Mary Lou "Loo" Retton is a retired American gymnast. At the boycotted 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, she won a gold medal in the individual all-around competition, as well as two silver medals and two bronze medals, her performance made her one of the most popular athletes in the United States. Her gold medal was a historic win because Retton was the first-ever American woman to win the all-around gold medal at the Olympics. Mary Lou "Loo" Retton was born on January 1968, in Fairmont, West Virginia, her father, operated a coal-industry transportation equipment business. She did not graduate, she competed in the 1984 Olympic games in Los Angeles, during her sophomore year of high school. She grew up in a Christian home, she and her family attend Second Baptist Church Houston. Retton lived in Houston, until 2009, when her family returned to West Virginia and again moved back to Houston in 2012, she was married to former University of Texas quarterback and Houston real estate developer Shannon Kelley, who now works for the Houston Baptist University athletic department.
Together they have four daughters: Shayla, McKenna, a former NCAA gymnast at Louisiana State University and Emma. Retton divorced her husband in February 2018. Retton was inspired by watching Nadia Comăneci outshine defending Olympic two-event winner Olga Korbut on television at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, when she herself was eight years of age, she took up gymnastics in her hometown of Fairmont, she was coached by Gary Rafaloski. She decided to move to Houston, Texas, to train under Romanians Béla and Márta Károlyi, who had coached Nadia Comăneci before their defection to the United States. Under the Károlyis, Retton soon began to make a name for herself in the U. S. winning the American Cup in 1983 and placing second to Dianne Durham at the US Nationals that same year. Though Retton missed the World Gymnastics Championships in 1983 due to a wrist injury, she won the American Classic in 1983 and 1984, as well as Japan's Chunichi Cup in 1983. After winning her second American Cup, the U.
S. Nationals, the U. S. Olympic Trials in 1984, Retton suffered a knee injury when she was performing a floor routine at a local gymnastics center at this time, she had sat down to sign autographs when she felt her knee lock, forcing her to undergo an operation five weeks prior to the 1984 Summer Olympics, which were going to be held in Los Angeles—the first time the Summer Olympics had been held in the United States in 52 years. She recovered just in time for this most prestigious of tournaments, in the competition, boycotted by the Soviet bloc nations except for Romania, Retton was engaged in a close battle with Ecaterina Szabo of Romania for the all-around gold medal. Trailing Szabo by 0.15 with two events to go, Retton scored perfect 10s on floor exercise and vault—the last event in an dramatic fashion, as there had been fears that her knee injury and the subsequent surgery might impair her performance. Retton won the all-around gold medal by 0.05 points, beating Szabo and becoming the first American to receive the all-around gold medal.
She became the first female gymnast from outside Eastern Europe to win the individual all-around gold. At the same Olympics, Retton won four additional medals: silver in the team competition and the horse vault, bronze in the floor exercise and uneven bars. For her performance, she was named Sports Illustrated Magazine's "Sportswoman of the Year." She appeared on a Wheaties box, became the cereal's first official spokeswoman. In 1985, Retton won the American Cup all-around competition for the final time, she retired in 1986. An ardent Christian conservative, she was an outspoken supporter of the Reagan Administration in the United States, she appeared in a variety of televised ads supporting Ronald Reagan as well as appearing at a rally for Reagan's reelection campaign just a month after the Olympics in her home state of West Virginia. Retton delivered the Pledge of Allegiance with fellow former gymnast and 1996 Olympic gold medalist Kerri Strug on the second night of the 2004 Republican National Convention.
Retton's hometown, West Virginia, named a road and a park in the town after her. Having retired from gymnastics after winning an unprecedented third American Cup title in 1985, as noted above, she had cameo appearances as herself in Scrooged and Naked Gun 33 1⁄3: The Final Insult. Retton was elected to the National Italian American Sports Hall of Fame in 1992. In 1993, the Associated Press released results of a sports study in which Retton was statistically tied for first place with fellow Olympian Dorothy Hamill as the most popular athlete in America. In 1997, Retton was inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. During the 1990s, Retton worked as a spokeswoman for the US drugstore chain Revco, appearing in advertisements for it. Retton has many commercial endorsements, including shampoo, she was the first female athlete to be pictured on the front of a Wheaties box, General Mills stated that Wheaties sales improved after her appearance. In 2019, Retton became a spokesperson for a pain relief cream.
