Mary Rose

The Mary Rose is a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII. She served for 33 years in several wars against France and Brittany. After being rebuilt in 1536, she saw her last action on 19 July 1545, she led the attack on the galleys of a French invasion fleet, but she sank in the Solent, the straits north of the Isle of Wight. The wreck of the Mary Rose was discovered in 1971 and was raised on 11 October 1982 by the Mary Rose Trust in one of the most complex and expensive maritime salvage projects in history; the surviving section of the ship and thousands of recovered artefacts are of great value as a Tudor-era time capsule. The excavation and raising of the Mary Rose was a milestone in the field of maritime archaeology, comparable in complexity and cost to the raising of the 17th-century Swedish warship Vasa in 1961; the finds include weapons, sailing equipment, naval supplies, a wide array of objects used by the crew. Many of the artefacts are unique to the Mary Rose and have provided insights into topics ranging from naval warfare to the history of musical instruments.

The remains of the hull have been on display at the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard since the mid-1980s while undergoing restoration. An extensive collection of well-preserved artefacts is on display at the Mary Rose Museum, built to display the remains of the ship and its artefacts; the Mary Rose was one of the largest ships in the English navy through more than three decades of intermittent war, she was one of the earliest examples of a purpose-built sailing warship. She was armed with new types of heavy guns that could fire through the invented gun-ports, she was rebuilt in 1536 and was one of the earliest ships that could fire a broadside, although the line of battle tactics had not yet been developed. Several theories have sought to explain the demise of the Mary Rose, based on historical records, knowledge of 16th-century shipbuilding, modern experiments; the precise cause of her sinking is still unclear because of conflicting testimonies and a lack of conclusive physical evidence. In the late 15th century, England was still reeling from its dynastic wars first with France and among its ruling families back on home soil.

The great victories against France in the Hundred Years' War were in the past. The War of the Roses—the civil war between the houses of York and Lancaster—had ended with Henry VII's establishment of the House of Tudor, the new ruling dynasty of England; the ambitious naval policies of Henry V were not continued by his successors, from 1422 to 1509 only six ships were built for the crown. The marriage alliance between Anne of Brittany and Charles VIII of France in 1491, his successor Louis XII in 1499, left England with a weakened strategic position on its southern flank. Despite this, Henry VII managed to maintain a comparatively long period of peace and a small but powerful core of a navy. At the onset of the early modern period, the great European powers were France, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. All three became involved in the War of the League of Cambrai in 1508; the conflict was aimed at the Republic of Venice but turned against France. Through the Spanish possessions in the Low Countries, England had close economic ties with the Spanish Habsburgs, it was the young Henry VIII's ambition to repeat the glorious martial endeavours of his predecessors.

In 1509, six weeks into his reign, Henry married the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon and joined the League, intent on certifying his historical claim as king of both England and France. By 1511 Henry was part of an anti-French alliance that included Ferdinand II of Aragon, Pope Julius II and Holy Roman emperor Maximilian; the small navy that Henry VIII inherited from his father had only two sizeable ships, the carracks Regent and Sovereign. Just months after his accession, two large ships were ordered: the Mary Rose and the Peter Pomegranate of about 500 and 450 tons respectively. Which king ordered the building of the Mary Rose is unclear. Henry VIII oversaw the project and he ordered additional large ships to be built, most notably the Henry Grace à Dieu, or Great Harry at more than 1000 tons burthen. By the 1520s the English state had established a de facto permanent "Navy Royal", the organizational ancestor of the modern Royal Navy; the construction of the Mary Rose began in 1510 in Portsmouth and she was launched in July 1511.

She was towed to London and fitted with rigging and decking, supplied with armaments. Other than the structural details needed to sail and arm the Mary Rose, she was equipped with flags and streamers that were either painted or gilded. Constructing a warship of the size of the Mary Rose was a major undertaking, requiring vast quantities of high-quality material. In the case of building a state-of-the-art warship, these materials were oak; the total amount of timber needed for the construction can only be calculated since only about one third of the ship still exists. One estimate for the number of trees is around 600 large oaks, representing about 16 hectares of woodland; the huge trees, common in Europe and the British Isles in previous centuries were by the 16th century quite rare, which meant that timbers were brought in from all over southern England. The largest timbers used in the construction were of the same size

Congregational Church of Chelsea

The United Church of Chelsea the Congregational Church of Chelsea, is a historic church on Chelsea Green in Chelsea, Vermont. Built 1811-13 with stylistic additions, it is a fine example of Federal period architecture with Greek Revival alterations. Built for a Congregationalist group, it now serves as a union church, affiliated with the United Church of Christ, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. The United Church of Chelsea stands in the center of Chelsea Village, at the eastern end of its northern green, it is a two-story wood frame structure, with a gabled roof, clapboarded exterior, granite foundation. The main facade is five bays wide, with the center bays in shallow projecting section topped by a lower gable. Building corners are pilastered. A multistage tower rises, straddling the projection and main roofline, with a square first stage surmounted by a low balustrade, an octagonal belfry with louvered openings on four sides, a smaller octagonal section capped by a bellcast roof and weathervane.

The interior was built with a three-sided gallery, but this was enclosed to make a full second story in the 1840s as part of a major restyling. Built in 1811-13 as the Chelsea Congregational Church, it has since been a high-profile fixture in Chelsea's village, its design is derived from plates in Asher Benjamin's The Architect's Companion, with major Greek Revival additions occurring in 1848. The Congregationalists merged with the local Methodist congregation in 1929 to form the United Church, which continues to use the building today. National Register of Historic Places listings in Orange County, Vermont United Church of Chelsea web site

Walter Gemma

The Walter Gemma was a Czechoslovakian nine-cylinder, air-cooled, radial aero engine, developed and manufactured in the early 1930s by Walter Aircraft Engines. Nuri Demirağ Nu D.36 Praga E-39 A preserved example of the Walter Gemma engine is on display at the following museum: Finnish Aviation Museum Data from Flight. Type: 9-cylinder radial piston engine Bore: 105 mm Stroke: 120 mm Displacement: 9.35 l Valvetrain: One intake and one exhaust valve per cylinder Fuel system: Zenith carburettor Fuel type: Petrol Cooling system: Air-cooled Power output: 123 kW Comparable engines Wolseley AriesRelated lists List of aircraft engines Notes Bibliography