represented Maryborough in the Irish House of Commons from 1798 until the Act of Union in 1801.
In April the following year he was elected to Parliament of the United Kingdom for Queen's County, but relinquished this seat in July of the same year, when he was returned for Portarlington. However, he resigned the seat in December 1802. In 1806 he was once again elected for Queen's County, represented the constituency until 1832. In 1828 he was chairman of the Select Committee on the State of Public Income and Expenditure which recommended abolition of the 280-year old Navy Board and the merging of its functions into the Board of Admiralty, it was Parnell's motion on the civil list that the Duke of Wellington's administration was defeated in 1830. The Whigs came to power under Lord Grey and in 1831 Parnell was admitted to the Privy Council and appointed Secretary at War, a post he held until February 1833, he resigned his seat in Parliament the same year but returned in 1833 as the representative for Dundee. When the Whigs again came to power in April 1835 under Lord Melbourne, Parnell was made Paymaster of the Forces and Treasurer of the Ordnance and Navy.
These offices were consolidated into that of Paymaster-General in 1836, Parnell retained this post until the government fell in 1841. The latter year he was raised to the peerage as Baron Congleton, of Congleton in the County Palatine of Chester. Henry Parnell was the author of several volumes and pamphlets on matters connected with financial questions, the most important being that On Financial Reform, published in 1830. Parnell was opposed to the prevailing protectionist system and passionately believed in the retrenchment of public expenditure on the armed services. In On Financial Reform, he advocated the repeal of taxes on raw materials and home manufactures, along with the reduction of import duties on foreign manufactures, he favoured the reduction of taxes on "luxuries", such as tea, tobacco and spirits. In order to pay for these reforms, Parnell proposed the reintroduction of the income tax. According to Sidney Buxton, On Financial Reform exercised a considerable influence on public opinion and "laid before the country the financial and fiscal policy that Peel and Gladstone afterwards carried through".
He was one of the main representatives of the so-called "Free Banking School," which argued that the best way to achieve monetary stability was to revoke the Bank of England's monopoly on the issue of banknotes. These ideas were defended by Parnell and others in opposition to those of the "Currency School" and the "Banking School," which advocated discretionary policy by the banks in monetary matters; the influence of the "Free Banking School" declined after Parnell's death in 1842, the Bank Charter Act 1844 eliminated the right of new banks in England and Wales to issue notes, thus consolidating the Bank of England's monopoly, which Parnell had opposed. Parnell wrote about penal matters. In the domain of civil engineering, he authored the 1833 and 1838 editions of "A Treatise on Roads..." in which the works and techniques of Thomas Telford are described. Lord Congleton married Lady Caroline Elizabeth, daughter of John Dawson, 1st Earl of Portarlington, in 1801. In 1842, having suffered for some time from ill-health and melancholy, he committed suicide by hanging, aged 65.
He was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son John Vesey Parnell. Lady Congleton died in February 1861. Observations upon the State of Currency of Ireland, upon the Course of Exchange between London and Dublin; the Principles of Currency and Exchange, illustrated by Observations on the State of Ireland. An Historical Apology for the Irish Catholics. A History of the Penal Laws against the Irish Catholics, from the Treaty of Limerick to the Union. Treatise on the Corn Trade and Agriculture; the Substance of the Speeches of Sir Henry Parnell, bart. in the House of Commons, with additional Observations on the Corn Laws (1814. Observations on the Irish Butter Acts. Observations on Paper Money and Over-Trading, including those parts of the Evidence taken before the Committee of the House of Commons which explain the Scotch System of Banking. On Financial Reform. Selections from this book, compiled by Henry Lloyd Morgan, were published under the title of National Accounts. A pla