She is a frequent analyst for televised gymnastics and attended The University of Texas at Austin after the Olympics. Retton was thrust back into the spotlight when the USA Gymnastics sex abuse scandal hit the news in 2017; when the Protecting Young Victims from Sexual Abuse and Safe Sport Authorization of 2017 was introduced to the 115th Congress and other members of USA Gymnastics met with the bill sponsor, Senator Dia
Thomas Le Boteller, or Thomas Butler, nicknamed Thomas Bacach or Thomas the Lame, was the illegitimate son of the 3rd Earl of Ormond, a leading political figure in early fifteenth century Ireland. He held the offices of Lord Deputy of Ireland and Prior of Kilmainham. In his own time he was a unpopular statesman, accused of treason, he is now chiefly remembered as a professional soldier, present at the Siege of Rouen in 1418–19. He had fought in the sanguinary conflict known as the Battle of Bloody Bank near Dublin in 1402, he was the son of 3rd Earl of Ormond, by an unknown mistress. His date of birth is uncertain, but since he saw combat in 1402, was Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1406 and Prior of Kilmainham by 1410, it must have been long before his first legitimate brother was born in 1392, before his father's first marriage in 1386. Thomas' nickname Bacach, "the lame" indicates that he was crippled, but this disability did not stop him from pursuing a successful military career, it is said that he had a son named John Beagh Botiller, born before 1420 and died in Kilkenny, County Kilkenny, although this cannot be verified with certainty.
He was Prior of the Order of the Knights Hospitaller at Kilmainham from sometime before 1410 until his death in 1420. He was made Lord Chancellor of Ireland in 1412 but due to the pressure of his other duties he acted through his deputy, Robert Sutton, he was made Lord Deputy of Ireland in the absence of Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence in 1406, in which office he is said to have exercised great political influence. O'Flanagan states that Parliament threw out a Bill to regulate the Irish Church on le Boteller's sole objection; such conduct led to complaints, these complaints may explain the attack on him by his political opponents in 1411–12. The Knights Hospitaller were a military order and Thomas was a military man. In 1402 he led an army of 1400 men against the O'Byrne clan of Wicklow, who raided Dublin, was joined by a larger force made up of the Dublin city militia, under the command of John Drake, Lord Mayor of Dublin, in an encounter popularly known as the Battle of Bloody Bank. Half of Thomas's force deserted to the enemy and he was forced to withdraw in good order.
Although accounts of the battle are confused, it seems clear that Drake rallied his men and defeated the O'Byrnes on the banks of the River Dargle near Bray, County Wicklow. Killing at least 400 of them. So much blood poured into the Dargle that the spot was known for centuries afterwards as Bloody Bank. Boteller's governance as Lord Chancellor had by now become so unpopular that the Privy Council of Ireland sent an impressive deputation, including two archbishops, to England to complain of his misconduct, he was summoned to London to answer the charges made against him, he appears to have ignored both the original summons and a second order to appear before the English Council. On the death of King Henry IV of England, the Lord Lieutenancy of his son the Duke of Clarence automatically lapsed, Thomas' Deputyship lapsed with it. In 1417 and 1418 he was engaged in a private war with the Burkes in Kilkenny; this led to a clash with John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, who supported the Burkes, whose feud with Thomas' legitimate half-brother James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormonde would dominate Irish politics for many years.
Thomas was accused of treasonable correspondence with Gerald FitzGerald, 5th Earl of Kildare and Christopher Preston, 2nd Baron Gormanston, both of whom were imprisoned. No action seems to have been taken against Thomas himself: he was summoned to Parliament but, as he had done in 1411-2, he refused to appear. In the event his willingness to lead an army to France helped to resolve the crisis. Preston and Gormanston were soon released and restored to favour: Otway-Ruthven concludes that they are unlikely to have been engaged in a treasonable conspiracy, were opposed to what they saw as Shrewsbury's high-handed regime. In 1418–1419 Thomas led a force to fight with Henry V of England at the Siege of Rouen. According to one description there were: "eighteen score men with red shields and eighteen score with pure white shields, he is said to have given good service to the English cause in France, died there in 1420. O'Flanagan calls Thomas a man of great courage and considerable administrative ability, who overcame what were the serious drawbacks of illegitimacy and physical disability to become a successful soldier and statesman.
Otway-Ruthven, on the other hand, while praising his military ability, regarded him as an unsatisfactory character with a dubious record of loyalty to the Crown
A Propulsive Fluid Accumulator is an artificial Earth satellite which collects and stores oxygen and other atmospheric gases for in-situ refuelling of high-thrust rockets. This therefore brings significant cost benefits. A major portion of the total world payload sent into low earth orbit each year is either liquid oxygen or water. In the period 1956 to 1963, S. T. Demetriades proposed methods of atmospheric gas accumulation by means of a satellite moving in low Earth orbit, at an altitude of around 120 km, or propellant accumulation by stations on the surface of a planet or by gathering and exploiting interstellar matter. In its simplest form, Demetriades' proposed satellite extracts air from the fringes of the atmosphere and cools it, extracts liquid oxygen; the remaining nitrogen is, in part, used as propellant for a nuclear-powered magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic plasma thruster, which maintains the orbit at about 120 km, or a solar powered thruster for altitudes above 150 km compensating for atmospheric drag.
This system was called “PROFAC”. Several systems were studied, e. g. PROFAC-S for Surface, PROFAC-C for Orbital, PROFAC-A for combination with aerospaceplane making one reusable stage to orbit possible, etc. Several inlets and cryopumps were studied for orbital air collection; the work slowed down in late 1961 although much progress was made in years on such items as a solar-powered PROFAC. There are, safety concerns with placing a nuclear reactor in low Earth orbit. Demetriades' proposal was further refined by Christopher Jones and others in 2010. In this proposal, multiple collection vehicles accumulate propellant gases at around 120 km altitude transferring them to a higher orbit. However, Jones' proposal does require a network of orbital power-beaming satellites, to avoid placing nuclear reactors in orbit. Klinkman and Wilkes proposed, at the AIAA Space 2007 and Space 2009 conferences, that gases could be harvested at the edge of the earth's atmosphere by a high vacuum pump. An ion propulsion engine would consume a portion of the harvested gases and would restore the spacecraft's orbital momentum.
Klinkman's proposal has a low energy threshold for a small-scale harvesting operation, air friction is far more forgiving at 200 km than at 100 km. Note that S. T. Demetriades pioneered in space propulsion, from the atomic oxygen ramjet to nuclear and plasma thrusters, he received the 2010 AIAA Award for Lasers. Boeing has suggested a non-extractive propellant depot, or "space gas station," which accumulates material launched from the planet at low cost, allowing future lunar missions without the need for large launch vehicles like the Saturn V. MIT has proposed a similar plan which would store emergency fuel reserves left over from lunar missions. List of plasma articles
This is a list of prime ministers of Togo since the formation of the post of Prime Minister in 1960, to the present day. A total of twelve people have served as Prime Minister of Togo. Additionally, one person, Edem Kodjo, has served on two non-consecutive occasions. In the months following the appointment of Joseph Kokou Koffigoh as Prime Minister by the National Conference on 27 August 1991, the soldiers of the Togolese Armed Forces loyal to President Gnassingbé Eyadéma tried to oust Koffigoh: On 1 October 1991, the soldiers seized the national radio and television station and demanded that Koffigoh resign before leaving the station. On 8 October 1991, the soldiers unsuccessfully tried to kidnap Koffigoh, four people were reported killed in protests and violence that followed. In late November 1991, the soldiers began a siege of Koffigoh's official residence in Lomé after Eyadéma's party, the Rally of the Togolese People, was banned by the transitional High Council of the Republic, they demanded that Koffigoh's government be replaced and threatening to "reduce the city to ashes".
Koffigoh called for French military aid. Eyadéma publicly called on the soldiers to return to their barracks and expressed continued trust in Koffigoh, but invited him to begin consultations on the formation of a new national unity government. After two days of talks, the soldiers lifted their siege. Koffigoh offered to include supporters of Eyadéma in the government, but he refused to dissolve his government altogether, he again called for French aid. On 3 December 1991, the soldiers succeeded in capturing Koffigoh in a heavy assault on his official residence, involving tanks and machine guns. Many people were killed in this violence: at least 17, more than 200; the soldiers took Koffigoh to meet with Eyadéma, believed to have been behind the soldiers' actions, although he did not take responsibility for them. On the same day, Eyadéma released a statement saying that he and Koffigoh would form a new transitional government. Although Koffigoh remained in office, his power was considered curtailed.
On 31 December, a new government headed by Koffigoh was announced, including three members of the RPT. The President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister, he terminates his functions. The Prime Minister is the head of the Government, he coordinates the functions of the other members. He presides over the Committees of Defense, he substitutes for, the case arising, the President of the Republic in the presidency of the Councils provided for in Articles 66 and 72 of this Constitution. He assures the interim of the head of the State in case of incapacity for cause of illness or of absence from the national territory. Before his entry into office, the Prime Minister presents before the National Assembly the program of action of his Government; the National Assembly accords its confidence to him by a vote with the absolute majority of its members. The Prime Minister assures the execution of the laws, he may delegate certain of his powers to the ministers. The acts of the President of the Republic other than those provided for in Articles 4, 66, 68, 73, 74, 98, 100, 104 and 109 of this Constitution, are countersigned by the Prime Minister or, the case arising, by the Ministers given the charge of their execution.
Overbrook High School phenom Wilt Chamberlain joined the Warriors. Chamberlain would have an immediate impact as he won the Rookie of the Year Award and the NBA Most Valuable Player, he rebounds. He averaged 27.0 rebounds per game. The Warriors finished in 2nd place with a 49–26 record. In the playoffs, the Warriors played the Syracuse Nationals; the Warriors beat them 2 games to 1. In the Eastern Finals, Chamberlain was matched against Bill Russell. In the end, the Boston Celtics would emerge victorious in 6 games. Philadelphia Warriors vs. Syracuse Nationals: Warriors win series 2-1 Game 1 @ Philadelphia: Philadelphia 115, Syracuse 92 Game 2 @ Syracuse: Syracuse 125, Philadelphia 119 Game 3 @ Philadelphia: Philadelphia 132, Syracuse 112 Boston Celtics vs. Philadelphia Warriors: Celtics win series 4-2 Game 1 @ Boston: Boston 111, Philadelphia 105 Game 2 @ Philadelphia: Philadelphia 115, Boston 110 Game 3 @ Boston: Boston 120, Philadelphia 99 Game 4 @ Philadelphia: Boston 112, Philadelphia 104 Game 5 @ Boston: Philadelphia 128, Boston 107 Game 6 @ Philadelphia: Boston 119, Philadelphia 117 Wilt Chamberlain, NBA Most Valuable Player Award Wilt Chamberlain, NBA All-Star Game Most Valuable Player Award Wilt Chamberlain, NBA All-Star Game Paul Arizin, NBA All-Star Game Tom Gola, NBA All-Star Game Wilt Chamberlain, NBA Scoring Champion Wilt Chamberlain, NBA Rookie of the Year Award Wilt Chamberlain, All-NBA First Team Warriors on Basketball Reference
Michael Joseph Roesler is a retired Major League Baseball pitcher. He played during two seasons at the major league level for the Cincinnati Reds and Pittsburgh Pirates, he was drafted by the Reds in the 17th round of the 1985 amateur draft. Roesler played his first professional season with their Rookie league Billings Mustangs in 1985, his last with the Kansas City Royals' Double-A Memphis Chicks and Triple-A Omaha Royals in 1993; when he was called up to the majors he struck Will Clark as 1 out of 18 strikeouts in the big leagues. Before being drafted he attended Bishop Luers High School in Indiana, he went to Ball State University and was a four-year letterman. "Mike Roesler Statistics". The Baseball Cube. 19 January 2008. "Mike Roesler Statistics". Baseball-Reference. 19 January 2008